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Full text of "Hall's journal of health"

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HALL'S 



JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



FOR I860. 



"HEALTH IS A D IT T Y."— Anon. 



"men consume too much food and too little puke air; 
they take too much medicine and too litlle exercise." — ed, 

"I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except con- 
genital, or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, 
and will degrade the individual in the estimation of the good, as much as drunken- 
ness now doe3." — Ibid. 



EDITED BY 

W. W. HALL, M.D., 






VOL. VII. 



NEW-YORK 

PUBLISHED 'BY THE EDITOR, AT NO. 

AND BY 

TRUBNER & COMPANY, NO. 60 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON. 

1860. 



0. *4a~HtVING- PLAOB, 



INDEX TO VOL. VII. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH 



PAGE 

Averting Disease 80 

Ash-Sifter 88 

Athletics 145 

Apples 233 

Alexander, J. W., D.D 241 

Aim of Life 256 

Action, A Kind 273 

Benefits of Reading Aloud 32 

Bites, Poisonous 36 

Burying Alive 38 

Bread and Milk 73 

Bowels Regulated 92, 271 

Bathing 101 

Breakfast Early 116 

Balance of Population 120 

Best Doctors 162 

Breakfast Early 216 

Boys, Our 217 

Baby-Talk 265 

Causes of Disease 38 

Corns 67 

Crazy People 83 

Costiveness 92 

Clerical Marriages 129 

Central Park 147 

Cellars 178 

Catarrh 189 

Colds 37, 85, 189, 219 

Children 11, 184, 228, 231 

Checking Perspiration 252 

Consumption 45, 69, 72, 169, 261 

Disease, Causes of 38 

Death-Bed Repentance 59 

Depopulation 106 

Dying Nations .108 

Donation Parties 121 

Dyspepsia 42, 160 

Doctors, The Best 162 

Drinking Water 184 

Drunken Women 185 

Domestics 193 

Drunkenness 1, 42, 280 

Eye3 10, 39, 69 



PAGE 

Early Breakfast 116 

Each the Best 181 

Eight to Sixteen 183 

Eating 94, 232 

Electric Magnetism 234 

Fruits, Use of 36 

Flannel, Wearing 72 

Feet 91 

Fire on the Hearth 226 

Farming , 269 

Green Persons 18 

Growing Beautiful 68 

Gymnasiums 253, 152, 134, 109 

Growing Old Happily 117 

Garters, Wearing 234 

Hotel Life 16 

Hominy 20 

Health Tracts 22 

Health without Medicine 21 

Husbands 29 

How to Walk 46 

Hair-Wash 71 

Hammer on 141 

Household Slaveries 193 

House Warming 226 

Households Contrasted 247 

Happy Marriages 267 

Inconsiderations 35 

Infants and Air 108 

Ice-Water 173 

Infant Night Management 278 

Living on Excitement 15 

Living Yet 190 

Lager Beer 216 

Life's Maxims 223 

Lunatics Gladdened 285 

Music Healthful 41 

Manly Carriage 47 

Moral Excitement 61 

Measles and Consumption 69 

Mistaken Benevolence 87 

Marriage 267, 129 

Manners 170 



IV 



Index to Volume VII. 



PAGE 

Metamorphoses 187 

Miasma 204 

Manual-Labor Schools 219 

Milk 73, 112, 230 

Magnetism 234 

Matches 284 

New Shoes Made Easy 67 

National Dietetics 76 

Neglecting Colds 85 

Nicholas of Russia 89 

Night Air 213 

Nervousness 222 

Olden Time 104 

Old Age Beautiful 117 

Our Boys 217 

Over-Eating 232 

Position in Sleep 47 

Phrenological Chair 45 

Physiology 57 

Poisonous Rooms 107 

Panacea 113 

Prostituted Health 128 

Parks, Public j 149 

Periodical Literature 241 

Physical Training 134, 152, 253 

Printers and Printing 273, 277 

Piano, the Worcester 282 

Riding in Cars 8 

Reading Aloud 32 

Rules for Winter 44 

Regimen 174 

Retiring from Business 256 

Restless Wanderers 281 

Sleeplessness 25 

Skating 34 

Spinal Deformities 45 

Successful Men 63 



PAGH 

Sabbath Physiology 70 

Sour Stomach 93 

Spring Diseases 118 

Singular Medicine 119 

Sleeping in Church 120 

Sleep 25, 47, 95, 175 

Spitting Blood 179 

Small Bed-Chambers % . . 180 

Slavery North and South 193 

Snapping up 225 

Sleeping with the Old 275 

Strela Matches 284 

Too Late 15 

Traveling Hints 30 

Three Health Essentials 73 

Thrift and Health 79 

Throat and Lungs 114 

Teeth 150 

Table Manners 170 

Tomatoes " 172 

Tobacco Users 179 

Unitary Households 53 

Ways to Drunkenness 1 

Winter Rules 44 

Walking 46 

Winter Shoes 67 

Wise Charities 88 

Worth Remembering 90 

Whisky Doctors 124 

What Killed Him 132 

Washington Irving 133 

Water Filters 159 

Water, Ice 173 

Wearing Garters 234 

Young Old People 41 

Young and Poor 284 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WB AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] JANUARY, 1860. [No. 1. 



WAYS TO DRUNKENNESS. 

A beautiful Knickerbocker custom is it for a gentleman on 
New Year's day to call on his lady acquaintances as a token of 
respectful remembrance, intimating thereby that he desires this 
acquaintance to be continued, and he judges from the manner 
of his reception whether such a continuance would be agreea- 
ble or not. Some ladies vouchsafe the pleasurable certainty by 
returning the call, the next day, to those whom they specially 
desire to remain their recognized friends. 

"With this commendable custom has grown up a usage of 
questionable expediency, that of having a table spread with 
various delicacies — wines, cordials, and brandies being consid- 
ered by some as indispensables. The result being, that in the 
joyousness of the interview, not lasting, generally, over two or 
three minutes, a sip is taken of this, that, and the other, and 
being repeated at every dwelling, gentlemen, ere they are aware 
of it, find themselves unmistakably drunk, and the Rubicon 
once crossed, the ice once broken, the morale once lost, life ends 
in the gutter. 

Seeing these objections, some thoughtful persons have for 
years removed the wine-cup, and replaced it with coffee, lem- 
onade, or pure cold water, the eatables remaining the same. 
Let every mother, who has a son who might be misled, be 
equally considerate ; and if she have not a son herself, let her 
remember that some other sister woman has a son to be lost or 
saved, and act accordingly. 

Aside from this objection, the custom is a beautiful one, 

NO. I. VOL. VII. — 1860. 



hall's journal of health. 



beautiful morally, beautiful socially, especially in large cities, 
where the press of duties and the rush of business insensibly 
defer intended calls on prized friends until weeks and months 
have passed away, when the shame of the delinquency comes 
in, excuses are framed, and finally it is concluded the interval 
has been so long that the acquaintance may as well be dropped, 
and the parties meet indifferently ever after. But when a day 
in a year is fixed by common consent for " adjusting these 
arrearages," for making out a list of pleasant faces whose remem- 
brance it is not wished should pass away, the very work of 
casting about for the names of the prized has a sweetness about 
it which of itself is worth much. 

But when a lady lays her head on her pillow on New Year's 
night, the gladness of the day is very liable to be followed with 
recollections which are painfully sad. Some faces she expected 
to see did not present themselves; a year before, how merry 
they were, how joyous was the greeting ! But one has 
removed to a distant part of the country ; to another, reverses 
have come, pecuniary or social ; a third has gone upon the 
returnless journey, while here and there one is found who has 
chosen to drop the acquaintance without any assignable reason. 

Then there are maiden ladies, who, some years ago, num- 
bered their callers by dozens and scores, and even hundreds ; 
but for a few years past they have fallen off in geometrical pro- 
gression, and now the diminution is really frightful. Formerly, 
when youth and beauty were theirs, the door-bell began to 
tingle as soon as the clock struck nine of the morning, with 
scarcely an intermission until it verged toward midnight. But 
now how great the change ! Merry voices are heard outside, 
but they do not greet their ears; brisk footfalls sound on the 
pavement, but they do not stop at their doors, and a weary 
forenoon has almost passed away with only one or two visitors to 
break the disturbing monotony, and former visions begin to 
assume more tangible shapes, and the embodied idea stands out 
in high relief — Passee ! 

But yonder comes a poor unfortunate bachelor ; his hat is 
faultlessly sleek, as faultlessly shine his boots. Christadora has 
supplied him with one of his most natural wigs, and to the 
whiskers Phalon has imparted the deepest, glossiest black. Al- 
len has given him teeth, whose perfection of finish vies with 



WAYS TO DRUNKENNESS. 



3 



dame Nature herself; in fact, at a short distance the man is 
without a fault ; but, on a nearer view, it is seen that youth has 
fled from the face ; the eye is no more joyous ; the nimble step, 
the supple joint, the rollicking air, all are gone, and as for the poor 
heart, why, there is nothing in it ! it is as hollow as his head ; 
for in the heyday of youth, when he had his pick and choice of 
an hundred, he was soft enough to imagine that he was enti- 
tled to a piece of perfection ; and while he was looking around 
for it, this one, whom he thought almost so, was caught up by 
a wiser man ; then the second best, and the third best, and so on, 
until the remnant were so common, in his judgment, that he 
went off on other explorations, where the same fatality followed 
him, and now he has come back to the old stamping-ground, 
confident that he will receive the greetings as of yore. But he 
has got old in the mean time, changes have come, new names 
are on the doors, and if now and then the name is the same, the 
once merry occupant has mated with another, and anon his face 
becomes a mile long ; the corners of his lips are turned down- 
ward ; in his meditations he has forgotten the day and the 
occasion ; he walks along, a veritable " abstraction," and, when 
too late, soliloquizes in reality : 

" I feel like one who treads alone 
Some banquet-hall deserted ; 
Whose lights are fled, whose garlands dead, 
And all but me departed." 



Let it be then the wisdom of the reader, whether man ! 

woman, if as yet unmated, to resolve that the first day of J , 

ary, eighteen hundred and sixty, shall be the last New r 

which shall find them out of the bonds of steadying. y 

pifying wedlock ; for out of it there is no pure h I • Gn ' 
, ., ? ., . -it -, . . -,. otle circum- 

wnile m it there is bliss or — otherwise! according But " 

stances of the case and the wisdom of the p?u +w • ' , 

i. n -n i ,i i ^ tnat 1S CalcU- 

much as out of wedlock there is no rest and our mture whfl . 
lated to wilt and wither the finer feeling m the aviate - 
in married life there is for the most he ' st and j£ ^ Q 
world oi enjoyment in cherishing th ;* ^ 
qualities' of the human heart, it ip 



< 



hall's journal of health. 




WARMING HOUSES. 

The subject of keeping family dwellings healthfully and 
agreeably heated in winter-time is of great practical importance 
to every reader, and has long engaged the earnest and pro- 
tracted study of the most inventive minds in the country. 
How to have a comfortable heat with the least waste of fuel, 
is a question which involves the health and lives of thousands, 
and millions of money every year. 

There is no heat more soothing, more cheerful, more delight- 
ful, than that of a wood-fire in an old-fashioned fire-place, 
broad, deep, high and capacious. Most minds run back lovingly 
to the times when the then unappreciated wood-fire was the 
rule — the stove, the grate, the exception. But wood-fires in 
capacious fire-places are now a pecuniary impossibility to the 
masses in cities, and more and more so every day, even in the 
country. Various patterns of stoves have been devised as a 
means of saving wood, but unless wisely managed, and with 
constant attention, it is difficult to regulate the heat, and besides, 
there is a " closeness " which is disagreeable to all, and to some 
unendurable. But even a wood -fire in a stove is an expensive 
luxury, costing twenty-five dollars in New-York for a single 
good-sized room for the winteT, while that amount expended in 
al would answer all the domestic purposes of many families, 
common grate for anthracite coal sends full two thirds of 
at up the chimney to warm all out- doors, thus thirty 
X worth of coal yields but ten dollars' worth of warmth ; 
this 1 N^ calculation of scientific men. To remedy this waste, 
an ,rfT ^ e trouble °f kindling and keeping up half a 
• A ' t^fi res m tne same household, stoves have been 
devise , N to -j-^ ] ar g e enough for a whole house ; these 

are p a vHlar where one kindling does for all. and for 

a week or month fK. _ -.it i ^ 

a ' n t T^her, with a happv deliverance from the 

dust and as/ies and Tk> x i- i^* ^ -p 

mi L - ^hle attending a multitude of separate 

Thee immense sx « A , & -,, n j * 

for the cellar are called furnaces, 

cted to any desired part of the 

are built into the wall, while 

These furnaces with their 



fires. Tne/e immense s^ e 
the heat frcvQ which is cc 
building though tin tubes 
tne House ij in course of erectS 



'\ 



WARMING HOUSES. 5 

pipes and registers, are in important respects highly objection- 
able. 

In the first place, either owing to the parsimony of 
landlords, or to the ignorance of contractors and builders and 
architects, they are constantly burning down houses, public and 
private, as well in Philadelphia as in New- York. 

A second objection is, that a great deal of heat is conveyed to 
the upper parts of the building, and to rooms where heat is not 
wanted, when it is indispensably needed on the first and second 
stories. 

Thirdly, no furnace yet known, keeps a good-sized house 
comfortably warm in the severest weather, unless by such a 
ruinous consumption of fuel, or danger of conflagration, that 
persons prefer calling in the aid of the grate, when the thermo- 
meter hugs zero, or comes within a dozen degrees of it, so that 
every furnace yet devised is an acknowledged failure. 

A fourth objection to furnace heat, is perfectly fatal to its 
wise adoption. The air which comes in contact with the fur- 
nace, is burnt, it is in part decomposed, and is no longer fit 
for purposes of healthful respiration. Whenever air comes in 
contact with a nearly or quite a red-hot metallic surface, it is 
no longer fit to enter the lungs of any thing that breathes, and 
is instantly detected by the feeling which is expressed by the , 
term " closeness." The air has in it such a small amount of 
living sustenance, that an ordinary quantity taken through the 
nostrils is not enough, and the person instinctively opens the 
mouth, literally gasps for more, as a fish for water when thrown 
out of its native element. 

Almost every furnace inventor will tire you with reasons why 
his furnace does not burn the air, but any man's nose gives the 
flat contradiction. Besides, all these cellar furnaces are perfect 
maelstroms of fuel ; they lick it up as the flame licks up water. 

Another plan has been devised, and is in successful operation 
in the Breevort House on Fifth avenue, and in prisons and 
insane asylums. Hot water is conveyed in pipes from the 
cellar to every part of the house; this certainly gives an equable 
and balmy warmth, and is second only to a wood-fire in the 
old time fire-place. But it is too expensive for general adoption ; 
besides, the pipes may commence leaking at any one of their 



6 hall's jouknal of health 

hundreds of joinings, and the building drenched with hot water 
at any hour of the day or night. 

Under all the circumstances of the case we think the fire 
which warms our office at this present writing, when the whole 
air is filled with driving snow, and Farenheit is below the freezing- 
point, is, next to the old-fashioned wood- fire of forty years ago, 
the very best ever devised, as we think any intelligent observer 
will see in a moment, if he chooses to call. It is simply com- 
mon anthracite coal burning flat on the hearth, in a fire-place 
nearly a yard across, with oval back and flaring jams, which 
necessarily throw the heat out into the room. As evidence, 
the thermometer five feet from the floor and twelve feet from 
the fire, on the wall opposite, is at this moment above seventy 
degrees, and has been in that neighborhood since the early 
morning; the fire having been made at daylight and never 
touched since, except to lay on a few pieces of coal about two 
o'clock, and no more will be needed for the remainder of the 
day and evening ; in other words, without more coal, our office 
will be comfortable until near midnight, so we are informed, 
for we trot off to bed at nine, and can not speak from personal 
knowledge. 

But what is the quality of this heat ? According to our best 
judgment and remembrance, it is as balmy as that of the uni- 
versal favorite, a wood-fire. But how can that be, when coal 
has no oxygen, and without oxygen it can not burn at all, and 
must get it from the air of the apartment where the fire is, pro- 
ducing the u closeness " which belongs to all furnace heat ? It 
happen in this wise, all the premises are true, except one. The 
oxygen is not supplied from the air of the room, but from the 
cellar ; hence the air of the apartment is simply pure air warmed. 

Another advantage is, this fire is kindled without the trou- 
blesome and unsightly " blower," and the ashes are taken up 
but once a year, for they fall through crevices in the hearth into 
a close brick receptacle in the cellar without any possibility of 
contact with any combustible material ; hence the flying dust 
of ashes inseparable from the cleaning of a grate is avoided. 
The deposit on the mantle from a whole day's burning is scarcely 
observable, for a poker is never needed. After all, the prime 
consideration with rnany, is the cost of the fuel, in comparison 



WARMING HOUSES. 7 

with other modes of heating apartments. "Without troubling the 
reader with statistical tables, a few figures will be given in connec- 
tion with this low-down grate. 

"We have weighed and used to-daj, and on several simi- 
lar days, very near fifty pounds of coal, the thermometer with- 
out having been steadily below the freezing-point, while it has 
stood about seventy in our office in the position before described. 
Hence fifty pounds of coal will keep a room two hundred and 
forty square feet rather too warm for comfort and health when 
it is freezing out of doors, and at a cost of five dollars a ton, 
(placed in bins in the cellar,) two thousand pounds being a 
]STew-York retail ton, or twenty-five bushels of eighty pounds 
each, one pound of coal costs a quarter of a cent, or twelve and 
a half cents for fifty pounds, or eighty -seven and a half cents a 
week, three dollars and three quarters a month, or twenty-two 
dollars and a half for the season of six months, supposing that 
each day was freezing cold without, but there are not thirty 
such days during any winter, and from observation we think 
that thirty pounds a day would be an ample average, or seven 
and a half cents a day, fifty cents a week, or thirteen dollars for 
the winter. 

For a family apartment, in ordinary cases, the thermometer 
should not be higher than sixty-five, twelve feet from the fire ; 
more than that debilitates, and less is too cool for children and 
persons at rest. 

We must say in addition, in praise of the " low-down" grate, 
that when the thermometer is at twenty, its broad bed of flam- 
ing coals, two and a half feet across, with the soft and soothing 
atmosphere of the apartment, is cheery to the sight and to the 
sensations most delicious, and as such a grate costs from 
thirty to fifty dollars, when there are no extra attachments, 
we heartily commend it to public attention. 

The judgment of the observant is rapidly settling down in 
the conviction that furnace-heated houses are rapidly undermin- 
ing the constitutions of whole families, and thus render them 
the easy prey to every acute disease. Such being the case, it is 
literally a matter of vital importance to discover a remedy or a 
substitute, to discover some method of heating a family apart- 
ment in such a manner as will combine regularity of tempera- 



8 hall's journal of health. 

ture, sufficiency of Heat and adequate ventilation, with an econ- 
omy of fuel adapted to the means of the masses. It is believed 
that any one who will call at the Editor's office will be con- 
vinced that the low-down grate is one of the greatest improve- 
ments yet introduced for the healthful warming of family 
apartments. It is, without exaggeration, really difficult to 
point out a single defect, or offer a single well-grounded objec- 
tion to this invention, so new to New- York, yet known to a 
neighboring city for seven years. 



BIDING IN THE CARS. 

One of the most important promotives of health is the 
getting along smoothly in the world, and one of the ways of 
doing this, is to be habitually courteous and accommodating, 
and to " give a little." Don't stand up for all your rights. Do 
not exact the last cent due you in your dealings, under the de- 
ceptive plea, that you owe it to yourself to be just, and to the 
one dealing with you, to let him see that you will not counten- 
ance imposition. In our experience through life, we have found 
that generous men have about as good an idea of what is justice 
as any other class of people ; for they are just enough to make 
allowances for the mistakes, forgetfulness, prejudices, misappre- 
hensions and ignorance of their fellow-men. Hence if his 
grocer makes a mistake of a dollar or two in his own favor, he 
does not go off in a huff, and let him severely alone for the 
remainder of his life. If a poor man makes a purchase of him, 
and lacks a few cents, he does not refuse to let him have the 
article on the plea that it is wrong to give any one the oppor- 
tunity of defrauding. If a neighbor in straitened circum- 
stances borrows a dollar, to be returned certainly on a fixed 
day and hour, and fails, he does not resolve that he will not 
notice him the next time he meets him, and that he will never 
help him again the longest day he lives. 

Ah ! there are very many of the opposite of this, such pre- 
cise people! we hate their characters. They are a living 
lie to themselves, and a disgrace to humanity. The gene- 



RIDING IN THE CARS. 9 

rous man, instead of going away in a rage, turns an eye of 
pity and consideration on the delinquent. He has the mag- 
nanimity to suggest a sufficient reason for the short coming. 
The grocer may have made a mistake in casting up his ac- 
counts at the close of a weary day's labor, (and it was just as 
likely to be against himself,) as who may not in making any 
addition ? The poor man whose heart is oppressed with the 
care of a helpless family, may have forgotten the trifling differ- 
ence of a few cents, in the more important question, where 
shall I get work to day to keep me and mine from starving ? 
The borrowing neighbor may be on a sick-bed and alone, or he 
may have confidently relied on the promise of a rich man to 
pay his "little bill," without fail, and that was the last of it. 

But surely we have gone a wool gathering ! we have run off 
the track most decidedly, for we intended to commend to public 
notice as a sensible man and a benevolent, Mr. W. Weybridge 
of Medford, who, on the fifth day of October, eighteen hundred 
and fifty-nine, wrote an article which is quite as good as the 
one we published ourselves last summer, and which ran the 
round of the press in little or no time. We copy the article, 
premising that whoever follows the advice which " Mr. Brown" 
had wit enough to see was worthy of being printed, will be 
liberally paid for his consideration. 

Mr. Brown : I will tell travellers how to ride in cars. Open 
your eyes. Find out where you are going. Be five minutes in 
front of time. Semper paratus. Get into an ample linen over- 
coat with pockets. Take sufficient money for your journey, 
then double it; take no trunk if you can help it; take "re- 
freshments," quantum sufficit, from your wife's clean store-room ; 
take her advice and take a kiss to season it ; but do not keep 
the cars waiting. Buy your ticket at the office. Look out for 
your pocket-book and check your baggage. Give a kind word to 
your conductor ; take your seat before the cars have got in motion. 
Let your position be as near the centre of the car as possible, 
for wheels are dangerous and noisy. Enter into easy conversa- 
tion with your seat-companion. Draw him out; the dullest 
will have something to instruct or entertain you if you skill- 
fully address him. If a lady, let her lead the way, or sit in 
silence. Do not read, but talk, or think. Be attentive to the 



10 

aged; to the ladies. Have a "bon bon" for the child that 
cries behind you ; and keep to your good rule of taking every 
thing with cheerful temper through the day. Eat not your 
" lunch" alone. The half is better than the whole. Wear still 
a smiling face ; for this is " evangelical " and better than a ser- 
mon. " Keep your eyes open." Men are books that are books ; 
here you have a chance to read them. There'll be plenty of 
sleeping in the grave. Be alive while you are alive ; make 
others so. Avoid a window slightly raised, a door ajar; 
a " cold " comes in that way, and then a " cough," and then a 
" coffin." Let the cars stop, stone still, before you leave them. 
A leg is heavier than ten seconds of time ; but life goes but too 
often, with the leg. Eye your baggage ; help that lady also. 
Pay your hackman in advance, but walk if possible ; you need 
the exercise. Transact your business promptly, honorably, 
judiciously. Behave as well in the stranger city as at home. 
Keep away from haunts of mischief. Read Proverbs 7th 
chapter, commencing at the 4th verse. Go read it now lest you 
forget it. Do not sacrifice water for wine. Pick up information, 
by scraps if you must, but be sure and get it. Hasten home as 
soon as possible; your wife is at the window. "Keep your 
eyes open," I repeat again; be a true gentleman in every place, 
and you will enter your dwelling wiser than you went out of 
it, and will not trouble the ears of the one " you left behind 
you" with "doleful groans" about the miseries of travelling, 
the ill manners of men, nor will you be likely ever to bring an 
action against a railroad company, or it one against you. 

W. Weybkidge. 



WEAK EYES. 



Many who are troubled with weak eyes, by avoiding the use 
of them in reading, sewing, and the like, until after breakfast, 
will be able to use them with greater comfort for the remainder 
of the day, the reason being, that in the digestion of the food 
the blood is called in from all parts of the system, to a certain 
extent, to aid the stomach in that important process ; besides, 
the food eaten gives general strength, imparts a stimulus to the 
whole man, and the eyes partake of their share. 



SCHOOLING CHILDKEN. 11 



SCHOOLING CHILDREN. 

The outrages and stupidities practised in modern education 
are not amazing, for a sensible man is prepared for any thing, 
and has no amazement ; but they are mischievous in the ex- 
treme. Who expects a young girl to know any thing as it 
should be known ? If there is such an individual, he ought to 
be sent to Barnum's Museum, and the price of admission ad- 
vanced fifty per cent ! 

There are good schools here and there, but three out of four 
are the merest shams, are perfect impositions. Too much is at- 
tempted, hence much is passed over, but there is thoroughness 
in nothing. The young ladies know nothing well. We knew 
a graduate of one of the oldest schools in this city, make a mis- 
take against herself of fifty per cent, in a bill against us for the 
private tuition of two of our children. 

We believe the public schools in New- York, especially as to 
girls, are making an admirable change in this regard ; we know 
more particularly of the Twentieth Street School, under the pre- 
sidency of Miss Purdy, and of the Twelfth Street, of which 
Miss Greer is the principal. These ladies are remarkable for 
their energy, system, tact, and sound judgment, and merit well 
of the public. We trust they will long occupy their places and 
put the community under still higher obligation to them, for their 
fidelity to their trusts. Of the sub-teachers, the names which we 
have heard mentioned by different persons, with most praise 
for their assiduity, their conscientiousness and their unweary- 
ing patience towards the children under their care, are those of 
Misses Moran, Turnbull, Corneille, Thompson and Carpenter, 
connected, we believe with the schools named. 

In all our public schools there is considerable need for amend- 
ment in several directions. We have before insisted on the 
wisdom and humanity of reducing school hours, to all under 
twelve years of age, to four a day ; two in the forenoon and 
two in the afternoon ; and that nothing whatever should be 
given to the children to learn, out of school hours. But this 
is so far ahead of this driving age, that we fear we shall be as 
gray as a rat and as blind as a beetle, before such desirable 
changes come. 



12 

There are several things which could be easily remedied, and 
doubtless would be, if they were properly brought before the 
teachers, superintendents, and trustees. The best way to do 
this would be to appoint us with a liberal salary, to make the 
circuit of the city schools once a month, the year round, and 
beat some common-sense into the craniums of those who need 
the commodity. It is of some importance to parents to have 
healthy children. Nothing can afford any solid satisfaction 
when a dear child is sick ; for then, there is a cloud hung all 
over the world, and the brightest sun is veiled in black. Those 
who know most are the most alarmed at the slightest ailment 
of a child, for no one can conjecture what any sickness will 
end in. On the other hand, when every child is well, how the 
countenance brightens up ; how the heart rises in its gratitude 
and its gladness, and how the whole world is changed! 

To have a child go out to school in the morning in joyous 
health, and to come home with a broken limb, a gashed face, a 
lost tooth or an endangered eye ; or to be waked up in the 
night by the ominous sound of the dreaded croup, or a putrid 
sore throat, or the more insidious scarlet fever ! Any one of 
these things, by their suddenness, is well calculated to send 
terror into a parent's heart. All of them may be said to be of 
daily occurrence, and yet all of them are more or less avoidable. 

A month or more ago, we heard a little girl of ten, complain- 
ing in the street of her hard lesson. On inquiry, we found 
that between four o'clock of a winter's day and the hour of 
school next morning, her teacher had required her to get the 
meaning of all the words, which she thought she did not know 
— in a hundred pages, twelvemo ; and besides this, there were 
two other lessons. One might well suppose that such a teacher 
had been lately imported from a lunatic asylum. 

One of the down-town schools on the late Thanksgiving oc- 
casion, when it was desired to dismiss school from Wednesday 
night to Monday morning, the teacher gave out lessons for 
three ordinary days, on the ground that the children had a long 
holiday. "We did not inquire, nor do we know the teacher's 
name, but no doubt it will become famous one of these days. 

Within three months a public examination took place in one 
of the schools, a class at a time. When one was under exami- 
nation, requiring three quarters of an hour, another, numbering 



SCHOOLING CHILDREN. 13 

perhaps fifty, from eight years to thirteen, were told that 
they must steadily look at a certain spot on the wall during 
the examination, and that whoever turned the head, or was 
restless, should be " kept in" after the school was dismissed at 
three o'clock, for every afternoon during the remainder of the 
week ; one little girl is reported to have grown sick, and 
perhaps fainted away, under the ordeal. We do not know 
that this is literally true, not having seen it ; but such is the 
report of " visitors," on the occasion referred to. If the report 
is pretty nearly correct, the teacher who gave the order merits 
the severest reproof. 

Partially informed persons have an over-dread of foul air. 
"We know a teacher, who, during winter, has a company of sev- 
eral little girls in a room, but fearing the effects of breathing 
the air over and over again, where the heat comes from a regis- 
ter, she keeps the sash down several inches near the ceiling, for 
purposes of ventilation ; but the air rushes in with great power 
on a winter's day, and drives directly upon the heads of the 
children in a steady cold stream, and they sitting still, must 
experience disastrous results, such as cold in the head, sore 
throat, fevers and croups. A wiser plan would be to allow the 
children to promenade the hall for ten minutes every hour, and 
during that time open the window to its utmost and the door 
also, thus causing a most thorough ventilation. No person can 
sit still in a warm room in winter in a draft of air for five 
minutes without injury ; but for children to be thus exposed by 
the hour is monstrous. As the feelings are very deceptive, there 
should be a thermometer in every school-room, at about five 
feet from the floor, and at the coldest part of the room, where 
it should never be allowed to fall below sixty, nor to rise higher 
than sixty-five. 

With a view to obviate the hurtful effects of confinement, 
some of the public schools give a few minutes every hour, for 
the children to recreate. Usually, they are sent down into the 
yard, and it is forbidden for any child to stand still. This is a 
most judicious arrangement in the main. But if the thermo- 
meter is at thirty, it is freezing cold out of doors, and even if 
twenty degrees higher, if there is a raw wind blowing, which 
makes it equivalent to thirty, the change from the school-room 
is not less than near forty degrees, and nothing short of very 



14 hall's journal of health. 

active running or play can avert bad colds, croup, pneumonia 
or pleurisy. It would be far better, because entirely safe, to 
make the children exercise in the hall of the building, when 
the thermometer was under thirty-five, especially if a cold wind 
was blowing. 

It ought to be remembered by all, that it is far safer and 
much less disastrous to breathe any ordinary bad air, if warm, 
than to be in the purest air on the globe, if it is cold enough to 
cause a general chilliness, or a partial feeling of cold for a very 
short time, such as on the back, or neck, or throat, or any other 
susceptible part. Children should not be allowed to sit for five 
minutes with their backs to a register, or stove, or fire ; nor to 
stand over registers for a moment, nor to sit near one for any 
length of time ; and in cold weather they should be made to 
bundle up before leaving the school-room, and be counselled to 
run home and not delay a single moment on the way. 



TOO LATE. 

Our sympathies were excited lately in receiving the follow- 
ing note from the only son of a mother, and she a widow who 
was looking up .to him as the support and comfort of her old 
age : " Your opinion of my case only confirmed my own dread 
suspicions — suspicions I entertained before I wrote to you. I 
have very little hope left of ever being well again ; but for the 
sake of my mother, who has grown poor, thin, and pale, as I 
have grown poor, thin, and pale for her sake, would I make one 
effort to save myself. I feel as though I should be able, were my 
life spared, to render her comfortable and happy for many 
years yet. She will be alone, indeed, when I am gone." 

This noble-hearted son lost his health not from any necessity, 
but from want of a little knowledge as to the means of taking 
care of the health, such knowledge as one year's reading of this 
journal would have clearly and abundantly given ; hence our 
wish, irrespective of any personal advantage, and our convic- 
tion, too, that where there is one reader, there ought to be a 
million. 



LIVING ON EXCITEMENT. 15 



LIVING ON EXCITEMENT. 

He lives the longest who eats plain, substantial food, and 
drinks pure water, other things being equal. But many prefer 
highly-seasoned and mixed dishes and stimulating drinks. All 
such persons die before their time, usually from inanition or 
wasting disease of the bowels. As certainly will the mind suf- 
fer declining vigor and efficiency, its stimulants being novel- 
reading and a morbid thirst for new things. 

Id the moral or spiritual world the general principle holds 
true ; hence, those who feed on the " pure milk of the word," 
who travel in the "old paths," are the surest to grow in the ex- 
ercise and practice of principles, stern, high, and life-giving. 
What highly-seasoned food and stimulating drinks are to the 
body, what novel-reading is to the mind, sensation preaching 
is to the heart ; and yet after " these three," the great world, 
the masses run with eager pace. It is suggested that the clergy 
should do all in their power to put down the last practice, by 
not allowing it to be heralded in the papers when, or where, or 
on what subjects they are to preach. That is the best " society" 
which always attends its own meetings when its own doors 
are opened, and which seldom attends any others. Gadding 
about creates a pernicious excitement, it unsettles and dissatis- 
fies. Let every man attend religious services as a matter of 
course, the matter of worship, of prayer and praise and medi- 
tation being the absorbing objects ; all other things being 
considered as unimportant incidentals. Let no man inquire 
whether "Paul or Apollos or Cephas" is to preach, and let him 
take it for granted that the great theme shall be, " The Lamb 
of God which taketh away the sin of the world." 

How wide is the departure from these wholesome ways, may 
be estimated from the fact, that in a secular daily newspaper 
for Saturday, there are over fifty " notices" under the " reli- 
gious" head, of places, themes, and preachers, but not one of 
them announces a discourse on the subject of " Christ, and him 
crucified." The whole of them ranging, up or down, from John 
Brown to the devil. Let no one imagine from this expres- 
sion, that on the great subject of black and white we are "on 



16 hall's journal of health. 

the fence." This would do us injustice. We are very decided 
in our opinions. The first third of a century of our life we 
passed in the very midst of the " peculiar institution," and an- 
other third we have reason to believe will be passed out of it, 
hence we have had unusual facilities of personal observation, 
and therefore from a broad and liberal view of the whole ques- 
tion, we most unhesitatingly declare that we are on the other 
side ; and lest this should not be explicit enough for some, we 
will further add that we are on the right side, so that our 
friends North and South may hereafter know where to find us, 
that is, not on the fence, but on the other side of it, the right 
side. 



HOTEL LIFE. 

Of all the miserable ways of living, that of hotels and board- 
ing-houses takes the lead. One of the best sermons we ever 
heard, as connected with domestic life, was delivered in New- 
Orleans many years ago, by that eminent divine and scholar, 
the Kev. W. A. Scott, D.D., now of San Francisco. We thought, 
at the time, that humanity would have been a gainer, if a tract 
had been made of it and placed in the hands of every married 
couple in the Union. It is hoped that, should the eminent 
author ever see this article, he will publish the pith of it in his 
own monthly. A life of this sort eats out domestic love ; it 
creates a morbid desire for tinsel and show ; it cultivates sham 
in morals, in dress, in personal deportment ; it turns every thing 
into pretense and hollowness. There is no depth in any thing 
that is really useful or good. All is superficial, cold, and 
heartless. 

From such a life, gormandizing, idleness, and ennui are insep- 
arable ; eating, sleeping, lounging, and dilettanteing make the 
dreary routine — the two great events of each succeeding day 
being the dinner and the opera or theatre or lecture. They 
wake to think of what there shall be for breakfast, and, after 
reading the morning papers and an objectless and lazy stroll, 
the subject of conjecture or conversation, if not both, is what 
kind of dinner will be spread ; if this or that new or rare or 
favorite dish will be in the bill of fare. 

As to conversation, there can be no real intercommunion 



HOTEL LIFE. 17 

with persons whose acquaintance rarely exceeds a month, 
oftener not a week. There is nothing to draw out the bettei 
natures and the deeper feelings of the heart in a transient " soci- 
ety" like this, while the risk of becoming acquainted with 
unworthy persons is very great. To young sons and daughters 
it is simply fearful, for adventurers, fortune-hunters, and pre- 
tenders, with fast young men and those who have nothing but 
a fine personal appearance, are the habitues of all public places. 

But there are physical evils of the most serious nature. 
When a wife or daughter has nothing to do, and the appetite is 
stimulated day after day by all the arts of "scientific cookery," 
when the five o'clock dinner is universal, and when the stom- 
ach is " raving" for food in consequence of the almost entire 
abstinence since breakfast, a double work is thrown in upon it 
in its debilitated state, and keeps it " laboring" during the 
greater part of the night, making what ought to be the hours of 
peaceful rest, absolutely hideous by terrible dreams, and the 
morning comes without the blest renewal of strength which 
healthful sleep would have given, and this for weeks and 
months together. Yerily, it is no wonder that the thoughtful 
physician should apply the epithet, " Thou fool," to any parent 
who would expose a family to such a life. And in the light of 
it, we may gather that the most certain means of making life a 
failure in toto on the part of any newly -married couple, is to 
" go to boarding." Better a thousand times, socially, morally, 
and physically, hire a two-roomed shanty, live on bread and 
potatoes and do the housework without the aid of menials, and 
continue to do these things until means are accumulated to take 
a step higher. Thus doing, we would not see a tithe of the 
sick wives we now do, not a tithe of the unhappy matches, the 
disgraceful divorces and the early wreck of business prospects 
which leave so many men disabled before they are thirty years 
of age; disabled for life from engaging in any handsomely 
profitable employment in consequence of a load of indebtedness 
which it would take a lifetime to liquidate. 

In view of these things, our advice to every young man of 
energy, a high spirit, and any respectable calling, is, marry 
before you are thirty, even if you have not five dollars ahead. 
Take a cabin of a single room, if you can do no better ; live 
within your means, whatever Mrs. Grundy may say, and with 

NO. I. vol. vii. — 1S60. 



18 hall's journal of health. 

moderate perseverance, never rising faster than your gains, 
things will go well with you, and three times out of four you 
will, in a race of twenty years, come out triumphantly ahead of 
those who had a small fortune to begin with — theirs having 
insensibly dwindled away, while yours is increasing with a 
steady and wholesome rapidity. 



GREEN PEOPLE. 

Some people are as green as the grass they tread upon ; or, 
to change the simile, their noggins are as soft as mush ; it is a 
wonder they have sense enough to breathe. An individual in 
this city has an amount of stupidity which is perfectly refresh- 
ing, that is, to one who possesses a temperament like our own, 
which breaks out into a horse laugh as loud as a fourth of July 
torpedo whenever any thing turns up, which is too insignificant 
to be ruffled at, but is so unmistakably simple, as to put one in 
a betweenity whether to laugh or growl ; and as no man of the 
least common-sense Y/ould choose the latter when he could just 
as well indulge in a loud guffaw, so we did have a little quiet 
merry-making in receiving a note from the penny-post, charge 
two cents, from a name we never heard of, to the effect that the 
writer from reading a piece of ours headed Long Life, would be 
greatly obliged for our opinion as to whether "smoking" was 
injurious to health, and to send a note, with the answer, stat- 
ing at the same time whether tobacco was a poison. All we 
can say is, that we do not think that any thing could " poison " 
this gentleman — we think he must be "impervious" to the ef- 
fects of any toxological agent known to us or to any one else. 
We really do not think he is capable of being hurt at all. 
While we are among the stupidities, brief mention may be 
made of one of constant occurrence, and which, by the way, 
puts a good many dollars into our pocket in the way of editor- 
ial perquisites. We receive from one to five or ten or more dol- 
lars at a time from persons whom we do not know, in the way 
of subscriptions, purchases of books, opinions, medical advice, 
etc. ; but the obstacle to our compliance is in the little item, 
that the name of the person is not mentioned, or the post-office 
address is omitted altogether as to State, county, or town. 



NEW- YORK HOTELS. 19 



NEW-YORK HOTELS. 



For the convenience of our readers, who are scattered all 
over every where, and who may chance to come to the metrop- 
olis of the nation, for purposes of business, health, or pleasure, 
the notice below is given from the Home Journal, which for 
elegance in manner and matter may be considered the first and 
best weekly publication of its kind, not only in the Union, but 
in the world. In transferring the article to the pages of the 
Journal of Health, it is premised that our office and resi- 
dence are within three blocks of Union Place Hotel, the Everett 
House, and the Clarendon. Consequently we are very near 
royalty, for we have long observed that titled persons from 
abroad oftener a put up " at one of the three houses named than 
elsewhere, for true nobility always seeks retiracy, quiet, and 
comfort. "We are not personally acquainted with either of the 
" hosts, "and make this mention less for them than for our 
readers. 

i: Hotel life is so rapidly superseding house-keeping in this 
metropolis, that the private residence promises soon to become 
a rarity ; and indeed this is not strange when we consider the 
exorbitant rents demanded for decent tenements, and contrast 
the comforts of our first-class hotels and their well-drilled at- 
tendants, with our ten-pin-alley houses all up-stairs, and the 
stupid servants that so try the patience of housekeepers. The 
hotels of this city have attained such size and magnificence, as 
to be among the curiosities for country visitors to see. For- 
eigners are especially surprised at their luxury and elegance, 
and have taken many valuable hints from their management 
and arrangements. The old Astor still continues to be a fa- 
vorite among the merchants whose duties require proximity to 
their counting-houses, and maintains its reputation for prompt 
attendance and bountiful larder. The St. Nicholas is patronized 
principally by transient visitors, and persons fond of the excite- 
ment inseparable from large crowds. The Metropolitan is pop- 
ular on account of its central locality, being near the shops of 
Broadway, and most of the places of public amusement. The 
New- York Hotel is remarkable for the artistic marvels of the 
entres ; and the Brevoort, for the privacy of its suites of rooms 
and the excellent family restaurant. The Fifth Avenue Hotel 



20 

lias been filled since the first day of its opening, and seems to 
give satisfaction. A new house always has a rush, and its pop- 
ularity afterwards is dependent upon its management. The 
Everett is generally preferred by those who remain for any 
length of time in town, on account of its beautiful locality— be- 
ing opposite Union Square, on the corner of Seventeenth street 
and Fourth Avenue — and the admirable management of all the 
interior arrangements, in order to afford every attainable com- 
fort and enjoyment for its inmates. Its recent proprietor, Mr. 
Glapp, has retired from business, and is succeeded by Mr. L. L. 
Britton, who has had much experience in keeping hotels, hav- 
ing been for twelve years the proprietor of the best house in 
Albany. That the excellence of the Everett will be sustained 
under the new government, there is every reason to believe. 
Mr. Britton is making a few changes that will be very accepta- 
ble and attractive. The admirable Union Place Hotel, the St. 
Denis, the La Farge, the Clarendon, the Prescott, and other 
well-known establishments, are, like those already mentioned, 
generally well filled with visitors. This is also the case with 
the hundreds of hotels " on the European plan" and the thou- 
sands of boarding-houses on no plan at all, which are scattered 
every where throughout the city. A monster hotel on Fifth 
Avenue, opposite the Central Park, to occupy an entire square, 
is in contemplation. It will, of course, make a sensation — when 
finished." 



HOMINY. 

When that kind of Indian corn called " flint corn" is broken 
into three or four pieces with a wooden pestle, as is done in the 
West and South-west, it is called hominy. The outer skin, 
which answers to the "bran" in grinding wheat, is removed 
by steeping or boiling it in the ley of wood ashes. In the 
North this corn broken coarsely, is called " samp," while that 
which is denominated " samp" in the South, is the same corn 
prepared in such a way that each particle as it appears on the 
table is not larger than a grain of rice, and is quite as white, 
but it has not the juiciness and sweetness of the coarser pre- 
paration. 

Next to the common white bean, hominy is the most nutri- 



HEALTH TRACTS. 21 

tious, the most economical, and the most healthful article of ve- 
getable growth which can be placed on our tables. The usual 
mode of preparing it is to cover it an inch deep with water over 
night, and let it soak until the morning, then boil it slowly 
and steadily six, eight or ten hours until it is quite soft enough 
for being eaten easily. After it has thus been boiled, a part of 
it maybe taken, prepared with a little milk and butter, and placed 
on the table, to be eaten as a vegetable or with syrup or loaf- 
sugar as a desert. The portion laid away can be cut in slices, 
about half an inch thick, and fried brown for breakfast, with 
or without the addition of syrup, or it may be warmed up 
just as it is, or with a little milk, or a tablespoonful or two in a 
bowl of good milk, will of itself make a sufficient meal. A 
bowl of milk and hominy thus prepared would make a sus- 
taining and healthful dinner for a day laborer. If prepared 
fresh every day, it can be taken for weeks together with an 
appetite and a relish, while it is perhaps not inferior to cracked 
wheat as an agency in the healthful regulation of the system. 



HEALTH TRACTS. 

A gentleman of true benevolence has succeeded in accu- 
mulating a large fortune within a half-century's time, beginning 
at the bottom round of the ladder, by following two things : 
minding his own business and doing good to others. How 
many there are who would do well to learn that trade ! It is 
simple, useful, and ought not to be hard to learn. What a 
grand thing it would be for the whole country, just at this 
juncture, had it learned that useful art ! 

One of his ways of doing good is to print a multitude of one- 
paged health tracts at his own expense, and to distribute them 
personally broadcast. We gave one of them last month, and 
now another. Like a sensible man, when he can't make a 
tract to suit himself, he makes a selection from the writings of 
those who best please him. It will be seen that at this time 
Hall's Journal of Health is his text-book. We commend 
the extract to every man who has a mind and a conscience. We 
are constrained to say, however, it strikes us as rather odd that 
this gentleman should be so mindful and considerate of other 
people's wives when he persists in not having one for himself: 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 20. 

mmn without imwm 



A NEW YEAR'S PRESENT FOR TOUR WIFE. 

^"Begin with, the January !N"i:im.'ber._^ 

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED 



I l0iffil 0{ Siiltii 



A MONTHLY PUBLICATION", 

Price One Dollar per year. 

"HEALTH IS A DUTY" INCUMBENT ON ALL. 



[from dr. hall's journal of health.] 

Health is a duty. — When we announced as a starting-point in the first 
number of our Journal that a man ought to keep well, and being sick was 
an implied wrong, no doubt it appeared to many rather a rigid doctrine : 
to wit, that it is a sin to be side. But men of reflection will not be long in 
coming to the conclusion, that if it is not so in some cases, it is so in a vast 
number of instances; and a practical man may benefit himself largely, if he 
be also conscientious, by inquiring, when incapacitated from discharging 
the duties of life by illness, "Is it my fault .?" A servant who cuts off his 
hand to avoid labor, does, certainly, a deliberate wrong to the person to 
whom he justly owes his labor. And although we may not deliberately 
make ourselves sick, yet, if it is done through gross inattention or from 
ignorance, the degree of criminality in the latter is but a short distance 
from the former. 

To use a not uncommon expression, a man has no business to be sick. 
In other words, his being a sick man is not always a necessity. People do 
not get sick loithout a cause, except in rare cases ; and that cause is, very 
generally, within themselves, resulting from inattention, ignorance, or reck- 
lessness, either on the part of themselves, their parents, or their teachers. 
It is a very poor excuse for a man to say that he can not pay a debt — that 
declaration becomes insulting to the creditor — when that inability is the 
result of improvidence or actual extravagance. When any man is disabled 
by sickness from discharging his duty to himself, his family, or to society, 
the question should at once be, " Is it from Heaven or of men V Not of 
the former, for it is said He does not willingly afflict the children of men ; 
consequently, sickness is not of His sending. It is the result of causes 
within ourselves. In a literal sense, as well as a moral, it is true, " Israeli 
thou hast destroyed thyself!" In plainer terms, disease is not sent upon us ; 
we bring it upon ourselves, and, therefore, health is a duty incumbent on all 



A CARD. — PAIN A BLESSING. 23 

A CARD. 

It is the universal custom with periodical publishers to send 
their subscribers a title-page and contents at the end of each 
volume for conveniences of binding. Our former publisher 
declined doing this, the plates being offered. We supply the 
deficiencies in this number to all who renew. To those who 
do not, we will send the same, post-paid at our own expense, 
on being requested to do so. 

In resuming the publication department of the Jouknal of 
Health, we expect, as long as we have strength to wink an 
eye or wag a finger, to make our issues with some regularity 
and promptitude, and in a style of typographical correctness 
and mechanical finish which shall be to our pet as creditable as 
it is new. 

To those of our exchanges who have written to us of late 
complaining that for one, two, three, twelve months they have 
not received a single Journal, we have to say, that we had no 
control over the exchange department last year, and do not 
know where to place the fault ; but desiring to make things 
pleasant and satisfactory, we will send the missing n ambers to 
such of our exchanges as will designate them. 



PAIN A BLESSING. 

Pain is the sleepless sentinel, always at the outposts, an- 
nouncing on the instant the first approach in the distance, of 
the great enemy disease ; and that half humanity dies scores 
of years "before the time," is because the faithful warning goes 
all unheeded. Suppose, for example, a man gets "boozj^," and 
falls asleep, if fire gave no pain, he might wake up next morn- 
ing minus a foot, or nose, or with a hole in a head, all empty. 
A plain case. 



24 



goto, §tvitw, (Sfa, 



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Millennial Harbinger, $1 a year, monthly. A. Campbell, editor, Bethany, Va. 

Evangelical Rej>ository, Philadelphia, Pa, $1 a year, monthly. 

Godey's Lady's Book, $3 a year, Philadelphia. The queen of pictorial monthlies. 

Toadies' Home Magazine, Philadelphia, $2 a year. Useful and safe for all. 
The Home, Boston, $2 a year. A monthly for the family ; always instructive. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 

WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] FEBRUARY, 1860. [No. 2. 



SLEEPLESSNESS. 

A gentleman of superior culture once became deranged, and 
after a weary time, at a well-conducted asylum, was restored to 
mental health and remained perfectly well. One of the most 
striking observations he made in detailing the remembered por- 
tions of his history for the period including his aberration, was 
that the madness came on him by a slowly-increasing inability 
to sleep, and at its height, it seemed to him that he did not sleep 
at all; but from the very first day he could get a little sleep, the 
mind began to clear, and the two continued ^pari passu until com- 
plete recovery. 

The experience of medical men of all countries is in striking 
accordance with the above. And if a fact so well established 
was generally known, many persons would be saved from the 
living death of hopeless lunacy, and a large number from the 
abhorrent crime of self-destruction. 

Sleep is the great renovator of the brain. It is during its 
rest, of sleep, that it is nourished and invigorated ; and without 
that food of rest in sleep, the mind can no more be sustained, 
than the body without food. 

One of the very worst economies of time, is that niched from 
necessary sleep. The wholesale but blind commendation of 
early rising, is as mischievous in practice, as it is errant in theory. 
Early rising is a crime against the noblest part of our physical 
nature, unless it is preceded by an early retiring. Multitudes of 
business men in large cities count it a saving of time, if they can 
make a journey of a hundred or two miles at night by steam- 

NO. II. VOL. VII. — 1860. 



26 hall's journal of health. 

boat or railway. It is a ruinous mistake. It never fails to be 
followed by a want of general well feeling for several daj^s after, 
if, indeed, the man does not return home actually sick, or so 
near it, as to be unfit for a full attention to his business for a 
week afterwards. When a man leaves home on business, it is 
always important that he should have his wits about him ; that 
the mind should be fresh and vigorous, the spirit lively, buoyant, 
and cheerful. No man can say that it is thus with him, after a 
night on a railroad or on the shelf of a steamboat. 

The first great recipe for sound, connected, and refreshing 
sleep, is physical exercise. Toil is the price of sleep. 

To sleep well, a man must be regular in his hours of retiring 
and rising, and avoid sleeping in the day-time. Nature will 
take healthfully a certain amount of sleep, as she will take 
healthfully a certain amount of food, and no more ; all over tends 
directly to disease and ends in premature death. In the desire 
to avoid eating too much, men have weighed, their food, but 
some have eaten too little and died before their time in conse- 
quence of an error of judgment. There need be no mistake in 
this regard as to sleep in ordinary health, for if a man retires 
regularly after judicious and usual eating and exercise, he will, 
if let alone, be waked up by nature the very moment he has 
had enough of repose for the needs of the system. Instinct 
teaches the infant and the mere animal to cease taking aliment 
when they have had enough. Infants and animals never have 
dyspepsia, if let alone, for nature is the wise apportioner. Thus 
is it with sleep. Nature, herself sleepless, wakes us up the 
moment we have had enough, if we are not tampered with. 
Thus it is with men who live temperately and regularly ; they 
wake up within five minutes of the same time morning after 
morning. If we go to sleep again, if we take a "second nap," 
nature is thwarted, and the result is, we go to sleep later the 
following night, sleep more unsoundly and later in the day ; or 
if we get up early, we become insupportably sleepy during the 
day-time, and this goes on until we have no refreshing, sweet, 
connected sleep, day or night, when the general health begins 
to wane and the spirits droop. The laugh is less joyous ; the 
countenance less cheerful ; the eye less bright, and the road is 
downward ! If at this phase of affairs medicines are given to 
promote sleep, it is only an artificial repose ; it does not build up 



SLEEPLESSNESS. 27 

the system, but soon begins to clog the whole machinery, and in 
due time, the wheels of life stop forever. For let it be remem- 
bered, that every form of anodyne, whether of hop or poppy, 
such as morphine, laudanum, or paregoric, will, if continued 
beyond a very few doses, constipate the bowels, take away the 
appetite, torpify the liver, and derange the whole digestive 
machinery. 

Labor, then, physical industry, temperance, and regularity, 
are the great panaceas for producing sound, healthful invigorat- 
ing sleep. Various substitutes have been adopted to serve as 
temporary expedients, some of which may excite a smile, but 
all may be of greater or less avail. 

1. Fix the thoughts, on getting into bed, on some one thing, 
vast and simple ; such as a cloudless sky, or the boundless 
ocean, or the ceaseless goodness of the great Father of us all. 

2. It has been said that sleep is promoted by lying with the 
head towards the north, and not by any means to the west, 
because of certain electric currents. 

3. A writer recommends to commence rolling the eye-balls 
round the circuit of the eye, in the same direction, until sleep 
comes. 

4. Another avers that a better plan is to place the head in a 
comfortable position, shut the mouth, and breathe through the 
nostrils only, making an effort to imagine that you see the 
breath going out all the time. 

5. We have known, on the failure of all forms of anodynes, 
the gentle, continuous friction of the soles of the feet with a soft 
warm hand, to be admirably successful. 

6. "When persons are prevented from sleeping by a slight 
hacking cough, sleep is sometimes induced by having two pieces 
of muslin, say six inches by four, and three or four folds thick, 
to be used alternately thus : have a saucer at hand, half filled with 
alcohol, dip one of the cloths into it, then press it out, so as not to 
dribble, and lay it across the chest, the upper edge of the cloth 
ranging with the collar-bones, let it remain five minutes, then 
put on the other, alternating thus (by the nurse) with as little 
motion or noise as possible, the patient being on his back in the 
bed composed for sleep. 

7. A French medical journal advises on retiring, to put five 
or six bits of sugar candy, as large as a hazelnut in the mouth, 



28 hall's journal of health. 

averring that before they are melted the desired effect will have 
been produced. This may avail in a case of simple sleepless- 
ness, not as the result of any special disease. We would not 
advise such an expedient, for persons have been known to lose 
life by going to sleep with something in the mouth. If it is 
attempted at all, the candy should be placed between the cheeks 
and the gums, and the mouth kept resolutely closed. 

The general rule is, that persons require seven hours of sleep 
in summer, and eight in winter. There are however occasional 
exceptions. Women require less sleep than men; possibly 
because they are less in the open air, the soporific effects of 
which are seen in infants speedily going to sleep when taken 
out of doors. 

Children require more sleep than those in maturer life. Old 
people seem to require very little sleep, except in extreme age ; 
but then it is rather a doze, or in short naps. Much of the 
credit given to elderly people for early rising is not deserved. 
They get up early because they can't sleep any longer ; nature 
does not want any more, and they feel better when up and 
about than when in bed. 

Napoleon the Great, seemed to require very little sleep, and 
he had a remarkable facility in going fast asleep at will. 
Pichegru said that during a whole j^ear's campaign, he did not 
sleep more than one hour in twenty-four. We knew a man, 
named Paxton, who having been an engineer or pilot on a 
steamboat on the Mississippi, was not able on leaving his em- 
ployment to sleep more than three hours out of any twenty-four 
for several years, but he died early. 

We earnestly advise that all who think a great deal, who 
have infirm health, who are in trouble, or who have to work hard, 
to take all the sleep they can get, without medicinal means. 

We caution parents, particularly, not to allow their children 
to be waked up of mornings; let nature wake them up, she will 
not do it prematurely ; but have a care that they go to bed at 
an early hour ; let it be earlier and earlier, until it is found that 
they wake up of themselves in full time to dress for breakfast. 
Being waked up early, and allowed to engage in difficult or any 
studies late and just before retiring, has given many a beautiful 
and promising child brain-fever, or determined ordinary ail- 
ments to the production of water on the brain. 



NEW-YORK HUSBANDS. 29 

Let parents make every possible effort to have their children 
go to sleep in a pleasant humor. Never scold or give lectures 
or in any way wound a child's feelings, as it goes to bed. Let 
all banish business and every worldly care at bed-time, and let 
sleep come to a mind at peace with God and all the world. 



NEW-YORK HUSBANDS. 

!N"o observant man who is daily " on 'change," or promenades 
Wall street will fail of the impression that a large number of 
our most driving business men drink brandy every day. They 
seem stuffed, always full, and scarcely a month passes that the 
morning paper does not make the record of some familiar 
name : " Died yesterday, suddenly, of disease of the heart." 
Further on, we learn from the figures that he has passed away 
in the very prime of life, while he ought to have lived a third 
of a century longer. A very great deal of this arises from the 
abandonment of the old-time custom of merchants living in the 
rear or upper part of the building in which they do business. 
In fact, "up-town" residences are rapidly working a social 
ruin. The old-fashioned dinner hour of noon has become the 
most business portion of the day. Not less than two hours are 
consumed in going to Union or Madison Squares to dine, and 
the merchant who does it would soon go to the wall. If he 
goes without a dinner, the exhaustion consequent would unfit 
him for the proper performance of his duties. The remedy is 
"a snack" or "lunch" at an eating-house, and, from various 
pretenses, porter, ale, beer, wine, or brandy are used now and 
then, in small quanties at first, steadily increasing in frequency 
and in amount, until lunch and brandy are indivisible. 

Most men of position, principle, and self-respect hesitate long- 
to take brandy at dinner in the presence of wife and children. 
Many a man would take it abroad, when he would be very far 
from indulging at home, so that the practice of taking the mid- 
day meal at an eating-house or a hotel opens an easy door to one 
of the very worst forms of intemperance, that is, habitual drink- 



30 hall's journal of health. 

ing, seldom, if ever, descending to the degradation of actual 
drunkenness, yet having " brandy aboard" all the time. 

One of the finest legal minds in New- York city died not long 
ago. He dropped suddenly dead. The papers all said of 
"disease of the heart." His casual acquaintances were not 
aware of his being an invalid. When they met him on the 
street he was courteous, frank, and manly. There was an 
activity in mind and motion, which left the impression of good 
health and prosperity. But they never saw him early in the 
morning, nor did his family often, for he seldom appeared at 
the breakfast table, as he said he had no appetite until late in 
the day. He rose late, and went directly to his office near 
Wall street, commencing his day's labor with a large drink of 
brandy, and it was this which misled those who casually met 
him ; it was on this he lived until noon, when he " took dinner 
down-town," the almost only meal of the day, made ravenous 
by the previous potations, and in order to " carry this load," to 
" settle his dinner," to " aid digestion," he drank brandy largely 
after dinner, and with this transacted the business of the after 
part of the day, and in the evening returned to his family, when 
the double excitement of food and drink made him appear so 
"fall of life," that his own household were misled as to the 
actual condition of his health, and were not awakened from their 
delusion until his corpse was one day brought to the door, he 
having fallen dead in a drinking saloon. 

This is no solitary history, no made-up case, for we knew the 
man and his habits. We have known of other men whose fate 
was similar. We know men now who are travelling the same 
road, and who will soon arrive at the same destination ! 

To every wife in New- York whose husband " dines down- 
town," this narration should carry with it a lesson and a warn- 
ing, and however great may be her confidence in her husband, 
there ought to be some misgivings and some effort to have him 
dine at home ; rather than not do it, the family had a great 
deal better move down to " the store," and occupy the spacious 
airy "lofts," as they are called, which, with proper fitting up, 
would afford a roominess, a cheerfnlness, and a pureness of atmo- 
sphere equal to the most favored dwellings on the Avenue or 
Murray Hill. The richest private individual in the world, the 
Paris Rothschild, lives in the rear of his counting-house, and 



NEW- YORK HUSBANDS. 31 

his western prototype, our olden friend Sayre, the financier, the 
bunker, and the philanthropist, does the same thing, having the 
wife of his youth literally at his elbow, his parlor and his din- 
ing-room opening into his office, and with such propinquity 
they have grown young in love ; age has come without 
wrinkles, and prosperity without toil, and, like two young tur- 
tle-doves in their affections, they are billing and cooing down 
life's pathway, apparently as happy as the happiest. And who 
does not know that multitudes in our large cities fail annually 
in the great aim of their life in consequence of not living on the 
spot where their business is, in consequence of having houses 
" up-town" and " out of town," with the additional cost of from 
three thousand, at least, to ten thousand dollars a year. 

If there are insurmountable objections to the plan suggested, 
there is another, which may be regarded as next best. Let the 
wife, at least, invite herself down-town to dine with her hus- 
band every day, and thus keep away the liquor-bottle ; let her 
cheerfulness, her tidiness, her intelligence, her affection, the 
brightness of her eyes, and the sweetness of her voice* be the 
" seasoning" of each meal, the tonic of each repast ; let her joy- 
ous presence be the whetstone of the appetite, the great exhil- 
eratorof the spirits, the great waker-up of those ambitions and 
energies which are essential to business success. 

The dwelling-houses of the business men of New- York are 
very little more to them than lodging places. It is the custom 
of some to leave their homes in winter, at least, before the child- 
ren are up, and return after they are asleep. This is not liv- 
ing ; it is more like the unsatisfying life of a man at the 
galleys. It may be true that this entire consecration to busi- 
ness is not to last many years ; that wealth may begin to roll 
in, and elegant leisure come before " fifty;" but from any hun- 
dred in this race for gold, who started at twenty -five, take out 
the " failures" in money, in character, or in health, not a tithe 
are left ; and of that small number, more than half have had 
the juices of their affections, their capabilities, and their better 
natures so eaten out, there is no substance left, there is no capa- 
city for any other enjoyment than that of calculating the cent 
per cent than that of clutching gold. "What a prostitution of 
the ends and aims of life I 



32 hall's jouknal of health. 



BEADING ALOUD. 



THIS is an accomplishment possessed by so few that a good 
reader is almost as rare as a man of common-sense. It is greatly 
to be regretted that so little attention is paid to a branch of edu- 
cation so agreeable, so important, and so useful. Months of 
time and multitudes of dollars are expended on studies which 
could be profitably dispensed with altogether, while the cultiva- 
tion of the ability to read aloud gracefully is very sadly ne- 
glected — in fact, is not considered as by any means an important 
acquisition. A beautiful singer delights a whole assembly, a 
beautiful reader not only delights but instructs. A fool may 
sing divinely. But a good reader must possess mind. Let the 
parents then, whose daughters have no taste for music, no ear 
for song, but who have hearts and intellects worthy of any man, 
give them a chance of showing what they are made of, a chance 
of making their way in the world, of cultivating the habit of 
reading /doud with care, with grace, with understanding, and 
thus put it in their power of bearing their part in the entertain- 
ment of any company into which they may be thrown. 

But it is to the physical benefits to be derived from reading 
aloud, to which the attention is more particularly called. It is 
one of those exercises which combines mental and muscular effort, 
and hence has a double advantage. It is an accomplishment 
which may be cultivated alone, perhaps better alone than under 
a teacher, for then, a naturalness of intonation will be acquired 
from instinct rather than from art ; the most that is required 
being that the person practising should make an effort to com- 
mand the mind of the author, the sense of the subject. 

To read aloud well, a person should not only understand the 
subject, but should hear his own voice and feel within him that 
every syllable was distinctly enunciated, while there is an in- 
stinct presiding which modulates the voice to the number or 
distance of the hearers. Every public speaker ought to be able 
to tell whether he is distinctly heard by the farthest auditor in 
the room ; if he is not, it is from a want of proper judgment 
and observation. 

Eeading aloud helps to develop the lungs just as singing does 
if properly performed. The effect is to induce the drawing of 



HEADING ALOUD. 33 

long breaths every once in a while, oftener and deeper than 
if reading without enunciating. These deep inhalations never 
fail to develop the capacity of the lungs in direct proportion to 
their practice. 

Common consumption begins uniformly with imperfect, in- 
sufficient breathing ; it is the characteristic of the disease that 
the breath becomes shorter and shorter, through weary months, 
down to the close of life, and whatever counteracts that short 
breathing, whatever promotes deeper inspirations, is curative to 
that extent, inevitably and under all circumstances. Let any 
person make the experiment by reading this page aloud, and 
in less than three minutes, the instinct of a long breath will show 
itself. This reading aloud develops a weak voice, and makes 
it sonorous. It has great efficiency also in making the tones 
clear and distinct, freeing them from that annoying hoarseness, 
which the unaccustomed reader exhibits before he has gone over 
half a page, when he has to stop and hem and clear away, to the 
confusion of himself, as much as that of the subject. 

This loud reading when properly done, has a great agency in 
educing vocal power, on the same principle that all muscles are 
strengthened by exercise, those of the voice-making organs 
being no exception to the general rule. Hence in many cases , 
absolute silence diminishes the vocal power just as the pro- 
tracted non-use of the arm of the Hindoo devotee, at length, 
paralyzes it forever. The general plan in appropriate cases is. 
to read aloud in a conversational tone thrice a day, for a minute 
or two, or three at a time, increasing a minute every other day,, 
until half an hour is thus spent at a time, thrice a day, which is. 
to be continued until the desired object is accomplished. Man- 
aged thus, there is safety and efficiency as a uniform result. 

As a means then of health, of averting consumption, of being 
useful and entertaining in any company ; as a means of show- 
ing the quality of the mind, let reading aloud be considered an; 
accomplishment more indispensable than that of smattering 
French, of lisping Italian, of growling Dutch, or dancing cotil- 
lions, gallopades, polkas, and quadrilles. 



From the practice of a life-time, North and South, I am fully convinced^, 
that the remedies for disease which are of the most universal application, 
and of the most undeviating efficiency, are rest, warmth, and sleep, with 
moderate abstinence and exercise. Dr. W. W. Hall, 

NO. II. VOL. VII. — 1860. 



34 hall's jouknal of health. 

SKATING 

Is one of the manliest and most invigorating of all forms of 
exercise, and it is due to the Commissioners of the Central 
Park, to say that the pains taken by them to afford to our citi- 
zens the facilities of skating have met with public appreciation. 
If the ice did not freeze smooth, it was overflowed and frozen 
over again. If the snow fell upon it, it was promptly removed ; 
and when the ice became cut up, it was again overflowed, and 
thus during the cold weather, thousands and tens of thousands 
of men, women, and children have found innocent, exciting, 
and healthy amusement. A separate lake of ice was prepared 
for the ladies, with an apartment on the bank for convenience 
of dressing, resting, warming, etc. On several occasions, espe- 
cially on the day celebrated for New Year's, we were one of 
the skaters, and among the thousands on the ice at the same 
time, we did not hear an oath, an unbecoming, or even angry 
word. 



HEALTH TRACTS. 

The Editor has been solicited at various times, by strangers 
as well as friends, to republish articles which have appeared 
from time to time in the Journal of Health. This has suggested 
a better plan, which is to make a selection of those which are 
of more universal application, and have them printed in the 
form of tracts for general distribution. The facsimile of each 
is given in the following pages. Those of our subscribers who 
wish to exercise their benevolence in distributing them, can 
have them sent, assorted and post-paid, for twenty -five cents a 
hundred. The postage on a single tract is one cent, each piece of 
printed paper being liable to a separate postage, but when fifty 
or a hundred are sent, printed on one piece of paper, the postage 
is the same ; hence they will be sent assorted in pamphlet form, 
and they can be easily divided. And as we desire to take care 
of number one while we are doing a good turn to number two, 
an advertisement of our publications will be found on the re- 
verse of each tract ; so being free-hearted, we don't charge for 
the advertisement, only for the advice on the opposite page. The 
Editor of the Journal of Health is a very generous person, 
sometimes, by fits and starts, pretty much according to the state 
of the weather, the stomach, and the money-market 



35 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 1. 



INCONSIDERATIONS. 



It is inconsiderate to eat when you don't feel like it. Sleepless nature 
calls for food when it is needed. 

It is inconsiderate to eat to "make it even," to swallow a thing, not be- 
cause you want it, but because you do not want it wasted by being left on 
the plate, and thrown into a slop-tub ; but then it would have gone to 
fattening the pigs or feeding the cows, whereas it goes into your stomach 
when not needed, only to gorge and oppress and sicken. 

It is inconsiderate to enter a public vehicle, and open a window or door 
without the express permission of each of the several persons nearest. 

It is inconsiderate to ask persons nearest to a window or door of a public 
conveyance to open the same, for you thereby tax their courtesy to grant a 
request for your gratification, at the expense of their own preferences, and 
thus show yourself to have the selfishness of a little mind, and the manners 
of a boor ; for you have no claim on the self-denial of a stranger, nor should 
you put such to the risk of injury to health for your mere gratification. 
The most that can happen from a too close vehicle is a fainting fit, which 
kills nobody, and which would rectify itself in five minutes if simply let 
alone ; but an open window in a conveyance has originated pleurisies, in- 
flammation of the lungs, sore throat, colds, peritonital inflammations, and 
the like, which have hurried multitudes from health to the grave within a 
week. The openness of a travelling conveyance has killed a hundred, 
where closeness has killed one. 

It is inconsiderate to be waked up in the morning as a habit; it is an 
interference with nature, whose unerring instinct apportions the amount of 
sleep to the needs of the body, nor will she allow that habitual interference 
with impunity, under any circumstances. 

It is inconsiderate to crowd the doors or vestibules of public assemblies, 
whether of worship or of pleasure ; they are for purposes of ingress or 
egress, and to stand in them, to lounge or gaze about, to the incommoding ot 
a dozen or more persons, within any five minutes, is not only impolite, but 
it is impertinent. 

It is inconsiderate in passing out of a public assembly to stop an instant 
for purposes of salutation or conversation, to the detention of a dozen, or a 
hundred, or a thousand who are behind you. 

It is inconsiderate to keep a caller waiting in a cold or dark or cheerless 
parlor for two, ten, or twenty minutes, to his risk of health or loss of time, 
merely for the purpose of showing a style of dress or personal adornment 
not habitual, or of making an impression of some kind foreign to the facts 
of the case. 

It is inconsiderate to take a medicine, simply because it had cured some 
one else who had an ailment similar to your own. Of two donkeys on the 
verge of utter exhaustion and prostration, the one laden with salt was greatly 
refreshed, and had his burden largely lightened by swimming a river ; the 
other with a sack of wool by the same operation doubled the weight of his 
load, and perished. 



36 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 2. 



SUMMER SOURS 



PnxsiOLOGiCAi. research has fully established the fact tbat acids promote the separation of 
the bile from the blood, which is then passed from the system, thus preventing fevers, the pre- 
vailing diseases of summer. All fevers are "bilious," that is, the bile is in the blood. Whatever 
is antagonistic of fever is cooling. It is a common saying that fruits are " cooling,* 1 and also 
berries of every description ; it is because the acidity which they contain aids in separating the 
bile from the blood, that is, aids in purifying the blood. Hence the great yearning fur greens 
and lettuce and salads in the early spring, tbei-e being eaten with vinegar; hence also the taste for 
something sour, for lemonades, on an attack of fever. 

But this being the case, it is easy to see, that we nullify the good effects of fruits and berries, 
in proportion as we eat them with sugar, or even sweet milk or cream. If we eat them in their 
natural state, fresh, ripe, perfect, it is almost impossible to eat too many, to eat enough to hurt 
us, especially if we eat them alone, not taking any liquid with them whatever. Hence also is 
buttermilk, or even common sour milk promotive of health in summer time. Sweet milk tends 
to biliousness in sedentary people ; sour milk is antagonistic. The Greeks and Turks are passion, 
ately ft >nd of sour milk. The shepherds use rennet, and the milk-dealers alum to make it sour 
the sooner. Buttermilk acts like watermelons on the system. 



THE DIFFERENCE. 

When a simpleton wants to get well, he buys something " to take ;" a philosopher gets some- 
thing "to do; 1 ' and it is owing to the circumstance, that the latter has been in a minority almost 
undistinguishable in all nations and ages, tbat doctors are princes, instead of paupers ; live like 
gentlemen, instead of cracking rocks for the turnpike. 



POISONOUS BITES. 

During the increased travel of summer, the bites from insects and reptiles of various kinds 
are of frequent occurrence. Persons of healthful blood are bitten with impunity sometimes, 
while those in feeble health suffer distressing, and sometimes fatal, consequences. 

Almost all poisonous bites arise from the acidity of the virus; it then follows that an alkali is 
the best antidote, because an alkali and an acid are as much opposed to each other as light and 
darkness, as sweet and sour, i^id as expedition is sometimes the life of a man, it is of consider- 
able practical importance to know what is the most universally available remedy. A handful of 
the fresh ashes of wood is the most generally accessible ; pour on enough water, hot is bes-t, to 
cover it, stir it quickly, and either apply the fluid part, that is the ley, with a rag or sponge, or 
have lees water, and apply a poultice made of simple water and fresh wood-ashes. Eenew the 
poultice every half-hour until the hurting is entirely removed. As to minor insects, the relief 
is almost instantaneous. The next most convenient remedy is common spirits of hartshorn, a 
small vial of which should be in every family, and in every traveller's trunk or carpet-bag, in 
summer-time at least. Saleratus, dampened and applied to the wound or stung place, is not as 
powerful as hartshorn. It failed recently to cure the sting of a bee, the gentleman dying in con- 
vulsions within an hour after he was stung; this arose from some peculiarity of constitution, an 
" Idiosyncracy," as physicians term it. 



37 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 3. 



HOW TO CURE A COLD 



The moment a man is satisfied he has taken cold, let him do three things 

First, eat nothing ; second, go to bed, cover up warm in a warm room ; 
third, drink as much cold water as he can, or as he wants, or as much 
hot herb-tea as he can ; and in three cases out of four he will be almost 
well in thirty-six hours. 

If he does nothing for his cold for forty- eight hours after the cough com- 
mences, there is nothing that he can swallow that will, by any possibility, 
arrest the cold, for, with such a start, it will run its course of about a fort- 
night in spite of all that can be done, and what is swallowed in the mean 
time in the way of food, is a hindrance and not good. 

"Feed a cold and starve a fever" is a mischievous fallacy. A cold always 
brings a fever ; the cold never beginning to get well until the fever subsides ; 
but every mouthful swallowed is that much to feed the fever; and but for 
the fact that as soon as a cold is fairly started, nature, in a kind of despera- 
tion, steps in and takes away the appetite, the commonest cold would be 
followed by very serious results, and in frail people would be always fatal. 

These things being so, the very fact of waiting forty-eight hours gives 
time for the cold to fix itself in the system ; for a cold does not usually 
cause cough until a day or two has passed, and then waiting two days 
longer gives it the fullest chance to do its work before any thing at all is 
done. 

Intelligent druggists know that all medicines sold for coughs, colds, con- 
sumption, and tickling in the throat, contain opium in some form or other. 
They repress the cough but do not eradicate it ; hence the first purchase 
paves the way for a second or a third ; meanwhile, as it is the essential 
nature of opium to close up, to constringe, to deaden the sensibilities, the 
bowels do not feel the presence of their contents calling for a discharge, and 
constipation is induced and becomes the immediate cause of three fourths 
of all ordinary ailments, such as headache, neuralgia, dyspepsia, and piles. 

Warmth and abstinence are safe and certain cures when applied early. 
Warmth keeps the pores of the skin open, and relieves it of the surplus 
which oppresses it ; while abstinence cuts off the supply of material for 
phlegm, which would otherwise have to be coughed up. 



38 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 4. 



NINE NEVERS. 



Nevee write a letter or a line in a passion. 
Never spit or blow your nose on the sidewalk. 

Never find a fault until you are as sore as you are of your existence that a fault has been com- 
mitted. 

Never say what you would do under any given circumstances. 

Never disparage another by name in a letter. 

Never get in a rage. 

Never utter a syllable in a passion. 

Never refuse to pay a debt when you have the money in your pocket 

Never take physic until you have tried patience. 



CAUSES OF DISEASE. 

The complaints of people are in a measure innumerable ; every now and then a peculiarity of 
ailment is presented which is not recorded in any book extant; just as new questions of law «»re 
constantly arising. But while tlie effects of disease are so numerous, the causes of them may bo 
reduced down so low as to be all told in the number five: 

First— Poisons. 

Second — Improper eating. 

Third— Yariations of atmosphere. 

Fourth— Occupations. 

Fifth — Hereditary tendencies ; which last, indeed, is a modification of the first. 

Of the four, by far the most frequent causes of disease are found in the food we eat, and in 
the air we breathe, the rectification of both of which is within our own power; requiring only a 
moderate amount of intelligence, but a large share of moral power, that is, a resolute self- 
denial. It thus follows, that death, short of old age, ischargea le to man himself; that in an im- 
portant sense, the great mass of those who die short of threescore years and ten, are the authors 
of their own destruction. And each should inquire, " To what extent am I chargeable with my 
own ailments?" 



BURYING ALIVE. 

" Tis well," were the last recorded words of the great Washington, uttered in reference to 
his burial. 

" Do not let my body be put into the vault in less than three days after I am dead," and, 
looking earnestly into his secretary's face, he continued, " Do you understand me ?" "Yes," said 
Mr. Lear. " 'Tis well," replied Washington, and spoke no more. 

The great Dr. Physic left an injunction that a blood-vessel should be severed before he was 
buried, in order to make it certain that he was dead. 

The marvellous stories put in circulation by the credulous, in reference to the turning of 
bodies, and the tearing of the grave-clothes in the fearful struggle for breath, are without any 
rational foundation. If a hot iron raises no blister on the skin, or if a severed artery does not 
bleed-, there can be no reasonable ground for doubting that death has taken place. These tests 
should be applied not sooner than eight or ten hours after the apparent decease. 



39 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 5. 



CARE FOR THE EYES 



Peescott, the historian, in consequence of a disorder of the nerve of the eye, 
wrote every word of his " Historicah" without pen or ink, as he could not see 
when the pen was out of ink, or from any other cause failed to make a mark. He 
used an agate stylus on carbonated paper, the lines and edges of the paper being 
indicated by brass wires in a wooden frame. 

Crawford, the sculptor, the habit of whose life had been to read in a reclining 
position, lost one eye, and soon died from the formation of a malignant cancerous 
tumor behind the ball, which pushed it out on the cheek. 

There are many affections of the eyes which are radically incurable. Persons 
of scrofulous constitutions, without any special local manifestation of it, often 
determine the disease to the eye by some erroneous habit or practice, and it 
remains there for life. It is useful, therefore, to know some of the causes which, 
by debilitating the eye, invite disease to it, or render it incapable of resisting 
adverse influences. 

Avoid reading by candle or any other artificial light. 

Reading by twilight ought never to be indulged in. A safe rule is — never read 
after sun-down, or before sun-rise. 

Do not allow yourself to read a moment in any reclining position, whether in 
bed or on a sofa. 

The practice of reading while on horseback, or in any vehicle in motion by 
wheels, is most pernicious. 

Reading on steam or sail-vessels should not be largely indulged in, because the 
slightest motion of the page or your body alters the focal point, and requires a 
painful straining effort to readjust it. 

Never attempt to look at the sun while shining unless through a colored glass of 
some kind : even a very bright moon should not be long gazed at. 

The glare of the sun on water is very injurious to the sight. 

A sudden change between bright light and darkness is always pernicious. 

In looking at minute objects, relieve the eyes frequently by turning them to 
something in the distance. 

Let the light, whether natural or artificial, fall on the page from behind, a little 
to one side. 

Every parent should peremptorily forbid all sewing by candle or gas-light, espe- 
cially of dark materials. 

If the eyes are matted together after sleeping, the most instantaneous and 
agreeable solvent in nature is the application of the saliva with the finger before 
opening the eye. Never pick it off with the finger nail, but wash it off with the 
ball of the fingers in quite warm water. 

Never bathe or open the eyes in cold water. It is always safest, best, and most 
agreeable, to use warm water for that purpose over seventy degrees. 



40 
. HEALTH TRACT, No. 6. 



Hints for the Travelling Season. 



At this season many persons contemplate travelling ; to do so with the largest 
amount of comfort and advantage, physical, social, and mental, the following sug- 
gestions are made : 

Take one fourth more money than your actual estimated expenses. 

Acquaint yourself with the geography of the route and region of travel. 

Have a good supply of small change, and have no bill or piece higher than ten 
dollars, that you may not take counterfeit change. 

So arrange as to have but a single article of luggage to look after. 

Dress substantially ; better to be too hot for two or three hours at noon, than 
to be too cool for the remainder of the twenty-four. 

Arrange, under all circumstances, to be at the place of starting fifteen or twenty 
minutes before the time, thus allowing for unavoidable or unanticipated detention 
on the way. 

Do not commence a day's travel before breakfast, even if that has to be eaten 
at daylight. Dinner or supper, or both can be more healthfully dispensed with, 
than a good warm breakfast. 

Put your purse and watch in your vest-pocket, and all under your pillow, and 
you will not be likely to leave either. 

The most if not secure fastening of your chamber-door is a common bolt on the 
inside ; if there is none, lock the door, turn the key so that it can be drawn partly 
out, and put the wash-basin under it; thus, any attempt to use a jimmy or put in 
another key, will push it out, and cause a racket among the crockery, which will 
be pretty certain to rouse the sleeper and rout the robber. 

A sixpenny sandwich eaten leisurely in the cars, is better for you than a dollar 
dinner bolted at a " station." 

Take with you a month's supply of patience, and always think thirteen times 
before you reply once to any supposed rudeness or insult, or inattention. 

Do not suppose yourself specially and designedly neglected, if waiters at hotels 
do not bring what you call for in double quick time ; nothing so distinctly marks 
the well bred man as a quiet waiting on such occasions ; passion proves the puppy. 

Do not allow yourself to converse in a tone loud enough to be heard by a 
person two or three seats from you ; it is the mark of a boor if in a man, and of 
want of refinement and lady-like delicacy, if in a woman. A gentleman is not 
noisy ; ladies are serene. 

Comply cheerfully and gracefully with the customs of the conveyances in which 
you travel, and of the places where you stop. 

Respect yourself by exhibiting the manners of a gentleman and a lady, if you 
wish to be treated as such, and then you will receive the respect of others. 

Travel is a great leveller ; take the position which others assign you from your 
conduct rather than from your pretensions. 



41 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 7. 



MUSIC IHIIE.A.X.TIHCIFTTIIL. 



Music,' like painting and statuary, refines, and elevates, and 
ennobles. Song is the language of gladness, and it is the utter- 
ance of devotion. But coming lower down, it is physically bene- 
ficial ; it rouses the circulation, wakes up the bodily energies, and 
diffuses life and animation around. Does a lazy man ever sing ? 
Does a milk-and-water character ever strike a stirring note? 
Never. Song is the outlet of mental and physical activity, and 
increases both by its exercise. No child has completed a religious 
education who has not been taught to' sing the songs of Zion. No 
part of our religious worship is sweeter than this. In David's 
day it was a practice and a study. 



YOUNG- OLD PEOPLE. 

Some look old at less than forty ; others beyond threescore have 
the vivacity, the sprightliness, and the spring of youth. One of 
the most active politicians of the times is now in his seventy-fifth 
year, and yet goes by the name of " the ever youthful Palmer- 
ston," and with the weight of nations on his shoulders, will 
find time to take a rapid ride on horseback daily, from ten to 
twenty miles. " The heavy cares and severe labors of the Earl 
of Malmesbury average eleven hours a day," and yet at the age 
of " fifty years, he is scarcely above forty in appearance." It is 
by no means an uncommon thing to read the deaths of men and 
women of the English nobility at eighty and ninety years, to be 
accounted for in part by their taking time to do things, and 
thereby doubling the time for doing them. The British are a 
dignified people, manly, mature ; a deliberative people, with the 
result of being as a nation, the most solid, the most substantial, 
and the greatest on the globe. They are worthy of that great- 
ness, and we above all the peoples should be proud of it. 
Americans, on the other hand, are a hasty race; their habitual 
hurries and anxieties eat out the very essence of life before half 
that life is done, and all bloodless, fidgety, skinny, and thin, we 
are but " a vapor that appeareth for a little time, and then 
vanisheth away.'' 



42 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 8. 



DYSPEPSIA AND DRUNKENNESS. 



A drunkaed is never so great a fool as to kill himself; the 
dyspeptic is. 

More persons are destroyed by eating too much, than by drink- 
ing too much. Gluttony kills more than drunkenness in civilized 
society. 

The dyspeptic kills himself; the drunkard kills others. 

The dyspeptic takes his own life under the influence of mental 
depression ; the drunkard kills others under the influence of 
mental excitement. But, although both are unlike unconscious 
at the time of what they are doing — one slaying himself, the 
other slaying his fellow-man — the suicide has the sympathies of 
society, and finds among it many apologists ; while towards the 
drunken murderer of another the feeling is one of vindictive 
impatience for the gallows to do its duty. 

Both the drunkard and the dyspeptic are unconscious of crime 
at the instant of its perpetration. Both states are brought on by 
over-indulgence of the appetite ; the one for food, the other for 
drink ; and both end in shedding blood. 

The dyspeptic lays his plans for self-murder with deliberation ; 
the drunkard murders another in the surprise of ungovernable 
passion ; and, if deliberation darkens the deed, then is the drunk- 
ard the less criminal of the two. 

If the drunkard is murderously inclined, it is only for a brief 
hour, while the fit is upon him, and he need be watched only for 
that time. But the dyspeptic, who is set on his own heart's 
blood, must be watched sedulously for days and months, or, the 
first moment that the eye is off his movements, he improves to 
his ruin. 

Few palliate the drunkard's deed, while the dyspeptic meets 
with universal sympathy. Should this be so ? What is the 
ground for this partiality ? Surely all are called upon to mature 
this subject and to inquire, with a feeling of considerable personal 
responsibility, if, in the matter of eating, there is a daily watch 
against excesses, which so often end in that worst of all crimes, 
(because done with deliberation, and is not repented of,) self- 
murder ! 



43 

HEALTH TRACT, NO. 9. 



USES OF ICE. 



In health no one ought to drink ice-water, for it has occasioned fatal 
inflammations of the stomach and bowels, and sometimes sudden death. 
The temptation to drink it is very great in summer ; to use it at all with 
any safety the person should take but a single swallow at a time, take the 
glass from the lips for half a minute, and then another swallow, and so on. 
It will be found that in this way it becomes disagreeable after a few 
mouthfuls. 

On the other hand, ice itself may be taken as freely as possible, not only 
without injury, but with the most striking advantage in dangerous forms of 
disease. If broken in sizes of a pea or bean, and swallowed as freely as 
practicable, without much chewing or crushing between the teeth, it will 
often be efficient in checking various kinds of diarrhoea, and has cured 
violent cases of Asiatic cholera. 

A kind of cushion of powdered ice kept to the entire scalp, has allayed 
violent inflammations of the brain, and arrested fearful convulsions induced 
by too much blood there. 

In croup, water, as cold as ice can make it, applied freely to the throat, 
neck, and chest, with a sponge or cloth, very often affords an almost miracu- 
lous relief, and if this be followed by drinking copiously of the same ice- 
cold element, the wetted parts wiped dry, and the child be wrapped up well 
in the bed-clothes, it falls into a delightful and life-giving slumber. 

All inflammations, internal or external, are promptly subdued by the 
application of ice or ice-water, because it is converted into steam and 
rapidly conveys away the extra heat, and also diminishes the quantity of 
Dlood in the vessels of the part. 

A piece of ice laid on the wrist will often arrest violent bleeding of the 
nose. 

To drink any ice-cold liquid at meals retards digestion, chills the body, 
and has been known to induce the most dangerous internal congestions. 

Refrigerators, constructed on the plan of Bartlett's, are as philosophical as 
they are healthful, for the ice does not come in contact with the water or 
other contents, yet keeps them all nearly ice cold. 

If ice is put in milk or on butter, and these are not used at the time, they 
lose their freshness and become sour and stale, for the essential nature of 
both is changed, when once frozen and then thawed. 



44 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 10. 



RULES FOR WINTEE 



Never go to bed with cold or damp feet. 

In going into a colder air, keep the mouth resolutely closed, that by 
compelling the air to pass circuitously through the nose and head, it may 
become warmed before it reaches the lungs, and thus prevent those shocks 
and sudden chills which frequently end in pleurisy, pneumonia, and other 
serious forms of disease. 

Never sleep with the head in the draft of an open door or window. 

Let more cover be on the lower limbs than on the body. Have an extra 
covering within easy reach in case of a sudden and great change of weather 
during the night. 

Never stand still a moment out of doors, especially at street-corners, after 
having walked even a short distance. 

Never ride near the open window of a vehicle for a single half-minute, 
especially if it has been preceded by a walk ; valuable lives have thus been 
lost, or good health permanently destroyed. 

Never put on a new boot or shoe in beginning a journey. 

Never wear India-rubber in cold, dry weather. 

If compelled to face a bitter cold wind, throw a silk handkerchief over 
the face ; its agency is wonderful in modifying the cold. 

Those who are easily chilled on going out of doors, should have some 
cotton batten attached to the vest or other garment, so as to protect the 
space between the shoulder-blades behind, the lungs being attached to the 
body at that point ; a little there is worth five times the amount over the 
chest in front. 

Never sit for more than five minutes at a time with the.back against the 
fire or stove. 

Avoid sitting against cushions in the backs of pews in churches ; if the 
uncovered board feels cold, sit erect without touching it. 

Never begin a journey until breakfast has been eaten. 

After speaking, singing, or preaching in a warm room in winter, do not 
leave it for at least ten minutes, and even then close the mouth, put on the 
gloves, wrap up the neck, and put on cloak or overcoat before passing out 
of the door ; the neglect of these has laid many a good and useful man in 
a premature grave. 

Never speak under a hoarseness, especially if it requires an effort, or 
gives a hurting or a painful feeling, for it often results in permanent loss of 
voice, a life-long invalidism. 



^^ ^^r^^r ^^ "%^ ' 




^^; ^^r ^^ ^ ./^ 



5 



) 



( 



"If you wish to be aided in securing this 
habitual carriage of body, accustom yourself, 
while walking, to carry the hands behind you, 
one grasping the opposite wrist. Englishmen 
are admired the world over for their full chests, 
and broad shoulders, and sturdy frames, and 
manly bearing. This position of body is a fa- 
vorite with them, in the simple promenade, in 
the garden or gallery, in attending ladies along 
a crowded street, in standing on the street, or 
in places of public worship. 

" Our young men seem to be in elysium 
when they can walk arm-in-arm with their di- 
vinities. Now, young gentlemen, you will be hooked on quite soon 
enough, without anticipating your captivity. While you are free, 
walk right in all ways ; and when you are able, get a manly carriage ; 
take our word for it, that it is the best way in the world to secure the 
affectionate respect of the woman you marry. Did you ever know any 
girl worth having, who could or would wed a man, who mopes about 
with his eyes on the ground, making of his whole body the segment 
of a circle bent the wrong way 1 Assuredly, a woman of strong 
points, of striking characteristics, admires, beyond a handsome face, 
the whole carriage of a man. Erectness, being the representative of 
courage and daring, is that which makes a ' man of presence' in the 
hour of impending danger or peril." 

"Walking or Sleeping, with the Mouth open. 

" There is one rule which should be strictly observed by all in taking 
exercise by walking — as the very best form in which it can be taken 
by both the young and the able-bodied of all ages — and that is, never 
to allow the action of respiration or breathing to be carried on through 
the mouth. The nasal passages are clearly the medium through which 
respiration was, by our Creator, designed to be carried on. " God 
breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life," previous to his becom- 
ing a living creature. 

" The difference in the exhaustion of strength by a long walk with 
the mouth firmly and resolutely closed, and respiration carried on 
through the nostrils instead of through the mouth, can not be conceived 
as possible by those who have never tried the experiment. Indeed, 
this mischievous and really unnatural habit of carrying on the work 
of inspiration and expiration through the mouth, instead of through 
the nasal passages, is the true origin of almost all diseases of the throat 
and lungs, bronchitis, congestion, asthma, and even consumption itself. 

"That excessive perspiration to which some individuals are so liable 
in their sleep, and which is so weakening to the body, is solely the ef- 
fect of such persons sleeping with their mouths unclosed. And the 
same exhaustive results arise to the animal system from walking with 
the mouth open, instead of — when not engaged in conversation — pre- 
serving the lips in a state of firm but quiet compression. Children 
should never be allowed to sleep, stand, or walk, with their mouths 
open; for, besides the vacant appearance it gives to the countenance, it 
aids in producing coughs, colds, and sore throats. 



48 

PUBLICATIONS OF DR. W. W. HALL, 



HEALTH AND DISEASE; 

Showing how health may be preserved, and how many serious ailments may be 
safely and permanently cured, without risk or expense, by a proper use of food, 
warmth, air, exercise, and rest. 

The nature, causes, and cure, without medicine, of Constipation, Neuralgia, Sick 
Headache, Dyspepsia, and similar Maladies. 

The Management of the Voice. 

The Cure of Cold Feet. 

The Remedy for Unsatisfying Sleep. 

The Prevention of Colds. 

298 pages, 12rao. Third Edition. $1. 

BRONCHITIS AND KINDRED DISEASES. 

Ninth Edition. 12mo. pages. $1. 

What is Bronchitis ? Its Nature and Causes. How to distinguish it from Con- 
sumption, Throat- Ail, or Chronic Laryngitis. How to distinguish it from Bronchitis ; 
its Causes, its Prevention, and its Remedies. The value of Topical Application, 
Nitrate of Silver, etc., considered. 

CONSUMPTION. 

Second Edition. 12mo. 290 pages. $1. 

The Nature of Consumption. 

It very first infallible Symptoms. 

The Rules by which to distinguish it from all other Diseases of the Throat and 
Lungs. 

The importance of the very earliest attention to its first faint beginnings. 

The certainty with which it can then be averted. 

The rarity of cure when the Lungs have once begun to give way. It never ad- 
vises a dose of medicine. 

The remarkable efficacy of out-door activities, without any medicine whatever, 
in all stages of the disease, illustrated by striking cases in the practice of eminent 
physicians in different parts of the country. 

The worthlessness of the Nitrate of Silver, of Medicated Inhalations, and various 
other remedies. 

That without pure air, substantial food, and moderate but long-continued exer- 
cise, daily, no medicine yet known has any reliable value. 

HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. $1 a year; single numbers ten 
cents. Address the Editor, Dr. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New-York. 

THE FIRESIDE MONTHLY, edited by Dr. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving 
Place, New-York, $1.50 a year, single numbers twelve cents, is devoted to 

SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND PRACTICAL LIFE. 

It excludes fiction, and although not intended to be a religious publication, it 
will always be on the side of 

THE BIBLE, THE SABBATH, AND EVANGELICAL CHRISTIANITY. 

It is designed to supply a safe, wholesome, and instructive reading for every 
family, and as such is commended to the patronage of the young, and of every 
thoughtful parent. 

TJie Fireside Monthly and HaWs Journal of Health will be sent to the same sub- 
scriber for two dollars a year. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WB AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] MARCH, 1860. [No. 3. 



THE LOSS. 

Who knows what a single hour may bring forth ? of disap- 
pointment, vexation, sorrow, sickness, death, of sweetheart or pet 
puppy ! One short hour ago, we toddled off to the printer's with 
the copy for the Journal of Health for March in the pocket, 
and when nearly there, it was not in the pocket. And what does 
the reader suppose was the first emotion ? It was, that it was pro- 
vidential ; that most likely there were things in it which ought 
not to have been printed ; and next, that we would return forth- 
with and make a better number. As for spending time in re- 
gretting any past mishap, it is sheer folly ; it can do no good, 
and always does harm : for oftentimes the energy spent in vain 
regrets, or vexatious moodiness, would more than repair all the 
damages. 

It was said of a great man that he had been engaged seven 
years in preparing a book for the press, and just as he had con- 
cluded the tedious task he left his study, to return in a few 
moments and find the manuscript burned to ashes ; the light 
having been turned over by a favorite little dog. His only ex- 
clamation was, " O Diamond ! little dost thou know the injury 
thou hast done !" and at once sat clown to repair the loss. 

Many a man would have kicked the poor little puppy out of 
doors, or hung him up instanter. But where would have been 
the philosophy of the thing? Pup "didn't go to do it!" and 
besides, his death would not have remedied the mischief. 

A month ago we were at the Knickerbocker office. The dis- 
covery had just been made that the Magazine, the old-time 
favorite of its many thousand readers, and now the greater 

no. in.— vol. vil— 1860. 



50 

favorite, by reason of the life, energy, and force which the 
untiring industry and energy Dr. Noyes has thrown into it, had 
a dozen pages or more of some other publication bound in among 
its leaves. Here was a predicament indeed. It was the day 
of publication. To serve it out in that plight, would have dis- 
graced the whole establishment. We said to the secretary, who 
was looking at the mischief with a pretty long face : " Didn't 
you get mad when you found it out ?" 

" Get mad ! and then feel mean about it I" 

Which one of our readers can lay his hand on his heart, and 
say that he has not, many a time and oft, got mad at some unim- 
portant thing, and talked and blamed and scolded for " ever so 
long," and, when the fume and froth and fury were all gone, 
felt as if it would have been the most delightful retreat in the 
world to have crept into an auger-hole ; felt so particularly 
mean that he could not, by any possibility, have raised courage 
enough to look a man in the face ? 

The times are numberless at which we have seen travelers, 
at home and abroad, on land and sea, suffering the most pitiful 
mortification in consequence of some out-burst of passion. Let 
the reader feel assured it pays well under all great emotions to 
say not a word. It saves conscience, saves dignity, saves self- 
respect. "Get mad! and then feel mean about it!" Thank 
you, Mr. Green, for the embodiment of an idea of such practical 
every- day value, and that too in brave old Saxon monosyllables : 

" GET MAD ! AND THEN FEEL MEAN ABOUT IT !" 



THE VICTIM. 



We have no time to study what subjects we shall treat of 
under the circumstances related on our first page, and as to 
remembering what we had written, that would be an impossi- 
bility. In five minutes the words of the pen are gone from the 
memory, utterly bej^ond reach. 

But she was just eighteen, the only child of a retired merchant. 
Never was there a more indulgent father, never a more doating 
mother. That father had spent thirty long years bending over 
his desk. How sedulously had he made every entry ! How late 



THE VICTIM. 51 

in the night of every day was it that he found himself running 
over his "blotter" to see if he had forgotten an item ! How to 
the latest verge of conscience had he gone every Saturday night 
over the balance-sheets ! How through wind and rain and storm 
and snow he had regularly "gone on" to purchase goods twice a 
year? How many heart-aches he had endured in that "age" 
of business, in the failure of customers to "pay up ;" in their 
questioning the correctness of some of the entries ; in listening 
to interminable excuses for want of promptness. How often did 
it happen, when after having done all that he could possibly do, to 
" meet his own notes," the announcement was made just before 
the clock struck "three," that he must " take up" a customer's 
paper, on the faith of which he had obtained a "discount," or 
go to protest ? How many nights he had slept not a wink in 
the apprehension that he might not be able to meet the " calls" 
of the coming day ? How many times he had come home at 
night-fall more dead than alive, hungry, tired, dispirited, and 
sad, soliloquizing, " What's the use of all this ?" and yet, turn- 
ing his eye on his patient, quiet, beautiful wife, and the more 
beautiful blossom which nestled by her side, would find a new 
inspiration in the thought : It's not for me, it's for these ! 

How many times such things occurred in the course of that 
thirty years of mercantile life, none can say ; the number 
was doubtless large, very large. But the sun of prosperity 
shone in a cloudless sky. Money multiplied on itself ; and at 
the age of fifty-eight, he found himself a rich man, retired from 
business, the owner of a splendid mansion, the husband of as 
good a wife, the father of as sweet a child as any reasonable 
man could wish to have. On the second day of June, eighteen 
hundred and fifty-eight, we were consulted as to the health of 
that daughter. She was at school in a distant city. The " ex- 
amination" was coming on. She had maintained a high position 
in school. Hers was the glory of being at the " head of her 
class." Her ambition was to maintain that position to the end. 
On inquiry, it appeared that she was so much "interested in 
her studies" that she would not give any time to recreation. 
She would even take her food in her hands, hurry off to school, 
eating and studying on the way. The moment she returned 
from school, her face was buried in her books ; and thus it had 
been for weeks, months, may be years. Great nature never 



52 

allows an outrage against herself to be committed with impunity : 
neither youth nor beauty nor position nor gold ever bribed her ; 
her laws are as immutable as adamant. The danger appeared 
imminent. It was counseled to abandon school. But as this 
was not assented to, we declined special advice. It was inti- 
mated that when the examination was over, (and it would only 
be a few weeks,) she could give full attention to herself. Not 
having seen her, we hoped that our fears were exaggerated. 
Still we felt as if every book had better be thrown in the fire ; 
that not one single day should be allowed to be passed in a 
school-room, not an hour in study ; that every moment in the 
beauteous out-doors was a treasure to her, and that the early 
morning and the later evening should find her in the saddle, 
scouring the hills of her own beautiful New-England. Only a 
few weeks ! Why, it seemed to us, in its necessities, to be a 
million years' duration — in fact, an interminable time, irre- 
deemable ! 

But she was anxious to graduate with honor. Parental kind- 
ness overreached itself. Moral firmness was wanting. And 
the school kept on. She graduated with great honor, and in 
the following June she died. The desolation of that household 
was immeasurable. " I see my error now," said the stricken 
father. 

How many of our readers will take warning from this unvar- 
nished narration of facts, and look with horror on those murderous 
stimulations of pride and ambition which are practised at almost 
all our schools ? Practised always, to show off the teachers, 
without ever bringing one single benefit to the child. The 
price we pay for the education of our sons and daughters is, in 
ten thousand instances, the price of blood, paid for by the blast- 
ing of the hopes of a lifetime ; the penalty, an age of desolation, 
a going down to the grave in an awful loneliness, for it is not 
merely to be alone, but the being attended with a remorse which 
death only can wipe out. 

The victims to ill-advised applications at school and academy 
and college and seminary are numberless. Not, indeed, the 
applications themselves, but the injudicious habits, and modes 
of life in connection with them. 

We are all too much in a hurry to have our children gradu- 
ate ; to hasten their studies ; to expedite their entrance on pro- 



UNITARIANISM. 53 

fessional life, with the result of an utter failure ; or if the 
professional goal is reached, let the experience of the myriads 
of sufferers from various forms of disease testify, which torture 
the body and harrass the mind for the remainder of life, making 
it a martyrdom instead of a glory a gladness and an enduring 



UNITARIANISM. 



Do not be alarmed, reader ! We are a doctor of physic, not 
of polemic theology. Besides, we don't believe in blazing away 
at the religious beliefs of any body, for who, worth converting, 
was ever converted by a doctrinal dispute ? Our general ob- 
servation is, that when a man leaves the church of his birth, and 
goes over to another, he either is not worth having, in a sense, 
or his new friends in course of time wish they had never seen 
or heard of him. To this there are exceptions. 

The busiest of created beings is the old fellow down yonder. 
Not exactly " down" either, we rather think that to say "in and 
about us" would be more literally correct. To head him off, 
Christian people must be wide awake, and must sleep, if at all, 
with one eye open. The necessity for this vigilant look-out, is 
especially great in cities, where the personage in question man- 
ages so generally to form an alliance, offensive and defensive, 
with the editorial fraternity. With the exception of such papers 
as the Courier and Inquirer and the Commercial Advertiser, and 
perhaps one or two others, no man can tell any morning that he 
shall not sit down to his breakfast with an outraged moral or 
religious sentiment. 

What a poor, unfortunate, commiserable individual is an old 
"bach." You can tell him a mile off, more or less. There is a 
peculiarity in his physiognomy that is unmistakable. Eight 
nice old fellows some of them are, so friendly, so deferential to 
the ladies, willing to do almost any thing in the world for them 
"in reason!" One of them came navigating around to our 
office within a week. We had not seen him for years. He 
wanted a "boarding-place." He did not expect to live, merely 
to exist. He had been roughing it so long in the world, know- 
ing nothing of the softening influences of wife, children, and 
home, he seemed to have no ambition, no anticipation of any 



54 

thing softer than a board, hence he wanted our advice as to an 
eligible " boarding" place. 

Now for the connection between the old boy, New- York edi- 
tors, and this old "bach." The party first above named, as we 
said, is always very busy in "farthering his views," and being 
up to the ways of the world, he obtains the " assistance" of those 
who are most "handy" in aiding and abetting as to matters in 
hand. Thus he secures the editors first. So he procured sev- 
eral of them to advocate "Unitarianism," which they have done 
from time to time within a few months past, rather gingerly at 
first, so as to feel the public pulse, to break the ice like, throw- 
ing in an objurgatory now and then, so as not to excite special 
alarm all at once. One of these papers had gained our confi- 
dence somewhat, and through its representation we concluded 
to try Unitarianism the first convenient opportunity, which was 
"embraced" the moment the old "bach" gave out his idea. 
" Try the Unitarian plan awhile," said we. 

"Unitarian! botheration on any thing unitarian. I hate 
every thing that has a unit about it. I have been a unit all my 
life, and I am becoming uniter every day. ' Friend after friend 
departs,' he and she, even now, I know almost nobody and 
nobody knows me, and very soon there will not be an eye to 
weep or a heart to sorrow, when this bag of bones is huddled 
into its last resting-place." 

We saw that he was touchy, excitable, and fidgety, and at 
once put out a mollifying aura, and explained, that there were 
"unitary households" in New-York, where there were reported 
to be excellent rooms, accommodations, and company, at liter- 
ally " cost" prices. This pleased him much, and he started out 
on a voyage of discovery. Now, our friend was an exemplary 
bachelor, a man of honor, of uprightness and morality. Meet- 
ing him on the street, a few days later, we inquired " what pro- 
gress ?" 

" All very fine. Large house. Prices satisfactory. Splen- 
did parlors, faultless mirrors, curtains of the richest kind, and 
carpets of the orient, 

"Soft as downy pillows are." 

"Are you beatifically ensconced therein ? Are you delight- 
fully domiciled in such an elysium?" 



UNITAEIANISM. 55 

' : My dear Doctor, not a bit of it. I'm not quite green enough 
for that." 

" What's the matter?" 

;: I don't like the principles of the place." 

" Principles ? Why they hav'nt got but one. One principle 
and one inference. They believe that 'cost' should be the 
'limit of price,' and therefore, the millennium is at hand, as 
heretofore every thing has ' cost more than it came to,' hence all 
the hard times and misery in the world." 

" Now, Doctor ! you have known me at home and abroad, for 
very near a quarter of a century. We have slept under the 
same tree. We have bedded together on the same blanket on 
the boundless prairie, in forests untrodden by white man's foot 
before. We have watched at midnight against the common 
enemy on the same shipwrecked shore. We have divided to- 
gether the last half-pint of water, and through it all, you have 
found me a man, and woman's best friend. The principal said 
to me : Our ' society' is unexceptionable. We estimate people 
from what we see. It is not our business to inquire if any wo- 
man is wife, maid, or widow. And now, Doctor, not to misre- 
present, for I would not do a solitary human soul the smallest 
mite of harm, so I will not pretend to repeat the precise words, 
for my memory is poor, and I may not have heard very well, or 
the gentleman may have expressed himself imperfectly or awk- 
wardly ; all I can say is, that the impression made upon my mind, 
from what I thought I heard him say was, that he never in- 
quired of ladies coming there whether they were maid, wife, or 
widow, and when they went away, they were all the same. 
Now Doctor, the good book says of the old, that ' fears are in 
the way.' I am getting old, and hence must be getting fearful. 
There is so much iniquity in this world, that I have become a 
boy again, and think there is, or may be, a bug-a-boo behind 
every stump ; and may be, my inferences were illegitimate, de- 
riving their impression from the auras of the homoeopathic prin- 
ciples and entities about me. I am dull too. The brightness 
of youth is past. My perspicacity is more or less obtunded. 
The problem is beyond my solution. I believe I will stop in at 
Prof. Mitchell's on Union Square, only a block away. I under- 
stand he can solve problems a million, billion, quadrillions of 
miles away, and make them as plain as if you had them in your 



o6 HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

hand. The problem which I wanted him to resolve into its 
original elements, and to expound with that crystal clearness for 
which he is so famous, is simply this, If a lady becomes a Unita- 
rian, whether the blooming sweet 'queecher' of enrapturing sev- 
enteen, or the captivating widow of twenty-five, or of the angel 
wife, pure, loving, and true — I say, what I want to know is this, 
how they all come away the same when they get tired of the 
place. And if when they become the same, they naturally act 
like the people who hold the doctrine of falling from grace, they 
turn in and then turn out, and 'try the spirits,' first of one 
household and then another, getting to believe in the doctrine 
of Cowper, that 

' Variety 's the spice of life.' " 

We saw at once that our old-time friend was in a fog, just as 
dense as the one by reason of which our ship went to the bottom, 
leaving us " high and" — wet as drowned rats, to swim for shore 
or go right down to Davy Jones' locker. Once again we threw 
out the mollifying aura, quieted his nerves, and calmed his ap- 
prehensions, by saying he had .better take things by the smooth 
handle, and cultivate the amiable spirit of him who "thinketh 
no ill" of his neighbor, advising him as we parted on the side- 
walk, for we had been standing "stock still" on the same spot 
all this time, at the imminent risk of having our eyes gouged out 
by the expanded umbrellas of careless pedestrians, that it was 
an old-time policy of ours that the safest plan was the best plan 
in morals as well as in medicine ; and further, that it was a prime 
principle in " doctoring," which common-sense corroborated, that 
if a man was made sick by any particular thing once, he should 
simply avoid it ever after, and that although very few persons 
had sense enough to adopt that rule, we thought there would be 
no difficulty in his applying the principle of the thing to the 
case in hand, to wit : As it was perfectly certain that being a 
unit had injured him, he had better give all unities a wide berth 
for the remainder of his days. 

"Why Doctor ! you are eloquent in this drizzle; cold water 
don't squench your oratory. You have convinced me, sir. I 
will take you hereafter, not only as my doctor, but as my priest. 
I'll pin my faith to the very tipmost extremities of your trowser- 
loons. I despise unity in any shape, matter, or form ; it is my 
inmost antipathy. My stars ! what handsome young lady was 



PHYSIOLOGY. 57 

that who passed just now ? I'll step up and lend her my ' urn- 
brell.' Oh ! that's cousin Loo, she is over at the ' Everett,' the 
handsomest woman in New- York, a poetess too, rich, a wife and 
mother." His eyes fell, and he walked slowly and sadly away, 
muttering, "Every body double and happy but me," ending in 
a strain of song 

" I won't be an un." 

We heard no more. We are huge on being strictly literal, 
and suppose that if we had heard the remainder of the sentence 
it would have run thus : 

"I won't be an unitarian." 

Reader, may be he is, like you, wise too late I 



PHYSIOLOGY. 

Among the curses of modern times, greater than that of 
"the yellow-covered literature," or the infidel magazine, or the 
fiction-crowded monthly, are those innumerable little books, 
known usually by the heading of this article. They are written 
by unprincipled men or men so ignorant, that their impudence 
should be considered a crime. Their object is, by " illustra- 
tions," to induce a purchase, and then, by various means, to 
inflame the imagination and play upon the credulity of the 
reader first, and his fears next, so that by the time the end of 
the volume is reached, he is impressed with the profound 
knowledge of the writer, his undoubted skill, and the necessity 
of having the benefit of both speedily, and without regard to 
cost, to remedy existing imagined evils in his own case. 

We are in the very frequent receipt of letters from various 
institutions of learning, showing clearly that the writers have 
long been laboring under an agony of apprehension as to all 
sorts of possible ills, and three times out of four with the con- 
fession that they have paid their money, sometimes reaching 
hundreds of dollars without having received the desired benefit. 
Sometimes, more than that, very often their letters show an 
amount of mental disquietude to have existed for years, enough 
to have sent the writers to a lunatic asylum. Some of these 



58 

letters come from a class of persons which we do not choose to 
name, and whom we would suppose would be ashamed to be 
found reading a duodecimo on " Physiology." Parents owe it 
to themselves to prevent their children from owning such books. 
In fact, in times like these, when mental poisons are distributed 
from sources which hitherto were considered respectable, when 
it is rare to find a publishing-house which is proof enough 
against the temptation to turn a penny, to refuse to print an 
article or a book written by a selling name, even if it has a no 
very hidden squinting towards obscenity or infidelity, we say 
that in such times, it becomes judicious parents to let both sons 
and daughters know in plain terms that no book is to be pur- 
chased or read by them without its being first submitted to their 
inspection, and that no newspaper, or magazine, or other period- 
ical should be taken which was not uniformly on the side of the 
Bible, the Sabbath-day, and a sound morality. But the truth 
is that there is no magazine published in the United States, in 
our knowledge, which is suitable for common family reading of 
a practical, safe, and truthful character, unless they are so de- 
cidedly in the interests of a particular religious denomination as 
to disincline those not of that denomination to patronize it. 
The Fireside Monthly is such a periodical as one would 
think would have a wide circulation. It excludes fiction. It 
contains always plain, practical family articles, striking histories 
of the actual and true, articles suitable to the young and old ? 
short, pertinent, and pure. It is not in the interest of any reli- 
gious denomination, nor does it profess to be a religious publi- 
cation at all. It is devoted to u science, literature, and practi- 
cal life," but is by no possibility ever against the Bible, the 
Sabbath, the ministers of the Gospel, or an evangelical Christ- 
ianity. It is not only not unacceptable to any sect of Christ- 
ians, or party of politics, but can not fail to be read with 
interest and profit by any family, and yet nobody thinks of 
patronizing such a publication. At the age of six months it 
has not obtained a hundred subscribers. We make it pay, but 
no thanks to the public appreciation. We mention this as a 
striking indication of the taste of the times, of its vitiated cha- 
racter. The rage for pictures and fiction is such that publica- 
tions which abound in both, sell by scores of thousands every 
week. "These things are not mentioned with any expectation 



DEATH-BED REPENTANCE. 59 

tliat any special change will take place in consequence of it, 
but merely as an item of suggestive information to our habitual 
readers, and with the hope of impressing their minds with the 
practical fact that as the public taste is so generally vitiated as 
to the character of its reading, men without any high moral 
principle will fall in with the current, and will publish what- 
ever will pay, making it necessary for those parents who really 
love their children to exercise a strict supervision over all they 
read, and especially the books referred to. 

These books first acquaint the boy with the practices referred 
to, with the almost inevitable result of falling into them, or if 
they have been learned before, the fears of the reader are so 
worked upon that the most erroneous impressions are produced, 
impressions which lead to the injury, literally of "soul, body, 
and estate." If the mind is disturbed, do not apply to any 
"Association," to any man at a distance, but to a physician of 
respectability in your own town, and you will almost always 
find that your fears are almost if not wholly groundless. Where 
the trouble does exist, remember this plain fact, no medicine 
ever cured it. It may suppress for a time, to return inevitably. 
The only efficient remedy is in the right ordering of the habits 
of life and in the exercise of force of will. 



DEATH-BED REPENTANCE. 

An old negro was on his dying-bed. Some one had done 
him a great injury, the forgiveness of which his faithful minis- 
ter had labored hard to induce him to profess. At length, 
when just on the verge of the border-land, a strong last appeal 
was made : 

" Tom, won't you forgive him ?" 

" Well, Massa, if I'm going to die, I suppose I must ; but if 
I ever do get well, I'll give him another dig." 

Our own impression, from long and special observation, is, 
that death-bed repentances have no reliable value ; it is the re- 
pentance of desperation ; there is no alternative, but that of the 
preached perdition! the straw is eagerly clutched at spas- 
modically, and not with a clear, discriminating, and intelligent 



60 hall's journal of health. 

faith. The whole Bible gives but one saving case ; one, that 
none might despair ; only one, that none might presume ! 

Of all living men, the physician feels most deeply that a sick- 
bed is the unfittest of all places for that mental composure 
which must be essential to a proper attention to the "great 
concern." 

In this light, the parading of the professed contrition of crim- 
inals through the newspapers is most injudicious ; it is an un- 
mixed evil. Its tendency on the minds of the living, the des- 
perate especially, is pernicious. The soliloquy runs thus: "I 
knew him well. He was a scoundrel of the deepest dye, yet he 
died happy, and I can do the same thing — live a rascal and die 
a saint." Thus the fear of death and retribution is blunted, and 
the way paved for a greater abandonment to all wrong-doing. 
Hence the clergyman who steps in, and allows himself to be 
made a tool of in this regard, desecrates his holy office, and must 
be pitied for his ignorance or despised for his presumptuous im- 
pertinence. 

A most remarkable case of this kind has occurred within a 
few days. Two clergymen, whose names were unknown to 
fame before, and we do not propose by mentioning them, to illus- 
trate them into a greater obscurity, published in the daily pa- 
pers, under their own signature, that the man just hanged was in 
their opinion innocent of the crime charged against him, and 
that they believed he died a Christian. Such a declaration was 
equivalent to bringing the law into contempt, a thing which a 
good citizen will never do. It was calculated to foster a spirit 
of hatred on the part of the friends of the deceased, and very 
many others, against the sheriff, jury, judges, the Governor of 
the State, and against law itself, which is the shield of all good 
men, and, as Paul says, "The ordinance of God." 

This man was hanged for murdering his wife by administering 
poison, indicating the utmost deliberation — giving her poison 
while nursing her in her sickness ! she, in her weakness, and 
all confiding, receiving it in love, as a means of cure. It is diffi- 
cult to conceive of a more unpardonable crime. The poison was 
found in her stomach after death. The jury condemned him; 
the judge acquiesced in the wisdom of their decision. The case 
was tried a second, if not a third time, with the same result. It 
was then taken from court to court, with the same unvarying 



EXCITEMENT. 61 

verdict. The Governor of the State was appealed to in the last 
extremity, known of all, especially in the city of New-York, to 
be humane and generous beyond most men of his time ; but he 
is also known to be judicious and inflexibly just. He declined 
to interfere with the course of the law, because he saw not a sin- 
gle point which could justify him in the exercise of his authority 
— not coming to this conclusion until he had carefully examined 
the whole case, with the aid of his official counsellor. And yet, 
here are two men, with a presumption literally unparalleled, 
who come forward and give the public, who had never heard of 
them before, their opinion, that this man was judicially mur- 
dered, because — he said he was innocent ! when up to within 
forty-eight hours of his execution he had carried a revolver, 
either to shoot himself or the warden — fiercely denying, with 
pretended indignation, that he had a deadly weapon at all, 
which, however, he confessed he did have, when the officer took 
it out of his pocket ! " He said he was innocent !" as if a man 
who would poison his wife, and carry a revolver for weeks, 
seeking an opportunity to use it on the warden of the prison, 
when by it a chance of escape occurred, as if such a man's word 
was to be believed ! If clergymen begin to aid in bringing the 
law of the land into contempt in this and other ways, the sooner 
all good people abandon it, the better. For if the law does not 
reign supreme, crime, debauchery, unthrift, destitution, disease, 
and death will. If the watchmen sleep, who shall guard the 
shepherds ? 

EXCITEMENT. 

As a specimen of "the ways and means" for titillating the 
moral tastes of the people, we give a few of the fifty-four 
" Eeligious Notices" contained in the paper for Saturday, Feb. 
11th. At the "head of the heap" is : 

THE PURPLE AND FINE-LINEN GENTRY are not invited to Room No. 5, 
for they have received their consolation, (Luke 6 : 24 ;) neither are the swinish 
and doggish multitude, for we are commanded not to cast pearls before swine, nor 
to give things holy unto dogs, (Matt. 8:6;) nor are the Pharisees, lay and reverend, 
who outwardly appear to men to be righteous, (Matt. 23 : 28 ;) but we do invite, 
most cordially and respectfully, all honest and good-hearted sinners of all classes 
to meet us there at 10| A.M. every SUNDAY — all who desire to understand the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, which can alone make a man wise unto 
salvation, (1 Tim. 3 : 15, 17.) The seats all free, and the teaching without money 
or price, (Isa. 54 ; 1, 4.) 



62 hall's journal of health. 

No. 2 is, "Dr. Cahill vs. Protestantism." No. 3, "Absalom, 
the ' Fast Young Man.' " Then another gentleman with a 
double D and a D. Y., promises to prove that the " Eoman 
Catholics worship Saints, Angels, and Images." Another man 
asks, in large letters, "Are we to continue killing people accord- 
ing to law?" ending with a question in small letters : "Is uni- 
versal salvation possible ?" Next, "The messenger of the coming 
Saviour holds meetings" at, etc. Another, "The friends of 
religious liberty are invited to hear an exiled minister of Ken- 
tucky." Another " G-ent" " lectures" on " marriage." This is 
certain to draw the young folks who want to get married, and 
who would like to learn the best mode of doing it. But is this 
the way to " win souls" ? The Keverend Mistress Blackwell 
Brown preaches on "Divine Impartiality." An enterprising 
" Baptist" preaches " at the Baptistery" on the " Glory of Bap- 
tism." There is Bap all the way through. Bapto, Baptizo, 
Babble. The rear is appropriately brought up by the little end 
of nothing sharpened. " Andrew Jackson Davis is engaged to 
speak, etc. etc.," and finally "Mrs. Cora L. Y. Hatch will speak 
at 3J and 7£ o'clock at, etc." 

The great mass of subjects named in the fifty -four notices are 
of a controversial character, and assuming that all are sincere, 
good people, it presents a sad spectacle of brother going to war 
against brother; and is equal to an invitation : "Come and see how 
well I can fight." Hyer, Heenan, Sullivan, etc., have often given 
precisely the same invitation. But suppose all these men were 
to change their subjects to such as these, " Come and see what 
the Lord hath done for my soul," "Eepent, for the kingdom 
of heaven is at hand," the burden of the whole being " Peace 
and good- will to men and glory to God in the highest ;" if such 
were the tenor and spirit of every discourse, it is reasonable to 
suppose a much larger measure of good would be accomplished 
on any Sabbath day. 

All this kind of thing is theological quackery, and no durable 
good can come of it. No man can fill his church by advertis- 
ing. The very necessity of it, shows that these men have no 
solid reputation or ability, any more than advertising doctors 
have. Medical quackery brings on insidious diseases, more 
destructive than those they attempt to cure. Moral and reli- 
gious quackery will do the same thing. 



SUCCESSFUL MEN". 



SUCCESSFUL MEN 



"Who are they ? They are those who, when boys, were com- 
pelled to work, either to help themselves or their parents ; and 
who, when a little older, were under the stern necessity of doing 
more than their legitimate share of labor ; who as young men 
had their wits sharpened by having to devise ways and means 
of making their time more available than it would have been 
under ordinary circumstances. Hence, in reading the lives of 
men who have greatly distinguished themselves, we find their 
whole youth passed in self-denials, of food, and rest, and sleep, 
and recreation. They sat up late, and rose early to the perform- 
ance of imperative duties ; doing by day -light the work of one 
man, and by night the work of another. 

Said a gentleman, the other day, now a private banker of high 
integrity, and whom we knew had started in life without a 
dollar : " For years together I was in my place of business at 
sunrise, and often did not leave it for fifteen and eighteen 
hours." 

Let not, therefore, any youth be discouraged if he has to make 
his own living, or even to support besides a widowed mother, 
or sick sister, or unfortunate relation, for this has been the road 
to eminence of many a proud name. This is the path which 
printers and teachers have often trod : thorny enough at times, 
at others so beset with obstacles as to be almost impassable ; 
but the way has cleared, sunshine came, success followed, then 
the glory and renown ! 

A young man writes us : "I am an humble school-teacher ; 
with the duties belonging to half a hundred pupils, I issue a 
monthly, printed nine miles away, and do all the folding, stitch- 
ing, binding, and mailing of three thousand copies, with a deep 
feeling that good may be done. I hope I will succeed." 

Certainly he will succeed ! For he has the two great elements 
of success : a will to work, and a heart in the right place ; a 
heart whose object is not glory, but good. 

But too often has it happened that there comes in, between 
the manly effort and a glorious fruition, disease, crippling the 
body, depressing the mind, and wasting and wearing away the 



64 hall's jouknal of health. 

whole man. Who does not remember grand intellects which 
have gone down in the night of a premature grave ? Who has 
not seen young men with magnificent minds, standing on the 
borders, looking wistfully, oh ! how wistfully ! over, but unable 
to "go in and possess the land" only for the want of bodily 
health ? A health by no means wanting originally, but sacri- 
ficed ; pitilessly, remorselessly sacrificed by inattention and 
sheer ignorance ; learned in every thing else ; critically in- 
formed in every thing else ; perfect masters of every thing else, 
except the knowledge of a few general principles as to the care 
of the body ; principles which could be perfectly mastered in 
any twenty -four hours by a mind accustomed to think. 

Within a few months two men have died in the very prime 
and vigor of mental manhood, being not far from fifty, one the 
first scholar of his time ; the other, one of the very best and 
most useful men of the age ; both of them the victims of wrong 
habits of life ; habits framed in youth, and utterly repugnant to 
the commonest dictates of common-sense. Some of the most 
useful rules for the preservation of the health of the young, 
while obtaining an education, are these : 

1. Keep the feet always dry and warm. 

2. Eat thrice a day, at regular times ; not an atom between 
meals ; taking for supper only a piece of cold bread and butter 
with a single cup of any warm drink. 

3. Go to bed not later than ten o'clock, and never remain 
there longer than eight hour3 at farthest, not sleeping a moment 
in the day-time. 

4. Cool off with the utmost slowness after all forms of ex- 
ercise ; never allowing an instant's exposure to the slightest 
draught of air while in a state of rest after that exercise. 

5. If the bowels fail of acting daily, at the regular hour, eat 
not an atom until they do, but drink all that is desired, and give 
more time than usual to out-door exercise, for several days. 

These five rules can easily be remembered, and we appeal to 
the educated physicians of all lands for confirmation of the 
truth of the sentiment, that a judicious habitual attention to 
them is essential to the preservation of sound health, and the 
maintenance of a good constitution the world over. Their 
proper observance would add a young lifetime to the average 
age of man. 



NOTICE. 65 



NOTICE. 



Having repaired the loss of twenty -four hours ago, by a new 
programme of subjects, we trust that it will cost no one any 
thing, except a hard day's work for ourselves. If the finder of 
our manuscript for March can make any thing out of it, or can 
decipher enough to learn that it belongs to 42 Irving Place, we 
may be saved some work for April. If it never comes to hand, 
we will only say, that there were valuable crumbs of comfort 
given to Northern men with Southern principles, or Southern 
principles with Northern men, or Northern principles Southern, 
or something of that sort. It's all mixed up some how, and our 
mishap has put us in such a hurry we hadn't half time to enjo} r 
the turkey-dinner to-day specially provided for our children, 
who were all at home from school. Our Southern correspond- 
ent who inquires of us so courteously to know whether we were 
on the fence, on the great black and white question, has, no 
doubt, leisure to unravel the complication. Most Southerners 
have time, because they have other people to do the work for 
them. Wish some body would come and work for us a spell. 
In the event, however, that he is not disposed to thus emplo} 7 - 
himself, we advise that he purchase the six bound volumes of 
Hall's Jouknal of Health, price only seven dollars ! and he 
will be certain to find interspersed through its pages, not only that 
we have thought and written about slavery, but that much good 
advice about health and good morals has also been given, the 
practice of which will be well calculated to make him a wise, 
healthy, happy, and good man, if he is not so already. We will 
vouchsafe this much, however, that in a sense we are on the fence, 
which pre-supposes that we are also out of the mud, above the 
fierce combatants; looking complacently down on the indig- 
nation of the one, and the needless excitement of the other. It 
must not be supposed, however, that we have no creed, or are 
afraid of our faith ! Not a whit more than the editors of the 
New - York Observer are supposed by some to be. Our principles 
are solid, substantial, valuable. They are the principles of nine 
tenths of the sensible and insensible men North and South, with 
the w r omen and children thrown in. In fact, we go with the 
majority. Like the London Times we sail with the tide. We 



66 hall's journal of health. 

follow the straws. That is the reason we get along so smoothly. 
Having thus plainly declared our creed, we take leave, with all 
due respect, of our Southern correspondent, with the request 
that he will send us a telegram, at his earliest convenience, when 
he has got hold of the right end of the string. 

SF. B. — To our other subscribers, who have not the advantage 
of having the "key" which is in the possession of our corre- 
spondent, we will merely say that the principles of which we 
have spoken in such high terms are seven in number, to wit : 
" The five loaves and two fishes." 



A REWARD. 



Fifteen cents will be paid to the finder and deliverer at 
Forty-Two Irving Place, New- York, of a roll containing, first, 
a piece of a newspaper covering a copy of the February Num- 
ber of Hall's Journal of Health, and eleven smaller rolls of 
the off-sheets of old letters, etc., containing a great variety of 
hieroglyphics pertaining more or less directly to the following 
subjects : 

Knowing and Unknown. " Surfeiting and Drunkenness." 

Northern Butcheries. Life Saved. 

Health and Palmerston. Faulty Construction of Churches. 

Fever and Ague. Instinct of Appetite, etc., etc. 

Ten cents will be paid for the Journal alone, or five cents 
and no thanks for the manuscript. 



Railroad Safety. — Of the millions of passengers traveling in the cars of 
the New-Jersey Railroad, in a quarter of a century, not a single life has been 
lost of any passenger who was in his proper place at the time of any acci- 
dent. The Camden and Amboy road has never been operated with greater 
regularity, safety, and comfort to passengers than now. : 

Sewing-Machines. — The wife of one of the most prominent and influential 
citizens said yesterday, if "Wheeler and Wilson's Sewing-Machines had the 
patent needle threader, requiring little use of the eye, it needed nothing more 
to be a perfection. Why don't they have it ? 

Dr. John Ellis has published, at room No. 20 Cooper Institute, New-York, 
a dollar book of 348 pages on The Avoidable Causes of Disease, Insanity, and 
Deformity, under the motto : "The prevention of disease is better than its 
cure." It contains a vast amount of interesting, reliable, and practical in- 
formation. We recommend it because he is worse than a homoeopath : he 
gives no medicine at all. H. B. Price, publisher, 884 Broadway, keeps it. 
Postage ten cents extra. 



67 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 14. 



WINTEE SHOES. 

(From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York.) 

Like the gnarled oak that has withstood the storms and thunderbolts of centuries, man him- 
self begins to die at the extremities. Keep the feet dry and warm, and we may snap our 
fingers in joyous triumph at disease and the doctors. Put on two pair of thick woollen stockings, 
but keep this to yourself ; go to some honest son of St. Crispin, and have your measure taken for 
a stout pair of winter boots or shoes ; shoes are better for ordinary, every-day use, as they allow 
the ready escape of the odors, while they strengthen the ankles, accustoming them to depend on 
themselves. A very slight accident is sufficient to cause a sprained ankle to a habitual boot- 
wearer. Besides, a shoe compresses less, and hence admits of a more vigorous circulation of blood. 
But wear boots when you ride or travel. Give directions also to have no cork or India rubber 
about the shoes, but to place between the layers of the soles, from out to out, a piece of stout hemp 
or tow-linen, which has been dipped in melted pitch. This is absolutely impervious to water — does 
not absorb a particle, while we know that cork does, and after a while becomes " soggy" and 
damp for a week. When you put them on for the first time, they will feel " as easy as an old 
shoe." and you may stand on damp places for hours with impunity. 



CURE FOR CORNS. 

Corns are caused by too tight or too loose shoes, and sometimes in the bottoms of the feet by 
the wooden pegs protruding through the soles of the shoe, by the neglect of the maker to rasp them 
off sufficiently smooth. 

Medical books record cases where the injudicious paring of corns has resulted in mortification 
and death. The safest, the best, the surest plan is to never allow a corn to be touched with any 
thing harder than the finger-nail. As soon as it becomes troublesome enough to attract attention, 
soak the foot fifteen minutes, night and morning, in quite warm water ; then rub two or three 
drops of sweet oil into the top of the corn, with the end of the finger. Do this patiently for a 
couple of minutes. Then double a piece of soft buckskin, something larger round than a dime, 
rather oblong. Cat a hole through it large enough to receive the corn, and thus attach it to the 
toe. This prevents pressure on the corn, which always agravates it, and in less than a week the 
corn will generally fall out, or can be easily picked out with the finger-nail, and will not return for 
many weeks or months ; and when it does return, repeat the process. No safer or more efficient 
plan of removal has ever been made known. 



NEW SHOES MADE EASY. 

All part from an old shoe with special reluctance, because of the easiness of its adaptation to 
the foot. To put on a " bran new" boot or shoe, with the easy fitting of the discarded old one. 
is well worth knowing how to do. It is only necessary to keep a secret. Before you have your 
measure taken, put on two pair of thick stockings, and let Crispin go ahead. The new pair will be 
almost as easy as the old. 



68 
HLALTH TRACT No. 15. 



GROWING BEAUTIFUL. 

{From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York.) 

Persons may outgrow disease and become healthy by proper attention to the laws of their 
physical constitution. By moderate and daily exercise men may become active and strong in 
limb and muscle. But to grow beautiful, how ? Age dims the lustre of the eye, and pales the 
roses on beauty's cheek ; while crowfeet, and furrows, and wrinkles, and lost teeth, and gray 
hairs, and bald head, and tottering limbs, and limping most sadly mar the human form divine. 
But dim as the eye is, as pallid and sunken as may be the face of beauty, and frail and feeble that 
once strong, erect, and manly body, the immortal soul, just fledging its wings for its home in 
heaven, may look out through those faded windows as beautiful as the dew-drop of a summer's 
morning, as melting as the tears that glisten in affection's eye — by growing kindly, by cultivating 
sympathy with all human kind, by cherishing forbearance towards the follies and foibles of our 
race, and feeding, day by day, on that love to God and man which lifts us from the brute, 
and makes us akin to angels. 



WE^K EYES. 

WILLIS ON HALL. 

(From the Home Journal of Jan. 28, 1860.) 

A Good Hall. — A " very good haul," indeed, does he get, every month, who with a net 
dollar, takes the "Journal of Health," edited by Hall the Doctor ! Of the pocket-wisdom most 
wanted, plain, pithy and pertinent, this little periodical, in our opinion, is the very purse. Now, 
what weak-eyed man or woman, for instance, will not be wiser for the following : " Many who 
are troubled with weak eyes, by avoiding the use of them in reading, sewing, and the like, until 
after breakfast, will be able to use them with greater comfort for the remainder of the day, the 
reason being, that in the digestion of the food the blood is called in from all parts of the 
system, to a certain extent, to aid the stomach in that important process; besides, the food 
eaten gives general strength, imparts a stimulus to the whole man, and the eyes partake of their 
share." 



The Door-bell Requiem. — To the belle men no longer adore, a door-bell tolls the requiem, 
(with its fewer-and-farther betweenities on New-Year's day,) or so seems to think Dr. Hall. Ah ! 
the poetry there is — or might be — under the following statement of it in prose ! " There are 
maiden ladies, who, some years ago, numbered their callers by dozens and scores, and even 
hundreds ; but for a few years past they have fallen off in geometrical progression, and now the 
diminution is really frightful. Formerly, when youth and beauty were theirs, the door-bell 
began to tingle as soon as the clock struck nine of the morning, with scarcely an intermission 
until it verged toward midnight. But now how great the change ! Merry voices are heard 
outside, but they do not greet their ears ; brisk footfalls sound on the pavement, but they do 
not stop at their doors, and a weary forenoon has almost passed away with only one or two 
visitors to break the disturbing monotony, former visions begin to assume more tangible 
shapes and the embodied idea stands out in high relief— Pass'ee /" 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 16. 

MEASLES AND CONSUMPTION. 

{From Rail's Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York) 

This disease prevails extensively in cities during the winter 
season, and will usually cure itself, if only protected against 
adverse influences. The older persons are, the less likely they 
are to recover perfectly from this ailment, for it very often 
leaves some life-long malady behind it. The most hopeless 
forms of consumptive disease are often the result of ill-conduct- 
ed or badly managed measles. In nine cases out of ten, not a 
particle of any medicine is needed. 

Our first advice is, always, and under all circumstances, send 
at once for an experienced physician. Meanwhile keep the 
patient in a cool, dry, and well-aired room, with moderate 
covering, in a position where there will be no exposure to 
drafts of air. The thermometer should range at about sixty- 
five degrees, where the bed stands, which should be moderately 
hard, of shucks, straw, or curled hair. Gratify the instinct for 
cold water and lemonade. It is safest to keep the bed for seve- 
ral days after the rash has begun to die away. The diet should 
be light, and of an opening, cooling character. 

The main object of this article is to warn persons that the 
greater danger is after the disappearance of the measles. We 
would advise that for three weeks after the patient is well 
enough to leave his bed, he should not go out of the house, nor 
stand or sit for a single minute near an open window or door, 
nor wash any part of the person in cold water nor warm, but 
to wipe the face with a damp cloth. For a good part of this 
time the appetite should not be wholly gratified ; the patient 
should eat slowly of light nutritious food. In one case, a little 
child, almost entirely well of the measles, got to playing with 
its hands in cold water ; it gradually dwindled away and died. 
All exercise should be moderate, in order to prevent cooling 
off too quickly afterwards, and to save the danger of exposure 
to drafts of air, which, by chilling the surface, causes chronic 
diarrhoea, if it falls on the bowels ; deafness for life, if it falls on 
the ear ; or incurable consumption, if it falls on the lungs. 

The easiest method of securing an erect and manly carriage is 
to walk with the chin slightly above a horizontal line, as if 
looking at something higher than your own head. 



70 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 17. 



sa.bb-a.th: physiology. 

{From HaU's Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New-York.) 

Thb Almighty rested one seventh of the time of creation, commanding man to observe an equal 
repose. The neglect of this injunction will always, sooner or later, bring mental, moral, and phy- 
sical death. 

Rest is an invariable law of animal life. The busy heart beats, beats ever, from infancy to 
age, and yet for a large part of the time it is in a state of repose. 

William Pitt died of apoplexy at the early age of forty-seven. When the destinies of nations 
hung in a large measure on his doings, he felt compelled to give an unremitting attention to af- 
fairs of state. Sabbath brought no rest to him, and soon the unwilling brain gave signs of ex- 
haustion. But Ms presence in Parliament was conceived to be indispensable for explanation and 
defense of the public policy. Under such circumstances, it was his custom to eat heartily substan- 
tial food, most highly seasoned, just before going to his place, in order to afford the body that 
strength and to excite the mind to that activity deemed necessary to the momentous occasion. 
But under the high tension both brain and body perished prematurely. 

Not long ago, one of the most active business men of England found his affairs so extended, 
that he deliberately determined to devote Ids Sabbaths to his accounts. He had a mind of a wide 
grasp. His views were so comprehensive, so far-seeing, that wealth came in upon him like a flood. 
He purchased a country seat at the cost of $400,000, determining that he would now have rest and 
quiet. But it was too late. As he stepped on his threshold after a survey of his late purchase, he 
became apoplectic. Although life was not destroyed, he only lives to be the wreck of a man. 

It used to be said that a brick kiln " must be kept burning over the Sabbath ;" it is now 
known to be a fallacy. There can be no " must" against the divine command. Even now it is a 
received opinion that iron blast furnaces will bring ruin if not kept in continual operation. Eight- 
een years ago, an Englishman determined to keep the Sabbath holy as to them, with the result, as 
his books testified, that he made more iron in six days than he did before in seven ; that he made 
more iron in a given time, in proportion to the hands and number and size of the furnaces, than 
any establishment in England which was kept in operation during the Sabbath. 

In our own New-York, the mind of a man who made half a million a year, went out in the 
night of madness and an early grave in only two years, from the very strain put upon it by a 
variety of enterprises, every one of which succeeded. 

" It will take about five years to clear them off," said an observant master of an Ohio canal- 
boat, alluding to the wearing-out influences on the boatmen, who worked on Sabbaths as well as 
other days. As to the boatmen and firemen of the steamers on the Western rivers, which never 
lay by on the Sabbath, seven years is the average of life. The observance, therefore, of the 
seventh portion of our time for the purposes of rest is demonstrably a physiological neces- 
sity — a law of our nature. 



71 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 18, 



THE BEST HAIE-WASH. 

{From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, Neio-York.) 

A Southern correspondent says: "In the matter of a hair- wash, in a recent 
number of the Journal of Health, I have received a thousand times its cost, 
and it has also been a benefit to many others." 

Make half a pint soap-suds with pure white soap and warm water, on rising any 
morning ; but before applying it, brush the whole scalp well, while the hair is per- 
fectly dry, with the very best Russia bristle brush, scrub back and forth with a 
will, let not any portion of the surface escape. When brushing the top and front, 
lean forward, that the particles may fall. After this operation is finished, strike 
the ends of the bristles on the hearth or on a board, next pass the coarse part of 
the comb through the bristles ; next, brush or flap the hair back and forth with 
the hand until no dust is seen to fall ; then with the balls of the fingers dipped in 
the soap-suds, rub the fluid into the scalp and about the roots of the hair; do this 
patiently and thoroughly. Finally, rinse with clear water, and absorb as much of 
the water from the hair as possible with a dry cloth ; then (after allowing the hair 
to dry a little more by evaporation, but not to dry entirely) dress it as usual, 
always, under all circumstances, passing the comb through the hair slowly and 
gently, so as not to break any one off, or tear out any one by the roots. 

By this operation the alkali of the soap unites with the natural oil of the hair, 
and leaves it perfectly clean and beautifully silken, and with cold water washings 
of the whole head and neck and ears every morning, it Avill soon be found that 
the hair will " dress" as handsomely as if " oiled to perfection ;" with the great ad- 
vantage of conscious cleanliness, giving, too, the general appearance of a greater 

profusion of hair than when it is plastered flat on the scalp, with variously scented 

hog's fat, as is the common custom. 

It has been recently established, in a court of justice in the city of New- York, 

that one of the most popular hair-washes ever known was made by adding a little 

alcohol, scented with a perfume, to common soap-suds. 



72 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 19. 



WEARING FLANNEL. 

(From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New-York.) 

In our climate, fickle in its gleams of sunshine and its balmy airs, as a co- 
quette with her smiles and favors, consumption bears away every year the 
ornaments of many social circles. The fairest and loveliest are its favorites. 
An ounce of prevention in this fatal disease is worth many pounds of cure, for 
when once well seated, it mocks alike medical skill and careful nursing. If the 
fair sex could be induced to regard the laws of health, many precious lives might 
be saved ; but pasteboard soles, the low-neck dresses, and lilliputian hats, sow an- 
nually the seeds of a fatal harvest. The suggestion in the following article from 
the Journal of Health, if followed, might save many with consumptive tendencies 
from an early grave : 

" Put it on at once ; winter and summer nothing better can be worn next to the 
skin than a loose red woollen shirt ; ' loose,' for it has room to move on the skin, 
thus causing a titillation which draws the blood to the surface and keeps it there ; 
and when that is the case no one can take cold ; ' red,' for white flannel fulls up, 
mats together, and becomes tight, stiff, heavy and impervious. Cotton-wool 
merely absorbs the moisture from the surface, while woollen flannel conveys it from 
the skin and deposits it in drops on the outside of the shirt, from which the ordi- 
nary cotton shirt absorbs it, and by its nearer exposure to the air it is soon dried 
without injury to the body. Having these properties, red wool flannel is worn by 
sailors even in the midsummer of the warmest countries. Wear a thinner material 
in summer." 



TO COISTSUMPTIVES. 

You want air, not physic ; you want pure air, not medicated air ; you want nu- 
trition, such as plenty of meat and bread will give, and they alone ; physic has no 
nutriment ; gasping for air can not cure you ; monkey-capers in a gymnasium can 
not cure you ; and stimulants can not cure you. If you want to get well, go in for 
beef and out-door air, and do not be deluded into the grave by advertisements and 
unreliable certifiers. 



THREE ESSENTIALS. 

The three great essentials to human health are: Keep the feet always dry 
and warm ; Have one regular action of the bowels every day ; and Cool ofl 
very slowly after all forms of exercise. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] APRIL, 1860. [No. 4. 



BREAD AND MILK. 

The " staff of life" is different in different countries. In Ken- 
tucky, it is " hog and hominy," and that it " agrees" pretty 
well with the people, is evidenced from the fact, that in our 
native county, and which may be considered the model county 
of the State, in respect to the richness of its soil, the weight of 
its pigs, the fatness of its cattle, and the unsurpassable beauty 
of its woodland, blue-grass pastures, dotted with thousands and 
tens of thousands of cattle grazing, in the brightness of a June 
morning — in this same county of Bourbon, whence comes the 
best whisky, the best bacon, and the best beef in the land, 
there are also found the best specimens of giant growth among its 
men, not only in body, but in mind. As to physical develop- 
ment, there are whole families whose average hight is six and 
a half feet. As to mind, let us see, taking Paris as a center, 
with a " spoke" (of a wheel — a good many may not know what 
a radius is) twenty miles long, there have grown up into life, 
notice and renown, such men as, putting the Editor of the Jour- 
nal of Health first for the convenience of a gradual accretion 
of greatness, " topping off" with the greatest, man of all nations 
of the present age ; and lest it might be forgotten, we will 
repeat ; there is, in the first place, the Editor of Hall's Journal 
of Health to begin with ; next, Tom Corwin, the wagon-boy ; 
Dr. Durbin, the great Methodist divine, and who now main- 
tains the same relative position here in New -York ; and Dr. T„ 
A. Mills, the right-hand man as to mind and efficiency in the 
New School Presbyterian Church, pronounced its " leader" by 
the New- York Observer and the Evangelist also. Then there 

NO. IV.— VOL. VII.— 1860. 



74: hall's journal of health. 

is Dr. B. W. Dudley the elder, who, as a successful surgeon 
and physician, has had no equal in modern times, his great 
agents being nature, brown bread, and warm water ; he having 
been our medical teacher, we took our cue from him, hence 
our large quantum of common-sense' — theoretically, for does 
any body suppose we practice half what we preach in this Jouk- 
nal ? very clear of it. "Why should we? We have good 
health, and always have had it, and why should we be 
bothered with innumerable " rules and regulations," making of 
ourselves a very slave ? It is one of the very worst kind of ty- 
rannies to bring yourself into the predicament of breathing and 
talking by rule. With a few cardinal principles, a man, as far 
as the preservation of health is concerned, may live above rules, 
at least until he gets old and ricket} r ; then, indeed, he must 
be propped up and live by " rote ;" indeed, the old and infirm 
will always live the longer by so doing. 

One of Dr. Dudley's favorite counsels was : 

" Young gentlemen, observe Nature and obey her laws ; let 
her alone ; never interfere with her, but follow out her indi- 
cations." 

Those few plain words embrace the whole range of practical 
medicine ; they include anatomy, physiology, melancholy, ob- 
stetrics, botany, and medicamentum ! 

" OBSERVE NATURE AND FOLLOW HER INDICATIONS !" 

These half-a-dozen words are the foundation of all practical 
hygiene ; and if the young gentlemen from our medical schools 
could retain their perfection in anatomy and physiology, for- 
getting every thing else, and would observe Nature accurately 
and follow wisely her indications, and the people, nine tenths 
of the apothecaries of the nation would have to close their doors 
within a year, especially if the people had the minutest mite of 
common-sense, and would show it, by never taking even a ho- 
meopathic pill without special medical advice. 

It is interference with nature which kills multitudes of those 
who die of disease, as it is the defiance of her laws which made 
those multitudes sick. 

As we were saying, making Paris, Bourbon county, Ken- 
tucky a center, with a radius of twenty miles, a circumference 
will be described, within which have sprung into honorable 
notoriety, a young multitude (or baker's dozen) of names, (one 



BKEAD AND MILK. 75 

of which is ours, let it be remembered,) of which any age or 
nation might be proud. Some of these we have mentioned ; 
among the others worthy, are Alexander, the Hawaiian Mis- 
sionary, and " Bob Breckenridge," the John Knox of modern 
Presbyterianism, the Politico-Divine, whose great mind and 
greater heart have lately so grandly commended themselves to 
the sober, conservative, and patriotic masses of the nation by 
his Union letter to his nephew, the Vice-President of the United 
States, which letter can well be placed side by side with an 
ecclesiastical document of his composing, the (Presbyterian) 
famous "Act and Testimony," the adoption and adherence to 
which, quieted the troubled waters of his Church, and at the 
same time laid the foundation for that peace and prosperity 
which now crowns Old School Presbyterianism, and which 
aids in making it one of the most conservative of all Christian 
sects ; conservative in principle, in practice, and in wide-reach- 
ing influences. Why, the Union can't dissolve with such a 
leaven within it? Well, we have stuck to the text with a 
vengeance. 

If any body can tell what connection there is between bread 
and milk and " Bob Breckenridge," it is more than we can do, 
unless it be the connection of disconnection, a kind of antipodal 
Union ; for bread and milk suggests milk and water, which in 
turn is associated with that multitude which no man can num- 
ber, of dodling wishy-washy nonentities who are of no account 
to themselves or any body else, the dead-weights to all that is 
great and good. Well, the " connection" between " Bob Breck- 
enridge" and milk and water is impossible, and we rather think 
this is a good place to break off at, and we will toddle back to 
first principles, at least so far as to say, that within the famed 
circumference, not that magnificent unique square which the 
New- York Times described during the late war, other names 
still have become famous, such as Drs. Charles Caldwell and 
John Esten Cook, of Transylvania University, Dr. Eice of Chi- 
cago, and last of all, the friend and neighbor and peer of Brecken- 
ridge, the friend of " The Constitution, the Union, and the en- 
forcement of the Laws," and the friend of man — Henry Clay ! 

Perhaps, not until their greatness was achieved, did either of 
these names ever pass a day in Kentucky, in which they did 
not eat hog or hominy, or both, with perhaps a reasonable pro- 



76 

portion of the spirit of " old Bourbon" besides ; for when we 
were growing up with the great men named, it was considered 
a breach of politeness, of which the veriest boor would have 
been ashamed, not to place a bottle of whisky and a glass to 
every caller. How we all lived through it, may admit of de- 
bate ; and as argument (domestic ones especially) is our mortal 
antipathy, by reason of the fact of our never failing to come out 
of it second-best, we leave it to our readers to debate at their 
leisure, and decide for themselves whether all of us survived by 
reason of the whisky antagonizing the destructive nature (so 
claimed by some) of the pork, or whether the pork was an an- 
tidote to the whisky, or whether, indeed, eating pork and drink- 
ing whisky daily, made a grand system of feeding, which 
gave splendid bodies and more magnificent minds. We our- 
selves ate the pork, but never "took to whisky-drinking," 
hence, possibly, the reason that the mind is so far ahead of the 
body. 

The staff of life for New-England, the three articles daily 
used by the men who grew up over thirty years ago, were 
pork, molasses, and rum ; but as the last two articles were the 
products of slave labor, which was against their principles, yet 
patronizing slave labor contrary to their principles, conscience, 
being systematically and deliberately violated, worried the mind. 
Now, no person can thrive or grow fat when the mind is dis- 
tressed ; it may be argued that this is the reason why there are 
so many thin, skinny Yankees scattered around every where. 
Not only lean in body but lean in morals and faith. At all 
events, they do say, that New-England is becoming more re- 
probate, going further away from the faith of their fathers, trend- 
ing towards infidelity, and as Dr. Scudder says, a veritable pan- 
theism ; the Sabbath day worship of some of their theological 
lights being conducted without prayer or praise or reading of 
the u word," but a simple cold " speak" or address. Some 
may say that there is no connection between a dwarfed theology 
and a feeding on pork, rum, and molasses against the con- 
science. At the same time, it is an opinion gaining prevalence 
with thoughtful minds, that something is at work in eating out 
the stern piety and the Bible theology of glorious New-Eng- 
land of the olden time. While the land of the Puritans, with 
its codfish and potatoes, its Jamaica rum and pumpkin-pies, 



BREAD AND MILK. 77 

gives such men as Parker and Emerson and Phillips and 
Holmes and Garrison, Tennessee with its corn-bread and bacon, 
its potatoes and its beef, gives a Blackburn, a Gallaher, a David 
Nelson and a host of other worthies, with a Sam Houston and 
an Andrew Jackson to lead them. 

Beef is the staff of life to sturdy John Bull, or rather beef 
and beer, and no such nation ever existed as that same grand 
English people ! great for ages past and will be great for ages 
to come ! 

In China and Japan, rice is the alpha and omega of teeming 
millions, as bread and wine is that of the grand nation which 
has given to the world two Napoleons and a list of savans 
who shine in the coronet of France as stars of the first mag- 
nitude glitter in the clear sky of night. 

But bread and milk is the staff of life to all juvenility ; child- 
ren thrive upon it the world over, until they reach a certain age, 
when more substantial food is needed, at least north of the tro- 
pics. 

In Germany, sour krout (vinegar and cabbage) is the staff of 
life ; and at once the image of a fat Dutchman rises before us 
with his smoke-pipe and his pot of Lager, all jolly, rubicund, 
and a mile round ; but in a trice he vanishes from sight, in 
transcendental mazes lost ! 

But here come the Jews, whose staff of life is not pork, and 
a long line of patriarchs, and apostles, and prophets file away 
before us in holy memories ; and coming down to later times 
we find them kings in music and in song, in painting and in 
finance, and the autocrat and the emperor besiege their doors, 
and say to a Bothschild, We can not go to war unless you let us 
have the money. 

A long circumbendibus have we made ; we have doubled 
and trebled the famous barn of Eobin Hood, in order to come 
to a practical focus, and which common-sense might have taught 
any man with two ideas ; it is this, national greatness and indi- 
vidual eminence do not depend materially on what a man 
feeds. Nor does robust health belong to a man mainly be- 
cause he eats this and refuses that; but a wise providence 
has so ordered it, that the people of a clime may live and thrive 
and be happy and great by the products of that clime, and that 
in individual constitutions, there is an adaptability by which 



78 

men can live in health any where, whether to the manor born 
or not, only if they eat and drink in moderation any of the 
good things about them. In short, the world was made for 
man, by that Father whose boundless goodness has provided 
for him all things richly to enjoy. Those who do not indulge 
in the wholesome variety which has been prepared for them, 
but insist on discarding this, that, and the other, finally come 
down in their vagaries, until a man writes a book of two hun- 
dred pages to prove that meats are forbidden, and that if we 
don't quit eating so much wheat- bread, the bone will become so 
brittle, that every time a man stumps his toe, said bones will 
snap like pipe-stems, closing by suggesting as the surest means 
of living long in vigorous health, that men should live almost 
exclusively on grapes. "We know he made one convert, for 
sometime after, we chanced to drop in at the old Clinton Hall, 
where a phrenological lecture was grinding out. A black- 
headed, pale-faced, lantern-jawed young clerk was on the stand 
and the phrenologist's fingers were on his head. Silence pre- 
vailed ! At length Sir Oracle spoke : ■ - You are deficient in 
vitality and in brains, and the only safe plan for you to pursue 
is to take out-door exercise and live on grapes." 

It is a notable coincidence that these exclusives, either have 
no brains to begin with, or they grow weak in the upper story 
with marvelous rapidity on their watery diet. We can tell one 
of them on Broadway as far as we can see him, if a "him" at 
all ; the sure signs are the parted hair, sprangling over a 
greasy coat-collar, with a dusty musty beard, a mile long, more 
or less, and that peculiar impudent look which is known at 
first sight; but if it be a "her," she is rendered distingue by 
the short hair, the short dress, the man's hat, and a man's 
brass. 

It is a maxim of ancient date, misery loves company, and 
just as true, that kind loves kind, and birds of a feather flock 
together. The timbers of a ship dashed to pieces on the rocks, 
come together at last on the shore ; it is on this principle per- 
haps, that wooden-headed people are found all in heaps, are 
vastly gregarious. Well, a wooden head and a weak head 
being pretty much the same thing, may account for the fact, 
that upon the announcement of any novelty to which the 
public are invited to attend, such as a Bloomer lecture, a wo- 



THRIFT AND HEALTH. 79 

man's rights address, a phrenological examination, a health con- 
vention, or any thing of that nature, the assembly is sure to be 
made up of a " so-so" looking crowd; neither high nor low, 
but a kind of mediocrity, with the vulgar look or twang pre- 
dominating ; and if any one characteristic is in the ascendant, 
it is a kind of impudent swagger in the men ; and in the women — 
" schuze me," as our little Alice says ; he who speaks disrespect- 
fully of a woman has no music in his soul, and is fit for trea- 
son, strategems, and spoils ; therefore we won't do it, especially 
as the most tantalizing sight we ever had, was a jaunty Bloomer 
of seventeen, black eyes, and a world of curls. 

But how is it that when we meet a vegetarian, he is almost 
sure to be a phrenologist, a free lover, a root-doctor, a woman's 
rights, a mesmerist, a spiritualist, a socialist, a cold waterist, 
a ranting abolitionist, an abnegator of the Bible, the Sabbath- 
day, and " the religion of his fathers !" The Editor is per- 
suaded that observation will carry him out in the assertion, that 
in the vast majority of cases, a man who advocates one of these 
isms, will, if pressed, advocate them all. We say this in no 
spirit of ridicule or intolerance, but utter it as a fact, with a 
view to drawing a wholesome, truthful, and practical lesson 
therefrom ; and it is this, that in health, in dietetics, in ethics, 
in politics and religion, extreme views are always unsafe, dis- 
organizing, and destructive; and that the wisest plan, espe- 
cially for the young, for women, and for all uncultivated minds 
is to make the fact that a thing is radical, extreme, or new, a 
most conclusive reason for keeping aloof from it, until the cler- 
gyman or other educated or mature-minded person of the place, 
has given it a thoughtful examination and an unequivocal ap- 
proval. 



THRIFT AND HEALTH. 

By returns made to the Eegistrar-Greneral in France, it ap- 
pears that persons who are "well to do" live, on an average, 
eleven years longer than those who are dependent on their daily 
labor. One reason for this is, the health-giving influence of 
composure of mind ; another, that forehandedness removes the 
necessity for hard exposures. The same important truth is 



80 hall's journal of health. 

shown by the fact that the average life of those who belong to 
the Society of Friends in England is some fifteen years greater 
than of others in the same sphere of life, the Friends being, the 
world over, models of thrift and quiet composure. 

As judicious economy promotes thrift, we propose it to our 
readers as a good medicine — a medicine safe and efficient, appli- 
cable to all climes, countries, and classes. It is " hard to take" 
to some, but steady persistence in its practice soon makes it a 
habit, when it is rather easier to be economical than to be ex- 
travagant. 

Extravagance, waste, and carelessness not only ruin those 
who practice them, but have a demoralizing effect on those who 
may be benefited thereby in a material point of view. Persons 
seldom thrive whose occupations or modes of obtaining a living 
depend on chance, are in a great measure fortuitous or uncer- 
tain — such as gamblers, stock-brokers, robbers, wreckers, hunt- 
ers, miners, office-holders, and speculators in general. Hence 
those parents are wisest who bring up their children to the ex- 
pectation of making a living or of becoming rich by some one 
occupation which brings with it gains which are moderate, uni- 
form, and steady. As a general rule to young men, the first 
political or salaried office, the first bet won, the first successful 
speculation, is at the same time the first step towards material 
unthrift, towards moral degradation, and towards a premature 
grave. 



AVERTING DISEASE. 

The very instant the scientific engineer observes any thing is 
wrong on ship, or train, or engine, he cuts off the supply of 
steam ; so the very moment there is any sensation about the 
body sufficiently decided to attract the attention unpleasantly, 
that very moment should all supply of food be cut off; not an 
atom should be swallowed, at least until there has been time to 
ascertain the exact nature of the trouble. 

If cutting off the supply of steam is not adequate to the recti- 
fication of the mischief, the next step taken is to work off the 
steam already generated ; so, if abstinence from food is not suf- 
ficient to remove a given symptom or ailment, means should be 



AVERTING DISEASE. 81 

taken to diminish, the amount of that which the food previously 
eaten has made, that is, blood, including waste. 

Pain is a blessing ; it is the great life-preserver ; it is the 
sleepless, faithful sentinel which gives prompt warning that 
harm is being done. All pain is experienced through the 
nerves ; they telegraph, it to the brain, and there the mind takes 
note of it. Pain is the result of pressure on or against a nerve ; 
that pressure is made by a blood-vessel, for there is no nerve 
without a blood-vessel in close proximity. A blood-vessel is 
distensible, like an India-rubber life-preserver — both may be full 
and yet may be fuller. In health each blood-vessel is mode- 
rately full ; but the very moment disease, or harm, or violence, 
by blow or cut or otherwise, comes to any part of the body, nature 
becomes alarmed as it were, and sends more blood there to re- 
pair the injury — much more than is usually required ; that ad- 
ditional quantity distends the blood-vessels, and gives disquiet 
or actual pain. In these cases this increased quantity of blood 
is called "inflammation ;" and if there is not this increased flow 
to the injured part, there is no healing, and that part dies, un- 
less some stimulating application is made. 

But pain comes in another way. If a man eats too much, or 
is constipated, or by some other means makes his blood impure, 
it becomes thickened thereby, and does not flow through its 
channels as freely as it should ; hence it accumulates, dams up, 
congests, distending the veins, which in their turn make pres- 
sure on some adjoining nerve, and give dull pain. This con- 
gestion in the arteries gives a sharp or pricking pain. 

Pain, then, is the result of more blood being determined to 
the part where that pain is, than naturally belongs to it. The 
evident alternative is to diminish the quantity of blood, either 
at the point of ailment or in the body in general. Thus it is 
that a mustard-plaster applied near a painful spot, by withdraw- 
ing the blood to itself, gives instantaneous relief. Opening a 
vein will do the same thing ; and so, but not as expeditiously, 
will any purgative medicine, because that by all these things, by 
diminishing the amount of fluid as to the whole body, each par- 
ticular part is proportionably relieved. On the same principle 
is it that a "good sweat" is "good" for any pain, and affords 
more or less relief. Friction does the same, even if it is per- 
formed with so soft a thing as the human hand, for any rubbing 



82 

reddens, that is, attracts blood to the part rubbed, and thus di- 
minishes the amount of pain at the spot where there is too much 
blood. 

But the safer, more certain and durable method of relieving 
pain is to do it in a natural way, without the violence of the 
lancet, or the blister-plaster, or the purgative ; and that is, by 
diminishing the amount of blood in the body, by cutting off the 
supply of its manufacture. The blood is made out of the food 
we eat, and it is just as easy to make a world out of nothing as 
to make more blood in the body without eating more. Ceasing 
to eat would be of itself a negative remedy — its only effect 
would be not to increase the pain ; but nature's forces are al- 
ways in operation ; she is constantly engaged in unloading the 
body of its surplus fluids — unloading it in a million places at the 
same time, and in a million ways ; every pore of the skin, at 
every instant of our existence, is discharging its portion of the 
substance of the body in the shape of insensible perspiration ; 
and besides this, every breath we breathe, every emotion of the 
mind, every movement of a muscle, down to the crook of a fin- 
ger or wink of an eye, is at the expense of atoms of the body ; 
it contains less, weighs less, than at the instant before. Thus it is 
that if, in any pain, we instantly stop eating, and thus stop adding 
to the quantity of blood already in the body, nature will perform 
the other part, and diminish the supply every instant. So that 
the great remedy for pain is to lie still, wait and do nothing — the 
very course which blind instinct, by the wise and loving Father 
of us all, points out to wounded bird and beast and creeping- 
thing, and they get well amain. 

The great thing, then, to do in order to ward off serious dis- 
ease, (and sickness never comes without a friendly premonition 
in the distance, only that in our stupidity or heedlessness we 
often fail to make a note of it,) is simply to observe three things. 

1. The instant we become conscious of any unpleasant sensa- 
tion in the body, cease eating absolutely. 

2. Keep warm. 

3. Be still. 

These are applicable and safe in all cases ; sometimes a more 
speedy result is attained if, instead of being quiet, the patient 
would, by moderate, steady exercise, keep up a gentle perspira- 
tion for several hours. And an observant person will seldom 



CRAZY PEOPLE. 83 

fail to discover that he who relies on a judicious abstinence and 
moderate exercise for the removal of his " symptoms," will find 
in due time, in multitudes of cases, that the remedy will become 
more and more efficient, with increasing intervals for need of its 
application, until at length a man is not sick at all, and life goes 
out like the snuff of a candle or as gently as the dying embers 
on the hearth. 



CRAZY PEOPLE. 



O^ce upon a sunnier time, when visiting the linen factories 
of Belfast, a notice was observed above one of the doors, writ- 
ten in Latin, which translated, meant that they would be wise, 
who, in passing through the world, kept their eyes and ears 
open. In fact, this makes all the difference between an intelli- 
gent man and a know-nothing. Much may any man learn in a 
large city who will thus employ two of his senses. Lessons of 
great practical value may be read as well in the narrow alley as 
on splendid Broadway ; in the hovels of the poor as in the mag- 
nificent mansions of the Avenue ; in the cellars and garrets of 
the mechanic and the artisan, as well as on change or at the 
banking-house. 

Many an editor and book- writer remembers to have seen in the 
sixth story of Gray's Mammoth Printing Establishment, a thin, 
weazen, snappy-eyed, quick-motioned, sharp-faced gentleman, 
the cock of the walk in that upper sphere, the lord, ruler, gov- 
ernor, and director of that floor. Always busy, always meeting 
you with a smile ; and yet so picked at and pecked at by Tom, 
Dick, and Harry, that we have often wondered how he survived. 
He has been visited regularly for weeks and months by three doc- 
tors at least, and he is not dead yet ! The man of the Scalpel comes 
and thunders away, as if he would raise the roof from the build- 
ing and send it off on a tour of exploration for one of Professor 
Mitchel's lost stars. Words of wit and wisdom flash out of his 
mouth, like the scintillations of the great Kohinoor, when they 
were grinding it into a more comely shape for her majesty, 
Queen Victoria, long live the same ! It is no uncommon thing 
when Dixon gets on one of his high horses, to have a crowd 



84 

around him of all the employes, (who are working by the day,) 
with eyes and mouth open, drinking in the riches of his diction. 
We have seen it. Then comes Dr. Noyes, his mind ahead of 
his body ; earnest, quick, indefatigable. He, too, gives Powers 
a twitch or a dig, for the shortcomings of some of Dixon's 
auditors ; and just as that item is settled by the promised recti- 
fication of the grievance, in comes the Journal of Health 
man, unseen, noiseless, and unknown, and going point-blank at 
his business in hand, is in the middle of it in double-quick 
time, every thing being in apple-pie order, and in plain black 
and white ; that is, the black and white are plain enough as to 
color, although now and then there may be some slight incon- 
venience in deciding whether the manuscript is French or Mo- 
gul ; and then pouring in the oil and wine to prepare the way 
for a welcome next time, he vamooses the ranch, with the 
sound dying away ; " Glad to see you again, Doctor !" 

One day we stopped a moment in wonder at the innumerable 
twitches at Powers. What with the bother of proof-readers 
and doctors, of calls for more copy, and solicitations of compo- 
sitors to decipher hieroglyphics ; to spell out words that never 
had any spell in them, or to " make out" words which were of 
every language under the sun. At length we said to him : " It's 
a wonder you don't go crazy !" 

" Crazy ! Haven't time to get crazy ; too many things to do," 
and away he went with a merry laugh, but his words remained, 
to be a text for some future article in the Journal of Health. 

" Haven't time to get crazy; too many things to do." There 
is philosophy enough in those dozen words to fill whole tomes 
of octavos. It's the grand secret of human health and human 
happiness, to have a plenty to do. " Go ahead, keep moving." 
There's wisdom in that, and health ; health of body, health of 
brain, and a long life. It's the people who have leisure to mood 
and mope, and hug sharp-pointed memories, who fill our asy- 
lums, and not those who have a dozen irons in the fire at the 
same time, some round, some square, and some in the pig, so as 
to bring out and exercise, and develop different mental capa- 
bilities, thus making all parts of the brain to grow equally, not- 
only strengthening it but by keeping up equal activities in all 
its parts, a maturity of judgment and a keenness of discrimina- 
tion are the result, and these are qualities at the very foundation 



NEGLECTING COLDS. 85 

of human success. The lesson of the article is, as you would 
avoid an aimless life, a miserable pilgrimage to the land beyond, 
a mad-house or a premature grave, avoid leisure, avoid one idea, 
one only pursuit. 



NEGLECTING COLDS. 

Eyeey intelligent physician knows that the best possible 
method of promptly curing a cold is, that the very day in which 
it is observed to have been taken, the patient should cease ab- 
solutely from eating a particle for twenty-four or forty-eight 
hours, and should be strictly confined to a warm room, or be 
covered up well in bed, taking freely hot drinks. It is also in 
the experience of every observant person, that when a cold is 
once taken, very slight causes indeed increase it. The expres- 
sion, "It is nothing but a cold," conveys a practical falsity of 
the most pernicious character, because an experienced medical 
practitioner feels that it is impossible to tell in any given case, 
where a cold will end ; hence, and when highly valuable lives 
are at stake, his solicitudes appear sometimes to others to verge 
on folly or ignorance. A striking and most instructive example 
of these statements is found in the case of Nicholas the First, 
the Emperor of all the Eussias. For more than a year before 
his death, his confidential medical adviser observed that in con- 
sequence of the Emperor " not giving to sleep the hours needed 
for restoration," his general vigor was declining, and that ex- 
posures which he had often encountered with impunity, were 
making unfavorable impressions on the system — that he had less 
power of resistance. At length, while reviewing his troops on 
a January day, he took a severe cold, which at once excited the 
apprehensions of his watchful physician, who advised him not 
to repeat his review. 

" Would you make as much of my illness if I were a com- 
mon soldier?" asked the Emperor, in a tone of good-natured 
pleasantry. 

" Certainly, please your majesty; we should not allow a com- 
mon soldier to leave the hospital if he were in the state in 
which your majesty is." 



86 

"Well, you would do your duty — I will do mine," and the 
exposure was repeated, with, the result of greatly increasing the 
bad effects of this original cold, and lie died in a week after- 
wards. 

It is not the weakness of a few great men to transfer their 
superiority in other things to their knowledge of health and 
medicine. The self-reliant or self-opinionated have been often 
heard to exclaim : " I believe I know about as much as the 
doctors. A doctor don't know more than any body else." 
One of the most eminent clergymen of his sect recently died, 
learned above any of his fellows, could write and converse in 
some half-a-dozen languages. An intimate friend and panegy- 
rist said of him, that be held medical science in a kind of con- 
tempt, had little or no confidence in medicines or physicians. 
These are not the exact words, but they embody the impression 
which the exact words would make on ordinary minds. The 
result was, that he kept ailments to himself for more than a 
year ; ailments whose nature is to go on steadily and become 
more and more aggravated to a fatal issue ; but which judicious 
remedial means have a thousand times eradicated. He died in 
the very prime of intellectual manhood. 

The pilot, who has a thousand souls aboard, is many a 
time almost crazed with a sense of his responsibility, when 
he is steering his vessel over dangerous places, while the pas- 
sengers themselves see nothing but unrippled waters and the 
clear blue sky; at the same time, a quarter's turn of the wheel, 
more or less, would, in the briefest space, send them all unan- 
nealed and un shriven into the presence of their Maker. Hence, 
in a well-regulated ship, a passenger is never allowed to address 
a word to the man who is at the wheel. Thus it is with an 
intelligent physician in reference to his patient, and he is wise 
who will read the lesson well by remembering that it is his 
business to do and not to babble ; for the people's ignorance of 
nature and her operations, as to the human body, is amazing to 
those whose stock of amazement h£s not long ago been utterly 
exhausted in the contemplation of the stupidities of mankind. 



Health Tracts of one page are sold and sent for 25 cents a hundred, by 
addressing Dr. W. W. Hall, New- York. Subjects : Winter Shoes, "Wear- 
ing Flannel, Care of the Eyes, Cold Feet, Regulating the Bowels, How to 
Sit, Walk, Breathe, Curing Colds, Avoiding Disease, Best Hair Wash, etc. 



MISTAKEN" BENEVOLENCE. 87 



MISTAKEN BENEVOLENCE. 

A woman, with a dog on each side, hitched to a hand-cart, 
may be seen in any street in New- York of a bleak winter's day ; 
or little girls with baskets, the girls, not the baskets, in tatters, 
filth, and rags, without bonnets or shoes, picking from the ash- 
barrels any little piece of half-burnt coal which by chance may 
be there. Half a basket is sometimes obtained from a single 
barrel ; it is then taken to some desolate home to warm a fail- 
ing mother or thriftless household. In view of this, is it not 
11 mean" to make the servants riddle the ashes so that a single 
lump of coal might not be thrown out ? and would it not be 
generous, even to put in the ash-barrel a handful or two of the 
best coal in order to reward these poor creatures ? No ! 

Chance living seldom fails to end in moral depravities of the 
deepest dye, and in this very plain way. A person " finds" a 
plenty to day, and to-morrow, and may be for weeks together, 
and the feeling grows : " I will get a plenty more, and it is not 
worth while to be careful." But a night comes during which 
there is a storm of sleet or hail or deep drifting snow, and 
the ash-barrels are not put out, or by some other chance no coal 
is found, and the dreadful alternative is to freeze or obtain sup- 
plies of fuel in some other way. First comes the borrow, then 
the beg, and last the steal, for these three characteristics gene- 
rally follow close on the heels of each other. 

Apropos — In passing sixty-three East Sixteenth street, near 
Third Avenue, a few days since, one of our citizens, known for 
his activity and energy, and for his keen appreciation of the 
useful, said to us: "Buy one of my coal-sifters, cost sixteen 
hundred dollars to get out the patent, and I will sell you 
one for only four dollars and a half. I'll send it to your 
house, you shall keep it and try it, and if it does not 
meet your expectations, I will call for it." He sent it, called 

again, and got his money. We now say to our readers, 

without the knowledge, consent, assent, or acquiescence of 
the gentleman aforesaid, that Booth's Patent Coal Ash-Sifter is 
the most perfect thing of the kind ever yet presented to the 
public. You empty the scuttle into the top of the sifter with- 
out any more dust than would arise from throwing it into the 



ash-barrel, and without turning any crank, or shaking, or any 
thing else on your part, there is a perfect separation of ash and 
coal by the time the empty scuttle is set down on the floor, 
without further dust, there not being found in the ashes a bit 
of coal as large as a common thimble, nor among the coal a half 
a pint of ashes, the ashes in one box, the coal in the other, all 
in an almost air-tight wooden inclosure, hence the suppression 
of dust. 



WISE CHARITIES 



Life Illustrated, ever alive to the diffusion of intelligence 
which its editors believe tends to ameliorate the condition of 
the suffering, the friendless, and the poor, says that Alfred 
White, clerk of St. Paul's Mission, has established in Laight 
street a " Church Home Intelligence Office," where unprotected 
females, of good character, may find an asylum while unem- 
ployed. 

Also, that there is at least one hotel in the city of New- York 
where a sick man can secure some little attention, and even 
nursing, without its costing him ten dollars a day, for the mere 
shadow of these things. In the bare hope that it may be a 
" Maison Sante," a Home of Health, we give its locality, No. 
158 Bleecker street. We once took a friend to an up-town 
boarding-house. He was very ill. His bill for " accommoda- 
tions" for four days was eighty dollars, while we did the nurs- 
ing. 

Another of the deserving charities, and of rather a novel 
character, is referred to in the Express by its editor, the Hon. 
Erastus Brooks, a large portion of whose time is expended in 
personal attention to the eleemosynaries of the city. He states 
that at No. 31 Yesey street twent3 r -five tickets can be purchased 
for a dollar, each one of which will give a poor outcast, a friend- 
less boy or girl or woman, a comfortable night's lodging or a 
good meal of victuals. 

Who of our readers will smoke a cigar after this, and yet pro- 
fess that he can not afford to give any thing to support a charity 
of this kind ? The price of a cigar will give a bed for a night 
to a human brother or sister, who else would have to sleep in a 



ALEXANDER OF RUSSIA. 89 

barrel, or stoop, or store-box, or be taken to prison ; not only a 
bed, but a sufficient breakfast after it, enough to give strength 
to set out in the morning and hunt for a job or a home. Pam- 
pered young ladies of New- York, look on your diamond rings, 
your breast-pins of costliest material, your bracelets of solid gold, 
and remembering how many famishing women and children, 
and discouraged men, the price of these would comfort and 
cheer, and mayhap save from discouragement and crime, look 
at them, and rather than say you have nothing to give, sell 
them for what they will bring, and deposit the proceeds with 
Mr. Whitfield for tickets, which carry in your pocket, and when 
you meet a brother or sister famishing for bread ; or when you 
are importuned by some pallid child or gray-haired woman, 
"For the love of God, a penny to buy a bit of bread," give a 
ticket ; and it will show where a full meal can be had for it. 
And as disease follows close on to the heels of destitution, you 
may thus keep many well. To show that such institutions are 
needed, nineteen hundred meals and lodgings were supplied at 
four cents each at three hundred and sixty-seven Pearl street, 
New- York, in one month. A similar establishment is found at 
Eighty-one Third avenue, corner of Twelfth street. JSTo doubt 
Greorge F. Cooledge has a hand in these matters. Such of our 
readers as have a sympathy for the poor and money to venti- 
late it, may feel assured that what they give in this direction: 
will be expended wisely and to the best advantage, while the- 
money given to street beggars encourages vagrancy, and is very 
often spent foolishly if not criminally. 



NICHOLAS OF RUSSIA. 

A private memoir of the late Emperor Nicholas the First was published and dis- 
tributed among the more immediate relatives and friends of the autocrat of sixty mil- 
lions of human beings. It is made up from his private papers, from official records 
and other authentic sources ; hence it may be regarded as a true representation of 
the inner life of the real character of that distinguished personage. From a peru- 
sal of it, by the courtesy of a friend, who was in St. Petersburgh at the time of the 
Emperor's death, and whose personal knowledge confirms, as far as it goes, the 
literal truth of the memoir, we are constrained to say, that perhaps not one in a 
million of all who speak the English language has a proper estimate of the late- 
Czar. As an emperor, a husband, a father, a brother, a master, a friend, there is 
a beauty in his character which has few parallels among sovereigns. No one can 
rise from its perusal without a deep impression that he was a Christian. A synop 
sis of the memoir will be found in the April number of the Fireside Monthly. 



90 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 20. 



WORTH RE^ZEMBERinSTC*- 

From HalVs Journal of Health, One Dollar a Year, New- York 

POISONS. 

Fob any poison, the most speedy, certain, and most frequently efficacious remedy in the world, 
if immediately taken, is a heaping teaspoonful of ground mustard, stirred rapidly in a glass of 
cold water, and drank down at a draught, causing instantaneous vomiting. As soon as the vomit- 
ing ceases, swallow two tablespoonfuls or more of sweet-oil, or any other mild oil. 

If no ground mustard is at hand, drink a teacupful or more of sweet-oil, or any other pure 
mild oil, melted hog's lard, melted butter, train oil, cod-liver oil, any of which protect the coats of 
the stomach from the disorganizing effects of the poison ; and, to a certain extent, by filling up the 
pores of the stomach, (the mouths of the absorbents,) prevent the poison being taken up into the 
circulation of the blood. Persons bitten by rattlesnakes have drank oil freely, and recovered. 
These are things to be done while a physician is being sent for. 



BITES AND STING-S. 

Apply instantly, with a soft rag, most freely, spirits of hartshorn. The venom of stings being 
an acid, the alkali nullifies them. Fresh wood ashes, moistened with water, and made into a poul- 
tice, frequently renewed, is an excellent substitute — or, soda or saleratus — all being alkalies. 

To be on the safe side, in case of snake or mad-dog bites, drink brandy, whisky, rum, or other 
spirits, as free as water — a teacupful, or a pint or more, according to the aggravation of the cir- 
cumstances. 

POULTICES. 

As to inflammation, sores, cuts, wounds by rusty nails, etc., the great remedy is warmth and 
moisture, because these promote evaporation and cooling ; whatever kind of poultice is applied, 
that is best which keeps moist the longest, and is in its nature mild ; hence cold light (vvheaten) 
bread, soaked in sweet milk, is one of the very best known. There is no specific virtue in the 
repulsive remedy of the " entrails of alive chicken," of scraped potatoes, turnips, beets, carrots, or 
any other scrapings ; the virtue consists in the mild moisture of the application. Hence the memory 
need not be burdened with the recollection of particular kinds of poultices, but only with the prin- 
ciple that that poultice is best which keeps moist longest without disturbance. 



SCALDS AND BURNS. 

The best, most instantaneous, and most accessible remedy in the world, is to thrust the injured 
part in cold water, send for a physician, and while he is coming, cover the part an inch or more 
deep with common flour. The water gives instantaneous relief by excluding the oxygen of the 
air ; the flour does the same thing, but is preferable, because it can be kept more continuously 
applied, with less inconvenience, than by keeping the parts under water. As they get well, the 
flour scales off, or is easily moistened and removed. If the injury is at all severe, the patient 
should live mainly on tea and toast, or gruels, and keep the bowels acting freely every day, by 
eating raw apples, stewed fruits, and the like. No better and more certain cure for scalds and 
burns has ever been proposed. 

Health Tracts, one page each, are sold or sent for 25 cents a hundred, by addressing Dr. W. W. 
Hall, New-York. 



91 
HEA LTH TRACT, N o. 21, 

ATTENTION TO THE FEET. 

From HaWs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York. 

It is utterly impossible to get well or keep well, unless 
the feet are kept dry and warm all the time. If they are 
for the most part cold, there is cough or sore throat, or 
hoarseness, or sick headache, or some other annoyance. 

If cold and dry, the feet should be soaked in hot water 
for ten minutes every night, and when wiped and dried, 
rub into them well, ten or fifteen drops of sweet oil ; do 
this patiently with the hands, rubbing the oil into the soles 
of the feet particularly. 

On getting up in the morning, dip both feet at once into 
water, as cold as the air of the room, half ankle deep, for 
a minute in Summer ; half a minute or less in Winter, rub- 
bing one foot with the other, then wipe dry, and if 
convenient, hold them to the fire, rubbing them with the 
hand until perfectly dry and warm in every part. 

If the feet are damp and cold, attend only to the morn- 
ing washings, but always at night remove the stockings, 
and hold the feet to the fire, rubbing them with the hands 
for fifteen minutes, and get immediately into bed. 

Under any circumstances, as often as the feet are cold 
enough to attract attention, draw off the stockings, and 
hold them to the fire ; if the feet are much inclined to damp- 
ness, put on a pair of dry stockings, leaving the damp ones 
before the fire to be ready for another change. 

Some person's feet are more comfortable, even in Winter, 
in cotton, others in woolen stockings. Each must be guided 
by his own feelings. Sometimes two pair of thin stockings 
keep the feet warmer, than one pair which is thicker than 
both. The thin pair may be of the same or of different 
materials, and that which is best next the foot, should be 
determined by the feelings of the person. 

Sometimes the feet are rendered more comfortable by 
basting half an inch thickness of curled hair on a piece of 
thick cloth, slipping this into the stocking, with the hair 
next the skin, to be removed at night, and placed before 
the fire to be perfectly dried by morning. 

Persons who walk a great deal during the day, should, 
on coming home for the night, remove their shoes and 
stockings, hold the feet to the fire until perfectly dry ; put 
on a dry pair, and wear slippers for the remainder of the 
evening. 

Boots and gaiters keep the feet damp, cold and unclean, 
by preventing the escape of that insensible perspiration 
which is always escaping from a healthy foot, and condens- 
ing it ; hence the old-fashioned low shoe is best for health. 



92 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 22. 



EEGTTLATING THE BOWELS. 

From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving PlacCj New- York. 

It is best that the bowels should act every morning after 
breakfast ; therefore, quietly remain in the house, and 
promptly attend to the first inclination. If the time passes, 
do not eat an atom until they do act ; at least not until break 
fast next day, and even then, do not take anything except a 
single cup of weak coffee or tea, and some cold bread and 
butter, or dry toast, or ship-biscuit. 

Meanwhile, arrange to walk or work moderately, for an 
hour or two, each forenoon and afternoon, to the extent of 
keeping up a moisture on the skin, drinking as freely as 
desired as much clear water as will satisfy the thirst, taking 
special pains, as soon as the exercise is over, to go to a good 
fire or very warm room in Winter, or, if in Summer, to a 
place entirely sheltered from any draught of air, so as to 
cool off very slowly indeed, and thus avoid taking cold or 
feeling a " soreness " all over next day. 

Remember, that without a regular daily healthful action 
of the bowels, it is impossible to maintain health, or to 
regain it, if lost. The coarser the food, the more freely 
will the bowels act, such as corn (Indian,) bread eaten hot ; 
hominy ; wheaten grits ; bread made from coarse flour, 
or " shorts ;" Graham bread • boiled turnips, or stirabout. 

If the bowels act oftener than twice a day, live for a 
short time on boiled rice, farina, starch, or boiled milk. 
In more aggrevated cases, keep as quiet as possible on a 
bed, take nothing but rice, parched brown like coffee, 
then boiled and eaten in the usual way ; meanwhile drink 
nothing whatever, but eat to your fullest desire bits of ice 
swallowed nearly whole, or swallow ice cream before en- 
tirely melted in the mouth ; if necessary, wear a bandage 
of thick woolen flannel, a foot or more broad bound tightly 
around the abdomen ; this is especially necessary if the pa- 
tient has to be on the feet much. All locomotion should 
be avoided when the bowels are thin, watery or weakening. 
The habitual use of pills, or drops or any kind of medicine 
whatever, for the regulation of the bowels, is a sure means 
of ultimately undermining the health ; in almost all cases 
la}'ing the foundation for some of the most distressing of 
chronic maladies, hence all the pains possible, should be 
taken to keep them regulated by natural agencies, such as 
the coarse foods and exercises above named. 



93 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 23. 



SOUE STOMA.OH. 

{From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York.) 

Nature provides a liquid (the gastric juice) in the stomach, 
sufficient to dissolve as much food as the system requires, and no 
more. Whatever is eaten beyond what is needed has no gastric 
juice to dissolve it, and being kept at the temperature of the 
stomach, which is about a hundred degrees, it begins to decom- 
pose — that is, to sour — in one, two, three, or more hours, just as 
new cider begins to sour in a few hours. In the process of sour- 
ing, gas is generated as in the cider-barrel, the bung is thrown 
out, and some of the contents run over at the bung-hole, because 
in souring, the contents expand, and require more room. So with 
the stomach. It may be but partially filled by a meal ; but 
if more has been swallowed than wise nature has provided gastric 
juice for, it begins to sour, to ferment, to distend, and the man 
feels uncomfortably full. He wants to belch. That gives some 
relief. But the fermentation going on, he gets the " belly ache" 
of childhood or some other discomfort, which lasts for several 
hours, when nature succeeds in getting rid of the surplus, and the 
machinery runs smoothly again. But if these things are frequently 
repeated, the machinery fails to rectify itself, looses the power of 
readjustment, works with a clog, and the man is a miserable dys- 
peptic for the remainder of life ; and all from his not having had 
wit enough to know when he had eaten a plenty, and being fool- 
ish enough, when he had felt the ill effects of thus eating too much, 
to repeat the process an indefinite number of times ; and all for the 
trifling object of feeling good for the brief period of its passing 
down the throat. For each minute of that good he pays the 
penalty of a month of such suffering as only a dyspeptic can appre- 
ciate. What a fool man is ! He is a numskull, a goose, a sheep, 
a goat, a jackass. 

Health Tracts, one page each, are sold for 25 cents a hundred ; address Dr. W. 
W. Hall, New- York. 



94 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 24. 



EATING. 

(From HalVs Journal of Health, One Dollar a Year, New -York.) 

The stomach has two doors, one for the entrance of the food, on the left side, 
the other, for its exit, after it has been properly prepared for another process. 
As soon as the food is swallowed, it begins to go round and round the stomach so 
as to facilitate dissolution ; just as the melting of a number of small bits of ice is 
expedited by being stirred in a glass of water ; the food, like the ice, dissolving 
from without, inwards, until all is a liquid mass. 

Eminent physiologists have said, that as this liquid mass passes the door of 
exit, where there is a little movable muscle, called the Pyloric Yalve, (a faithful 
watchman,) that which is fit for future purposes gives a tap, as it were ; the 
valve flies open, and it makes an honorable exit. Thus it goes on until the stom- 
ach is empty, provided no more food has been taken than there was a supply of 
gastric juice for. If a mouthful too much has been taken, there is no gastric juice 
to dissolve it ; it remains hard and undigested, it is not fit to pass, and the janitor 
refuses to open the door ; and another and another circuit is made, with a steady 
refusal at each time, until the work is properly done. Boiled rice, roasted apples, 
cold raw cabbage cut up fine in vinegar, tripe prepared in vinegar, or souse, pass 
through in about an hour ; fried pork, boiled cabbage and the like, are kept danc- 
ing around for about five hours and a half. 

After, however, there has been a repeated refusal to pass, and it would appear 
that any longer detention was useless, as in the case of indigestible food, or a dime, 
or cent, or fruit-stone, the faithful watchman seems to be almost endowed with in- 
telligence as if saying : " "Well, old fellow, you never will be of any account ; it is 
not worth while to be troubled with you any longer, pass on, and never show your 
face again." 

When food is thus unnaturally detained in the stomach, it produces wind, eructa- 
tions, fullness, acidity, or a feeling often described as a " weight," or " load," or 
" heavy." But nature is never cheated. Her regulations are never infringed with 
impunity ; and although an indigestible article may be allowed to pass out of the 
stomach, it enters the bowels as an intruder, is an unwelcome stranger, the parts 
are unused to it, like a crumb of bread which has gone the wrong way by passing 
into the lungs, and nature sets up a violent coughing to eject the intruder. As 
to the bowels, another plan is taken, but the object is the same — a speedy rid- 
dance. As soon as this unwelcome thing touches the lining of the bowels, nature 
becomes alarmed, and like as when a bit of sand is in the eye, she throws out 
water, as if with the intention of washing it out of the body, hence the sud- 
den diarrheas with which two-legged pigs are sometimes surprised. It was a 
desperate effort of nature to save the body, for if undigested food remains too 
long, either in the stomach or bowels, fits, convulsions, epilepsies, apoplexies, and 
death, are a very frequent result. Inference : Always eat slowly and in modera- 
tion of well-divided food. 

These Health Tracts are furnished at 25 cents a hundred, assorted. 



95 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 25. 



SLEEPING. 

(From HalVs Journal of Health, One Dollar a Year, New- York.) 

Inability to sleep is the first step toward madness, while sound and sufficient 
sleep imparts a vigor to the mind, and a feeling of wellness and activity to the 
body, which are beyond price. To be able to go to sleep within a few minutes of 
reaching the pillow, and to sleep soundly until the morning breaks, and to do this 
for weeks and months together, is perfectly delightful. How such a thing may be 
brought about, and kept up, as a general rule, is certainly well worth knowing, and 
will be appreciated, even by those who have lost but half a night's sleep. The 
reader can study out the reasons of the suggestions at his leisure. 

Both in city and country the chamber should be on the second, third or higher 
floor ; its windows should face the east or south, so as to have the drying and puri- 
fying influences of the blessed sunlight ; there should be no curtains to the bed or 
windows, nor should there be any hanging garments or other woven fabrics except 
the clothes worn during the day, each article of which should be spread out by it- 
self, for the purpose of thorough airing. There should be no carpet on the floor 
of a sleeping-room, except a single strip by the side of the bed, to prevent a sud- 
den shock by the warm foot coming in contact with a cold floor. Carpets collect 
dust and dirt and filth and dampness, and arc the invention of laziness to save 
labor and hide uncleanness. 

Ordinarily, mattresses of shucks, chaff, straw, or curled hair are best to sleep 
upon. For old persons and those of feeble vitality, there is nothing better than a 
clean feather bed. No one can sleep well if cold. Have as little covering as pos- 
sible from just above the knees upwards, but cover the legs and feet abundantly, 
for by keeping them warm, the blood is withdrawn from the brain, and to that ex- 
tent, dreaming is prevented. 

There should be no standing fluid of any description, nor a particle of food or 
vegetation or any decayable substance allowed to remain in a bed-room for a mo- 
ment ; nor should any light be kept burning, except from necessity, as all these 
things corrupt the air which is breathed while sleeping. 

The entire furniture of a chamber should be the bed, two or three wooden chairs, 
a table and a bureau or chest of drawers. Every article of bed-clothing should 
be thrown over a chair or table by itself, and the mattress remain exposed, until 
the middle of the afternoon ; not later, lest the damps of the evening should im- 
pregnate them. From morning until afternoon of every sunshiny day, the win- 
dows of the chamber should be hoisted fully. The fire-place should be kept open, 
at least during the night, thus affording a draft from the crevices of doors and win- 
dows. As foul air is lightest in warm weather, it is best that the sash should be 
let down at the top half an inch or more, and the lower one elevated several inches ■ 
by this means the pure and cool air from without enters and drives the heated 
impure air upwards and outwards. 

In a very cold room, without a good draught or ventilation, carbonic acid being 
generated by the sleeper, becomes heavy and falls to the floor ; this gas has no nour- 



96 HEALTH TKACT. — SLEEPING. 

ishmerit for the lungs, and to breathe it wholly for two minutes, is to die ; it is this 
which causes suffocation in descending some wells. In summer it goes to the ceil- 
ing, in winter to the floor ; hence it is more important that a sleeping-room should 
have a very gentle current of air in winter than in summer. 

Never go to bed with cold or damp feet, else refreshing sleep is impossible ; but 
spend the last five or ten minutes before bed-time, at least in firetime of year, in 
drying and heating the feet before the fire, with the stockings off. Indians and 
hunters sleep with their feet towards the camp-fire. 

Different persons require different amounts of sleep, according to age, sex, and 
occupation. Nature must make the apportionment, and will always do it wisely 
and safely ; and there is only one method of doing it. Do not sleep a moment in 
the day, or if essential do not exceed ten minutes, for this will refresh more man 
if you sleep an hour, or longer. Go to bed at a regular early hour, not later than 
ten, and get up as soon as you wake of yourself in the morning ; follow this up for a 
week or two, and if there is no actual disease, nature will always arouse the sleeper 
as soon as enough sleep has been taken to repair the expenditures of the preced- 
ing day, a little more or less in proportion to the amount of bodily and mental 
effort made the day before. Commonly there will be but a few minutes' difference 
for weeks together. It is not absolutely necessary to get up and dress, but only to 
avoid a second nap. Sometimes it is advantageous to remain in bed until the 
feeling of tiredness, with which most persons are familiar, has passed from the 
limbs. It is safest and best for all to take breakfast before going out of doors in 
the morning, whether in summer or winter, most especially in new, flat or damp 
countries, as a preventive of chill and fever. 

If from any cause you get up during the night, throw open the bed-clothes, so 
as to give the bedding an airing, and also with the hands give the whole body a 
good rubbing for a minute or two ; the effect will be an immediate feeling of re- 
freshment, and a more speedy falling to sleep again. This was Franklin's remedy 
in case of restlessness at night. 

When it is remembered that one third of our whole time is spent in our cham- 
bers, and that only uncorrupted air can complete the process of digestion and as- 
similation and purify the blood, it is most apparent that the utmost pains should 
be taken to secure the breathing of a pure atmosphere during the hours of sleep ; 
and that the most diligent attention in this regard is indispensable to high health. 



HEALTH WITHOUT MEDICINE OR MONEY. 

A Medical Library which never advises a dose of medicine, except in cholera, may be found in 
the following works, written by Dr. W. W. Hall, of 42 Irving Place, New- York, after having spent 
many years in special and exclusive attention to diseases of the throat and lungs : 

Hall's Journal of Health, six volumes, $1.25 each : whole set, $7.00 

Health and Disease, a Book for the People, third edition, 298 pages, 1.00 

Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, ninth edition, 382 pages, 1.00 

Consumption, second edition, 280 pages, 1859, 1.00 

The object of these books is to show, to the young especially, how health may be preserved by 
natural agencies, and how, by the same means, to remedy ordinary ailments, such as cold feet, sick- 
headache, constipation, neuralgia, dyspepsia, etc. 

Hall's Journal of Health is published monthly, for one dollar a year, specimen numbers ten 
cents. 

The Fireside Monthly is $1.50 a year, specimens twelve cents ; it excludes fiction, and is de. 
voted to science, literature, and practical life. This, with the Journal of Health, will be sent for 
two dollars a year. 

The Health Tracts are furnished at 25 cents a hundred, assorted. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



TE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BS AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] MAY, 1860. [No. 5. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

For rapidity of improvement and thoroughness of instruc- 
tion, the public schools of the city of New-York are believed to> 
be without equals any where. The children are educated to a- 
promptness of speech, and thought, and action ; to a system of 
habit and propriety of deportment which is simply wonderful tfe 
those who, for years and years, have submitted to the extrava- 
gant charges, the degrading shams, the skinnings and the skim- 
mings of nine tenths of the private schools, academies, and in- 
stitutes with which our city abounds. The pretentious charac- 
ter of these latter establishments is so generally conceded, that 
they are patronized by two classes mainly • — ■ both, however, 
rich ; those lately so, hoping to edge their daughters into 
"good society," and those who are "too busy" to give their- 
attention to the best interests of their children, or have' not the 
intelligence necessary to determine what those best interests are ;- 
while the true " society," the wealthy and reflecting, are com- 
pelled to adopt the system of private teachers. 

Those who wish to give their daughters a thorough educa- 
tion, have the alternative of the public school or the "govern- 
ess." Unfortunately, the latter involves an expense far beyond 
the masses, while as to the former, thoughtful and observant 
men will scarcely hesitate to say that, as far as physical benefits 
are concerned, as far as pertains to the future well-being and 
happiness of the girls, to say nothing of the best interests of our 
community, every public school building in the city of ISTew- 
York had better be razed to its foundation-stone and " light- 
ered" into the Atlantic ; every teacher- supplied, with a sewing* 
no. v.— vol. vii.— 1860. 



98 

machine or thrifty husband, and every school commissioner and 
superintendent of public instruction sent to picking oakum 
or cracking rocks for the Central Park. 

A more systematic series of machinations for the slaughter of 
our daughters under the guise of philanthropic efforts could 
not well be devised than that which prevails in the conducting 
of the public schools for girls in this city. These charges are 
sweeping, but they are literally and critically but too true. 

Mother, look at your joyous and perpetual-motion daughter 
of four, Hive, or six years old. Put her in a chair, and require 
her to sit still, or try to keep her in the room for half an hour ; 
nay, try it yourself, and you will find the former, at least to 
you, an impossible thing, and the latter intolerable. But that 
same child is confined to the walls of a public school from nine 
in the morning until three o'clock in the afternoon, and for 
four or five hours of that time sits on a hard bench ; and for a 
considerable portion of these they are required to sit still under 
penalty that if they move foot, or hand, or head, they shall be 
"kept in" after three o'clock, with the disgrace of the thing 
patent to every eye of hundreds of their schoolmates. It is 
truly pitiful to look at the countenances of the little creatures 
as they come out from the place of stocks and thumb-screws at 
three o'clock of a spring or summer afternoon. There is an 
expression of fatigue and sad exhaustion in most of them 
which almost extorts a curse upon all who aid and abet the 
murderous inhumanity. 

But these enormities become more infamous. Talk about 
the lash of a negro-overseer ! These maudling croakers, these 
" scribes and pharisees — l^pocrites !" had a million times better 
give a tithe of their attention towards " ameliorating the condi- 
tion" of their own children — a tithe of their money towards 
constructing an "underground railroad" for emancipating their 
own offspring from the infliction of moral lashings which not 
only kill the body, but murder the intellect and prostrate the 
higher nature in the dust. 

These children, not having eaten any thing since about 
eight o'clock except a "lunch" of candy, pound-cake, ginger- 
bread, or sandwich, which is always required to be eaten in a 
few minutes, and not unseldom while standing in a line, it may 
be readily supposed that they are very hungry by the time 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 99 

they get home, and are ready to sit down to dinner about four 
o'clock, when, almost famished and exceedingly weary, they 
very naturally swallow with rapidity and eat a great deal. But 
before the four o'clock dinner is scarce half- digested, the tea- 
bell of six and a half or seven rings, and they sit down again to 
a fill of preserves, sweet-cakes, tea-biscuit, and other delicacies, 
so that from four until bed-time they are more like gorged ana- 
condas than any thing else. But what then ? Do they go out 
to joyous play ? Not a bit of it. They have " lessons to get," 
to which task the parents' command is not necessary to drive 
them. Either the fear of their teachers, or dread of disgrace in the 
presence of their companions, or a consuming ambition, goads 
them to their books, from which, if they are conscientious, they 
do not feel at liberty to rise, on an average, until eight, nine, 
or even ten o'clock, only to hurry up in the morning to tramp 
the same tread-mill until breakfast, all anxious to get to school 
in time for fear of a " mark" against them. 

There is nothing like plain facts for illustration. In a house 
in this street, on the second day of April, in the year of prog- 
ress, eighteen hundred and sixty, a girl of ten years was bend- 
ing over a "geography lesson." Something was evidently the 
matter ; the countenance was sad, dispirited, and by flashes, 
angry. On asking the cause, " Such a hard lesson !" On look- 
ing at it, it was found to consist of three pages of double col- 
umns, each line containing one question, and sometimes four ! 
Questions embracing the name of the capital of each State, its 
situation, and a variety of other particulars, which gave the 
sum total of questions to be hunted out by a child of ten years 
of age, from four o'clock until eight next morning, of one hun- 
dred and fifty-two. 

Besides this, there were two other lessons to learn, one of 
spelling, the other in arithmetic. The next day the lesson was 
not " said," because there was not time for its recitation. That 
is to say, there is more to be learned by the children at home, 
from four in the afternoon until school-time next day, than can 
be listened to by the teacher in the six hours from nine to three. 
On another occasion the lesson was so clearly beyond the ability 
of the children to compass, that the class, nearly a hundred, 
recited it so imperfectly, that half of the same lesson was given 



100 

out for the next day. Such a lack of judgment on the part of 
teachers merits most severe condemnation. 

It requires no argument to prove to any man, not an idiot, 
that any child must, under such a routine, wilt and wither like 
a flower without water. Under the circumstances, a modifica- 
tion of the public school system is imperative, and we call upon 
the two great moral leaders of the age, the pulpit and the press, 
to the immediate advocacy of the abolishment of home study ; 
that no lessons, under any circumstances, be required to be 
learned out of school hours ; and no greater evidence of prog- 
ress, of advancement in intelligence and a sound policy has 
lately been given to the country, than in the recent action of the 
school commissioners of Boston, in forbidding the assignment of 
lessons, for study out of school, to girls — the city physician hav- 
ing become convinced of the alarming evils resulting from such 
studies. Can New-York, with all its wealth of gold, and mind, 
and money, and magnificent enterprise, furnish no intellect 
bright enough to see and expose the intolerable stupidity of our 
public school management ? Out of the pages of this monthly 
and those of Fowler & Wells, to wit, Life Illustrated, The 
Water Cure, and The American Phrenological Journal, we read 
no word of remonstrance, of entreaty, or alarm against the 
startling evil ! 

Teachers are commended for bringing the children on so 
rapidly. Parents are flattered at the progress of their little 
ones, and school committees and superintendents are charmed 
with the tokens of solid advancement made by the youthful 
martyrs ; but they take no note of the sad face, of the dray- 
horse look, of the heavy tread, the flushed cheek, the preter- 
naturally bright eye, the cold fingers, and the clammy feet ! 
Out upon such short-sighted intellects, such leaden dolts ! If it 
is a question of education and disease, or of ignorance and glo- 
rious health for our daughters, we ourselves clutch at the union 
of health and ignorance with the greediness a famished tiger 
pounces on a fresh fat lamb. Ignorance with health may be 
useful 3 may be happy ; but a finished education with a fell dis- 
ease eating out the life, can be neither, and must early go down 
to the grave a blighted bud, a priceless jewel shivered in the 
polishing. But health and high development need never be 



COLD WATER BATHING. 101 

dissevered. Extend the time of girlhood, of " going into society," 
of " husbanding," from sixteen to twenty-six. Let one study 
be pursued at a time ; one solid study and one ornamental ac- 
complishment, and when one is thoroughly mastered, take up 
a second and a third, giving, from the age of ten, three hours a 
day to domestic activities and superintendencies and out-door 
exercises; then, at twenty -five, a young man may marry a 
woman, not a lady — may mary a help-meet, not a puny, whin- 
ing, simpering, skinny bag of bones ; may marry a counselor, 
a cooperator, and an adviser, not a thriftless, lounging, dressy, 
helpless doll. The incooperative, useless, senseless, sickly 
wife drives not a few men, capable of higher things, to discour- 
agement, to the bottle, to the prison, and to the suicide's grave, 
because their wives were first ruined mentally and morally by 
the shams of dress and show learned but too facilely at the 
detestable " boarding-school for young ladies," or the hot 
houses of mental culture, the M public school." The mother 
molds the man ; she molds the destinies of her country ; but an 
invalid at twenty, as nine out of ten are, they can not do other- 
wise than bring to their country's altar, nat the lambs " without 
blemish and without spot," but sons and daughters in body 
diseased, feeble in intellect, in heart and soul a shell and a 
sham ! 



COLD WATER BATHING. 

Dr. Tomfool is exhibiting the dimensions of his mental 
caliber, by furnishing the newspapers with the fact that he 
bathes in the river daily throughout the winter ; usually runs 
two miles, plunges in, splurges about, and runs home. 
Rather think he hasn't much " practice" to attend to beyond 
that on his own person ! He has sometimes to cut the ice, and 
takes his bath when the thermometer has been fifteen degrees 
below zero. Suppose it was a thousand ; the water itself is no 
colder than if it were thirty-two degrees above. He frequently 
stands in the snow while using flesh-brush and towels ; and 
dries himself by a cold north-east wind. Well ! what is the 
advantage of this particular fuss eyery day ? Why, that he 
has a good appetite, sleeps soundly, seldom takes cold, and 



102 hall's journal of health. 

never had disease of any kind. Rather an unfortunate confes- 
sion ! for a person seldom has but one disease in the body at a 
time : if he has gout, he has nothing else ; if he has sick head- 
ache, he has nothing else ; if cancer or consumption, nothing 
else. Again : there is a malady, a very serious one, whose 
existence all see and know and admit, except the unfortunate 
patient ; and although it is daily wearing him to the grave, he 
can not be made to acknowledge its presence, and dies, believ- 
ing himself a sound man. It is a disease of the upper stor}^. 
For fear the reader may not " comprenez-vous," we will ex- 
plain. When a man is a fool, you can't make him believe it ; 
he will not medicate his malady ; hence with all his experien- 
ces, he gets to be a bigger fool every day to the very last. 
The tendency of the article is to make persons believe that 
such heroic bathing prevents coughs, colds, and sickness in 
general. 

Per contra : The Editor of this Journal has good health, 
sleeps soundly, seldom takes cold, has not swallowed a dose of 
medicine in many }^ears, nor lost a meal for want of an appe- 
tite, always eats as much as he pleases, and never bathes in 
cold water. The last bath of that sort was nearly twenty years 
ago, on a Christmas-day, by jumping off the bow of a ship, 
into the Gulf of Mexico, " for the fun of the thing." He 
always washes face and hands in quite warm water, when it 
can be had ; and the body once in a while. He drinks tea, 
coffee, etc. daily, and is about as spry in thought, word, and 
deed as most people. He might as well say that these " advan- 
tages" were owing to his washing in warm water, as the other 
doctor, that his immunity from coughs, colds, and sickness, was 
owing to his bathing in the river when the thermometer was 
below zero ; or that avoiding liquors, tea, coffee, and tobacco 
made him a healthy man. 

The probability is, that both of us had good health to begin 
with, and learned by regularity, carefulness, and temperance to 
take care of it. The " Propter hoc" mode of argument is 
exceedingly fallacious, the inference because a healthy old 
man did this, that, or the other thing all his life, that therefore 
he was thus healthy. Persons have lived in good health to 
the age of three-score years and ten, who rose early and rose 
late ; who drank liquor three times a day, (or an indefinite 



COLD WATER BATHING. 103 

number of times,) and did not drink it at all ; who were out of 
doors a great deal, or seldom had the sunshine on them ; who 
were very good, and who were very bad. The object of these 
statements is to show the fallacy of attributing a long and 
healthful life to one thing, to its presence or its absence, and 
to direct attention to this important truth, one which strikingly 
exhibits the wisdom and the love of our Father in heaven. 
That men can live long in any country, clime, or latitude, in 
the use of the things around them, by wisely adapting them- 
selves to their circumstances, in temperance, industry and equa- 
nimity ; that these not only of themselves promote length of 
days, but antagonize the baleful effects of deleterious agencies. 
If a man does bathe every day, or never uses tea, coffee, liquor, 
or tobacco, or eschews fish, flesh, and fowl, he will not be ex- 
empt from disease and premature death, unless he is temperate, 
careful, systematic, and serene, and with these, he can cover " a 
multitude of sins " physical. 

More than a year ago, we met a shipping-merchant, an old 
friend, one of the most estimable of men as a husband, father, 
citizen, and merchant. He began to expatiate on the enjoy- 
ment of a regular morning bath ; the delight, the recreation, 
the glow and subsequent feeling of refreshment. " I never take 
a cold, am regular as a clock, eat no suppers, take nothing 
from breakfast until five o'clock dinner, for which I have a 
relish which is delightful, and as I think, owing to my regular 
cold morning shower-bath." 

" Were you in good health when you began?" 

11 Oh! yes, always had good health." 

Three months ago we saw him at his own house ; not the 
portly, vivacious, and rubicund man of the previous year; the 
cheek had faded, the flesh had nabbed, the eye had paled of 
its lustre, and the voice itself was subdued and sad. He was the 
victim of an agonizing chronic disease. 

It should be the wisdom of all to look for a healthful life, 
not in this one thing, or that or the other ; but in the cultivation 
of a habit of temperance, industry, and equanimity. 



104 



THE OLDEN TIME. 

" What are you doing there, Pat ? digging a hole ?" 

"No, your honor; I'm digging out the dirt, and leaving the 
hole there!" 

In the early times of the old " Chamberlain," we were elected 
to the office of "critic," and kept it all the days of our sojourn 
at college, with short exceptions, to go up higher. We were so 
full of fun, and so merciless on delinquencies, that if at any part 
of the "session" there was "a fall house," it was sure to be 
when "Father Hall" had his reports to make. How well we 
remember being a committee of one about some trifling repairs 
to be made, costing perhaps ten cents, and presenting a report 
of ever so many pages. Such uproarous cachinnations never 
came so near raising the roof of " Old Center." And only think 
of it ! The society, by a unanimous vote, ordered it to be read 
a second time, and then to be placed in full on the minutes, 
when such men were there as Gideon Blackburn, and David 
Nelson, author of that unsurpassable book, " The Cause and 
Cure of Infidelity," and John Green, and Nathan L. Eice, and 
others who have since become eminent in their day and genera- 
tion, such as Lewis W. Green and — ahem ! — the Editor of Hall's 
Journal of Health, etc., and so on. 

About this time it was our custom now and then to go 
out to "Judge Green's," where our correspondent lived. We 
asked him a very simple question, and with his remarkable vi- 
vacity, promptness, and fearlessness, he replied thereto. 

"What is a hole, C?" 

" It's an orifice bounded by space." 

"If in a pane of glass, does space bound it?" 

" Yes, at the two ends." 

" But the side boundaries ?" 

" Then a hole has two ends and a side." 

"But suppose it's a well?" 

" Then all the end is in one direction !" 

" Won't do, C, try it again. What is a hole ?" 

"It's a vacancy surrounded by circumstances, varying ac- 
cording to the nature of the case." 

There's fun in the remembrance of these things, as there was 



THE OLDEN TIME. 105 

fun in the action of them. Blessed times they ! when ail was 
sunshine, emblematic of the better country on the thither side of 
Jordan, where we shall be always young, always happy, always 
good. Surely it is worth a lifetime of special effort to reach 
that land. Another "thirty," and we'll both be there, to go no 
more out. Eeader, may you be along ! 

Such were the thoughts suggested on receiving the following 
from an old college-mate, who has made himself a place and a 
name among men, and whose work has been neither wood, hay 
nor stubble, but "goodly stones" in the great building: 

"I READ IT STRAIGHT THROUGH! 

"You ask, 'What?' Hall's Journal for March. I began 
j ust after closing my Greek Testament in the morning, intend- 
ing five minutes for glancing over its contents. Despite of the 
weightier matters pressing, an hour was gone, and I was at the 
end of a number which no one can read without profit. That 
loss of yours ! What use had pickpockets for your manuscript ? 
If they will pay good prices, I can furnish them some from the 
same hand, written in other days and under other skies. I 
wonder if you would know yourself were I to report to you a 
bundle of extracts ? Is it the same Hall that I used to see and 
hear in the academic shades of Old Center ? that sat at the same 
table at Aunt Tabitha's ? that met us in the intellectual gym- 
nastics of the Chamberlain Hall above the chapel ? that wrote me 
those valued epistles when our paths diverged so widely ? I 
see very clearly the ear-marks of mental identity. But the 
physical temple has been four times taken down and re-built. 
Has this process been like the re-building in your metropolis- 
home — for a cottage, a palace ; for a city of brick, a city of mar- 
ble ? Then I must look out for a sturdy athlete — the six-foot stat- 
ure, and the raven black hair gracefully falling over that ' teeming 
dome of thought and palace of the soul.' 

"I can not find words to express my high appreciation of the 
moral animus of your Journal. The right and the true forever ! 
This I perceive to be your motto, though no where blazoned in 
golden letters. I was present at the sowing-time ; the harvest 
has for years been ripening. We see how the ancient law abides 
— the seed yields after its kind. ' Let the earth bring forth grass, 
the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind .' 



106 

I see how the same law sweeps up into the higher ranges of the 
moral world. Once we did meet at Irving Place. You marked 
it by your able volume on throat diseases, placed in my hands 
for old acquaintance' sake. Before I got home I met a clergy- 
man of distinction, sinking rapidly. His charge was surren- 
dered ; great ulcers were choking his utterance. I lent him the 
book. All that followed I do not know. This much I can tes- 
tify : that minister became a successor of the late and revered Dr. 
Spencer, and now is Professor in the great N~. W, Theological Semi- 
nary. He started the book to me in my Ohio home, through 
the Post- Office. I suppose some suffering official intercepted it, 
as it never reached me. H. G. C." 



DEPOPULATION. 

The Society of Friends, called Quakers, are allowed by com- 
mon consent to be the most exemplary people in the world ; no 
sect or class exceeds them in integrity, industry, and in individ- 
ual deportment as to all the proprieties of life. While as a 
community they are prosperous in business, live in simple 
comfort and abundance, there is a thrift about them individ- 
ually, which is the admiration of all who know them. In 
a million of paupers, or beggars, or criminals, there will scarcely 
be found a single " Frie'nd ;" and yet they are depopulating with 
a greater rapidity than the Sandwich Islanders, whom wasting 
diseases decimate every few years. In 1690 there were in Great 
Britain and Ireland some seventy thousand " Friends ; n to-day 
there are not more than twenty-six thousand, although the pop- 
ulation of those countries has been trebled. Since 1810, the 
deaths among Friends in Great Britain have exceeded the births 
by twenty-four hundred. These facts strikingly show how sta- 
tistics may be read amiss, and how actual figures may lie ; for 
at first glance it would seem that they were wasting away by 
disease, when it would follow that industry, thrift, and a blame- 
less life not only failed to give length of days, but promoted 
premature decline and death. This would be on a par with the 
reasoning of some wicked men, who assert that . because more 
than half the Sandwich Islanders have died off within the mem- 
ory of men, and that within that time they have been civilized 
and Christianized, that Christianity is the cause of their humeri- 



POISONOUS KOOMS. 107 

cal decline ; when the true reason for it is known to be the in- 
troduction of the small-pox in part, but in greater part the dis- 
semination of. an infamous disease among them by French and 
English sailors, and by the introduction of brandy at the muz- 
zles of the cannon of French men-of-war. Hence, so far from 
missionary labor being the cause of their depopulation, it is to 
missionary labor, its antagonizing influences as to drunkenness, 
idleness, and effeminacy, the fact is owing that a Sandwich 
Islander lives to prove that such a people ever existed. 

As to the "Friends" in Great Britain, so far from their blame- 
less lives being a cause of their depopulation, it is known that 
they live longer than the people around them, by an average 
of fifteen years. Hence a cause of their decline must be looked 
for elsewhere than in a physical, physiological, or hygienic 
point of view. Premiums have been offered for the best essays 
as to the causes of a decline which thinking men contemplate 
with a melancholy regret. The general opinion, outside of them- 
selves, seems to be that they have declined in numbers from the 
strictness of their discipline and their dislike of a " hireling min- 
istry." Whatever may be the cause of their decline, that de- 
cline, and to their credit be it spoken, is a source of sincere re- 
gret by the reflecting and the good. 



POISONOUS ROOMS. 

Nothing short of "line upon line" is sufficient to impress 
great practical truths on the common mind •; hence the reitera- 
tion of the fact that using wall-paper having a green color in 
it, especially if fuzzy, and not glazed, is immediately destructive 
of health, and of life itself if persisted in ; as proof: H. Ful- 
land, near Tipton, England, lately moved in a new house ; , all 
his children became curiously affected, worse at night than dur- 
ing the day : they were exceedingly restless ; a singular twitch- 
ing or jerking of the muscles, especially of the face, and gen- 
eral decline of health, indicated the working of some insidious 
agency. The physician had them promptly removed to another 
room, when they began at once to recover their health. On a 
small piece of green-colored paper on the walls of the room 
left, there was found on analysis enough arsenic to poison a 
man. 



108 



DYING NATIONS. 

Why do nations die ? Cultivated Greece and all-conquering 
Rome ; Yandal, and Goth, and Hun, and Moor, and Pole, and 
Turk, all dead or dying ! Why ? Murdered by nations more 
powerful? Swallowed by earthquakes? Swept away by pes- 
tilence and plague, or starved by pitiless famine ? Not by any 
of these. Not by the lightning and the thunder ; not by the 
tempest and the storm ; not by poisoned air or volcanic fires 
did they die, and do they die ! They perish by moral degre- 
dation ; the legitimate results of gluttony, intemperance, and 
effeminacy. When a nation becomes rich, then there is leisure 
and the means of indulging in the appetites and passions of our 
nature which waste the body and wreck the mind. As with 
nations, so with families. Wealth takes away the wholesome 
stimulus of effort, idleness opens the flood-gates of passional 
indulgence, and the heir of millions dies heirless and poor, and 
both name and memory ingloriously rot ! 

If then, there is any truth and force in argument, each man 
owes it to himself, to his country, and more than all, to his 
Maker, to live a life of temperance, industry, and self-denial as 
to every animal gratification, and with these, having an eye to 
the glory of God, this nation of ours will live with increasing 
prosperity and renown, until with one foot on land and another 
on sea, the angel of eternity proclaims time is no longer ! 



INFANTS AND AIR. 



Parliamentary returns show that of twenty-eight hundred 
infants annually sent to various hospitals to be taken care of, 
twenty -four out of twenty -five died before they were a year 
old ! A law was immediately passed that they should be sent 
to the country thereafter, when it was found that only nine out 
of twenty-five died the first year ; that is, instead of twenty- 
six hundred and ninety dying, there were only four hundred 
and fifty, a difference of twenty -two hundred and forty. 

This simple unvarnished statement of an indisputable fact, 
ought to impress the mind of every parent deeply, with the 
importance and the duty of using all practicable means for se- 



GYMNASIUMS. 109 

curing to children the habitual breathing of the purest air possi- 
ble ; being careful to avoid a radical, mischievous, and most 
prevalent error that warm air is necessarily impure. Warmth 
is as essential to infantile health as pure air. How best to se- 
cure both, should be our constant study. There are more 
deaths under five years of age, in New -York, than there are 
from five to sixty years, owing to three things, a want of pure 
air, of suitable warmth, and proper food. In these three wants 
are found the overwhelming majority of causes for the fearful 
statement above named. Let every parent in city or country, 
in hovel or mansion, mature these things. 

To die childless, after having been once blessed with dear 
children, must be one of the most terrible of all calamities of 
the heart; yet, in countless multitudes of cases, the sufferers 
are the authors of their own crushing sorrows, by reason of 
their unpardonable ignorance or more criminal neglect. 



GYMNASIUMS 



What is the use of eating like a pig, and then have to work 
like a " nigger" to get rid of it, or explode ? The best gymna- 
sium is a wood-yard, a "clearing," or a corn-field. There is 
some sense in these things, because a valuable object is accom- 
plished by the efforts, and the healthful influence of the same 
thrown in, thus killing two birds with one stone, which is 
Nature's method of procedure in many beautiful instances. 
The saliva, the tear-drop, and the perspiration, lubricate the 
mouth, and eye, and skin, and at the same time carry out from 
the body a large proportion of its waste and impurity. The 
breath which comes from the lungs is so loaded down with the 
debris of the system, that if inhaled in the state in which it 
leaves the body, it would produce instantaneous death ; so im- 
pure, that if kept a single minute longer in the lungs than ordi- 
nary, we fairly gasp for life ; and yet, that same foul breath, 
under the name of carbonic acid gas, makes, in its outward 
passage, the soft whisper from beauty's lips, the ravishing notes 
of delicious music, or the thunder tones of resistless oratory. 

Suppose a fellow learns in time, and by labor enough to earn 
a small farm, to climb a greased pole -fifty feet high, what is he 



110 

to do when he gets there but to slide back in double quick 
time to the place he started from, and then go about his busi- 
ness ? 

What if he can jump sky-high, or turn a dozen somersets 
without stopping, or lift a calf bigger than himself, or hold, at 
arms' length, for two or ten minutes, a heavier weight than his 
own soggy head, what does he get by the "operation" ? We 
hear of some "doctor" going about the country lifting up enor- 
mous weights, and exhibiting feats of strength which make a 
practical man feel what a pity he wasn't employed in felling 
trees, or mauling rails, or grubbing potatoes. It is stated that 
he has lifted with his hands a weight of one thousand one hun- 
dred and thirty-six pounds, and that he was sanguine, in twenty 
days more, of being able to lift twelve hundred pounds. The 
more he can prove himself to lift, the bigger fool he is, and the 
more fit for an asylum ; for the next thing will be that he has 
ruptured a blood-vessel, and then for the remainder of life he 
won't be able to earn his salt, and some body will have to sup- 
port him. 

It is reported that arrangements are in progress for establish- 
ing gymnasiums for students, and the members of Young Men's 
Associations. Are our embryo doctors, and lawyers, and cler- 
gymen, going to make Tom Hyers and Bill Pooles and Yankee 
Sullivans of themselves? Does the ability of a jurist depend 
on the amount of beef he carries ? Is a physician's skill to be 
determined by the hardness of his muscles ? Is a clergyman's 
efficiency measured by the agility of his monkey capers, by his 
dexterity in hanging on to a beam by his hind-leg, and swing- 
ing up to touch his nose against the big toe of " 'tother foot" ? 

A man's intellectuality does not depend on the amount of 
brute force which he possesses. It does not require a giant's 
strength to write a sermon, or make a book, or "clear" a thief, 
or feel a pulse. Of an assembly of French swvans. oif a certain 
occasion, Humboldt, being present, was found, by an accurate 
mode of measurement, to have the least muscular strength of 
the whole company, of which he was the greatest and the old- 
est. Small men, fragile men, men of little muscular vigor may 
have good bodily health, and among such are found a vast ex- 
cess in numbers of the opposite class, and in all age's and coun- 
tries who are the brightest of the world's bright stars. As a 
very general rule, it holds good — the bigger the man the bigger 



GYMNASIUMS. Ill 

fool is he. Whoever saw a giant who was remarkable for any 
thing beyond the size of his body ; while the smallness of his 
head, and the little that is in it, is a notable thing. Both body 
and brain need vital force ; the mind is great in proportion as 
that vital force is expended in the brain, but if it is used np in 
developing the muscles, the brain must suffer. If one expects 
to make his living by the exercise of muscular strength^ let him 7 
as a boy and a youth, develop that strength by steady labor, 
and a regular and temperate life ; if it is his wish to make 
money by legerdemain, by monkey capers, by rope-walking r 
by miraculous poses, and astonishing feats of ground and lofty 
tumbling, then the gymnasium is a very proper place for him^ 
and it is well that the energies of the system should be ex- 
pended in the direction of the muscles ; but if he aims at a 
professional life, one which is to be followed as a means of 
living, he must exercise the mental, not the muscular, powers ; 
to the brain, and not to the beef, must the energies of the sys- 
tem be sent, in order that, by their exercise, the brain may be 
developed, and the mind work with power. 

To sedentary persons, violent, sudden, and fitful exercise is 
always injurious, and such are gymnastic performances. Sol- 
diers die early. To-day they are doing nothing — to-morrow 
the forced march, the terrible battle summon up to the very 
dregs the employment of dormant energies. The disabilities 
and death of a campaign are many time greater by disease than 
by the bullet, for shocks, great alternations, always cause 
disease. 

The exercise of the student should be regular, gentle, delibe- 
rate, always stopping short of felt fatigue. One hour's joyous 
walk with a cheerful friend in street, or field, or woodland, will 
never fail to do a greater and a more unmixed good, than double 
the time in the most scientifically conducted gymnasium in 
the world. There are individual cases where the gymnasium 
is of the most undeniable benefit, but the masses would be the 
better for having nothing to do with them. A million times 
better recipe than the gymnasium for sedentary persons, is : 

Eat moderately and regularly of plain nourishing food well 
prepared. 

Spend two or three hours every day in the open air regard- 
less of the weather, in moderate, untiring activities. 



112 hall's journal of health. 



PUBE MILK. 



In the city of Brooklyn there is a large high building, which 
overlooks a Milkery, containing several hundred cows. Within 
a few weeks, the official duties of a gentleman required his pres- 
ence for several days in succession in the upper part of the 
house first named. He counted the dead cows daily dragged 
out from the living ; one morning there were no less than twen- 
ty, and every cart driven from the establishment to supply New- 
York families, was labeled, "Orange County Milk." The 
plain inference is, that cows in a condition so horribly diseased 
that they die in their stalls, are milked to the very day of their 
death, and this same milk is stirred in the coffee of New-York- 
ers every morning, with silver spoons, faultlessly bright. This 
may be reasonably set down as one of the causes of the nine 
thousand and odd unnecessary deaths which take place in this 
city every year, to say nothing of the thirty thousand cases of 
sickness which need not occur ; as one of the causes why the 
average duration of human life is twenty -six years, when it is 
thirty years longer (so said) in Philadelphia, not a hundred 
miles away, and is not as healthfully situated as New- York. 

Within two years, a few gentlemen farmers who had friends 
and relatives in the city, appropriated ten thousand dollars 
towards a plan for furnishing them pure milk, fresh from farm- 
house cows, within a few hours of the milking, and at the same 
price with the swill article. The friends of their friends availed 
themselves of the opportunity, until it has now become a busi- 
ness, and the demand is at times greater than the supply. But 
for the purpose of keeping to the mark of their original deter- 
mination to supply pure milk only, and it being necessary to 
have a number of irresponsible employes, it has been found 
indispensable to institute extraordinary means of watchfulness. 
A special agent comes to town with the milk every day ; and 
more, under his eye the milk is poured into cans on which are 
placed in metallic letters the name of each patron ; the can is 
then locked, the patron having a duplicate key. Further, the 
agent is at pains from time to time to inquire of the customers 
if there is any fault to be found with the milk or the milkmen. 

But the farmers themselves, being in independent circum- 



THE PANACEA. 113 

stances, could not be expected to milk their own cows, and 
must employ hirelings : the general agent has found it neces- 
sary to watch these, and inspect the milk as it is delivered at 
the railroad station, thirty miles from the city. Within a few 
weeks, the milk of one of the oldest, richest, and most honora- 
ble-minded members of the Association was found to be largely 
thinned with water. The member was promptly and fearlessly 
acquainted with the fact, and that the matter must at once be 
investigated. Knowing his own integrity, this gentleman did not 
knock the agent down, but promptly sifted the matter, and as^ 
certained that only that once " the boys" had accidentally 
spilled the milk, and thought to cover their negligence by add- 
ing an equal amount of water. 

This milk is delivered in New- York twice a day. It is re- 
ceived by the agent warm from the cows. It is next stirred 
until the whole is thoroughly cooled ; it is then surrounded with 
ice and sent to the city. Thus the milk is uniformly rich, is 
not partially converted into butter by the jolting of transporta 
tion, and a drink of it is perfectly delicious to a citizen. The 
office is at one hundred and forty-six East Tenth street, near 
Broadway, New-York. These statements are made without the 
knowledge of any of the parties concerned, and those of our 
city readers who by changing their residences on May-day, may 
lose their old milkman, would do well to give the Rockland* 
and New-Jersey Milk Association a trial. 



THE PANACEA 



The great cure-all, the catholicon for the removal of untold 
human ills, physical and mental, which will make of life a 
summer sky, which will replace the darkest clouds with the 
gladdest sunshine, which will put a budding rose where erst 
nourished the ragged thorn, is the blessed habit of an implicit 
reliance on the wisdom and the love of Providence in every 
occurrence of life ; of humble gratitude if it is gladsome ; of 
uncomplaining resignation if it is adverse ; abiding in the firm 
faith that if it is dark to-day, it will be bright to-morrow, saying 
and feeling of every dispensation : " Not as I will, but as Thou 
wilt." This is the balm of Gilead ; this is perennial health ; it 
is happiness, it is bliss. 



114 hall's jouknal of health. 



THROAT AND LUNGS. 

In a practice of seventeen years, devoted exclusively to the 
treatment of throat and lung affections, we have arrived at the 
following conclusions, that : 

First : Throat-ail, or Clergymen's sore throat, called chronic 
laryngitis, is, in four cases out of five, originated in the stomach, 
and that to attempt to remove it by any other means than 
such as are adapted to improving the digestion and waking 
up the activities of the liver, is the sorriest absurdity of the age. 

Second : When consumption of the lungs is threatened, or is 
actually present, the first great and efficient remedial agent, 
worth incomparably more than all the drugs on earth, is the 
spending of every hour of daylight possible, in the open air, in 
some moderate, unfatiguing employment, and the eating of as 
much plain, nourishing, and relished food as the stoij ^h will 
digest. Next to that, as being more universally ace le, is 
an India-rubber Life Preserver, and for reasons which no phy- 
siologist of even ordinary acquirements would for a moment 
dispute. 

The health of a man's lungs in reference to consumption, de- 
pends upon their capacity to receive the air he breathes. Hence 
that capability is called " vital capacity," and is measured by the 
amount of air the lungs can throw out at a full expiration. 
This capacity varies according to age, sex, weight, and stature ; 
all of these can be safely left out of view in ordinary cases, ex- 
cept the hight. One man can blow up a bladder, can fill it 
at a breath ; another in equal health of lungs would require 
two breaths, showing that the lungs of the former had twi^e as 
much air as those of the latter. The cubic method is that 
ndopted for the measurement of the air in the lungs, or by the 
pint ; and it can be as accurately done as if it were water, to 
the fraction of a gill or inch. 

Forty cubic inches make a pint : a man of ordinary size, in 
good health of lungs, will expire at a single effort, six pints of 
air, or two hundred and forty cubic inches. 

If a man five feet ten inches high could distend fully at a 
single breath, an India-rubber bag, bladder, or other receptacle, 
which held two hundred and forty cubic inches of air, it would 
be a physical demonstration, that all his lungs were within him, 



THROAT AND LUNGS. 115 

that they were in full operation, and as a matter of course, 
there could not possibly be, under the circumstances, any act- 
ual consumption, which would be corroborated beyond all cavil, 
if the pulse was uniformly under seventy beats in a minute. 

A person never becomes consumptive until for many weeks, 
and for months, the lungs have worked imperfectly; thus 
working imperfectly, the system receives at each breath, less 
air than it requires ; the blood is that much less purified ; the 
body is that much less nourished ; hence, as a man falls more 
and more decidedly into consumption, he has less breath, less 
blood, less flesh, less strength ; this, all know. 

But suppose a patient becomes acquainted with the fact that 
his lungs are declining in their capability of receiving air, los- 
ing their vital capacity, the evident indication would be to ar- 
rest that decline, and not rest satisfied until it was fully remov- 
ed. And what more rational course than to practice on the 
lu to exercise them artificially; to accustom himself sev- 

eral times a day to blow upon his India-rubber ; to trjr more 
and more on each occasion to fill it more fully at a single 
breath ? 

Some months ago a man came to us who could expire with 
the utmost effort only ninety- four inches; we sat him down 
ar.ong the incurables; we adjudged him to certain death; still 
he was urged to try. He promised he would. Ten days ago, 
March 17th, he presented himself again, having practiced these 
artificial breathings, and gave a measurement of a hundred and 
forty-four. Perseverance and an equal rate of increase for a 
few months longer, will certainly restore him. But this is 
only one of a multitude of similar cases. 

The lesson of the article is : 

If coming consumption is always attended with a diminution 
of vital capacity, of lung activity, of capability of full, free breath- 
ing, it must be averted by such practices as will arrest that de- 
cline first, and then reestablish the activities. But nobody will 
heed these momentous lessons, because their practice would 
cost no money, and they have not the charm of mystery, nor 
the prestige of brazen trumpets and shameless falsehoods ; hence 
we are not afraid of our practice declining by communicating 
the information, for we have done it for years, yet our report 
is as practically unbelieved as that of the prophet of the olden 
times. 



116 



EARLY BREAKFAST. 

Beeakfast should be eaten in the morning, before leav- 
ing the house for exercise, or labor of any description ; those 
who do it will be able to perform more work and with greater 
comfort and alacrity, than those who work an hour or two be- 
fore breakfast. Besides this, the average duration of the life 
of those who take breakfast before exercise or work, will be a 
number of years greater than of those who do otherwise. Most 
persons begin to feel weak after having been engaged five or 
six hours in their ordinary avocations ; a good meal, reinvig- 
orates, but from the last meal of the day until next morning, 
there is an interval of some twelve hours ; hence the body in a 
sense is weak, the stomach is weak, and in proportion can not 
resist deleterious agencies, whether of the fierce cold of mid- 
winter, or of the poisonous miasm which rests upon the surface 
of the earth, wherever the sun shines on a blade of vegetation 
or a heap of offal. This miasm is more solid, more concentrated, 
and hence more malignant, about sunrise and sunset, than at any 
other hour of the twenty -four, because the cold of the night 
condenses it, and it is on the first few inches above the soil in 
its most solid form ; but as the sun rises, it warms and expands 
and ascends to a point high enough to be breathed, and being 
taken into the lungs with the air, and swallowed with the saliva 
into the stomach, all weak and empty as it is, it is greedily 
drank in, thrown immediately into the circulation of the 
blood, and carried directly to every part of the body, depositing 
its poisonous influences at the very fountain - head of life. 
When in Cuba many years ago, we observed that the favorite 
time for travel was midnight ; and the older merchants of 
Charleston may remember that when deadly fevers prevailed in 
hot weather, they dared not ride into town in the cool of the 
morning or evening, but midday was accounted the safest. "We 
know, from many years' living in New-Orleans, that it was when 
the evenings and mornings were unusually cool, balmy and de- 
lightful, the citizens prepared themselves for still greater rava- 
ges of the deadly epidemic for the first few days following. 

If early breakfast was taken, in regions where chill and 
fever, and fever and ague prevail, and if in addition, a brisk 



GROWING OLD HAPPILY. 117 

fire were kindled in the family - room, for the hour including 
sunset and sunrise, these troublesome maladies would diminish 
in any one year, not ten-fold, but a thousand-fold, because the 
heat of the fire would rarefy the miasmatic air instantly, and 
send it above the breathing-point. But it is " troublesome" to 
be building fires night and morning all summer, and not one 
in a thousand who reads this will put the suggestion into prac- 
tice, it being no " trouble," requiring no effort, to shiver and 
shake by the hour, daily, for weeks and months together ; such 
is the stupidity of the animal, man ! 



GROWING OLD HAPPILY. 

There is naturally but one disease, that of old age. To 
leave the world as gently as go out the embers on the hearth, 
or as the candle in its socket, without pain, or shock, or spasm, 
this is worth taking pains for ! Literally, the lot is terrible, of 
a man with tottering limbs, and gray hairs, dying by piece- 
meal from racking rheumatism, from torturing gout, or the 
slow-eating cancer ! the mind all the while, by reason of inces- 
sant pain growing morose, querulous, bitter, and atheistic! 
On the other hand, how ineffably beautiful is it to arrive at a 
hearty, buoyant old age, without ache or pain or sadness ; sun- 
shine always in the face, gladness in the eye, the heart mean- 
while welling up and running over with human sympathies and 
love divine, of whom " my mother sang" so often in the clear, 
sweet, and cheery tones of youth and health. 

" The day glides swiftly o'er their head, 
Made up of innocence and love, 
And soft and silent as the shade, 
Their nightly minutes gently move. 

" Quick as their thought their joys come on, 
But fly not half so swift away ; 
Their souls are ever bright as noon, 
And calm as summer evenings be." 

And when their work is done, their journey ended, the life of • 
time melts into an immortal existence : 



118 hall's journal of health. 

" As fades a summer cloud away, 

As sinks a gale when storms are o'er, 
As gently shuts the eye of day, 
As dies a wave along the shore." 

To have the lamp of life thus go out, physically, we must live 
regularly, temperately, actively ; for by these means only can 
the great human clock work well until all the wheels wear out 
together, and all cease their running at the same instant : then 
there is no shock, no pain, no torture, and scarce a perceptible 
struggle, so that the moment of departure can be noted only by 
the most scrutinizing eye. Header ! may such be your exit and 
mine. 



SPRING DISEASES. 

Any housekeeper would be considered demented who would 
keep up as fierce a fire on the hearth in the spring as in mid- 
winter. On the contrary as the days grow warmer, less and 
less fuel is used, until the fire is not kindled at all. One of the 
two main objects of eating is to keep the body warm ; and it 
need not be argued that less warmth is required in summer 
than in winter ; but if we eat as heartily as the spring advances 
as we did in cold weather, we will burn up with fever, because 
we have made too much heat. The instincts of our nature are 
perfectly wonderful. To our shame is it, that we not only do 
not heed them, but oppose them, fight against them with an 
amazing fatuity. As the warm weather comes on, we are all 
conscious of a diminution of appetite, and we either begin to 
apprehend we are about to get sick, or set about stimulating 
ourselves with tonics, and bitters, and various kinds of teas, 
with a view to purifying the blood. How many swills of sas- 
safras-tea has the reader taken to that end 1 No such purifica- 
tion would be needed, if we would follow nature's instincts, and 
eat only with the inclination she gives us, instead of taking 
tonics to make us eat more, when we actually require less. 

Observant persons have noticed that as spring comes on, 
there is less relish for meats of all kinds, and we yearn for the 
early spring vegetables, the " greens," the salads, the spinnage, 
the radishes, and the like. Why ? Just look at it ! Meats 



SINGULAR MEDICINE. 119 

have more than fifty per cent of carbon, of the heat-forming 
principle. Vegetables and berries have ten per cent, five per 
cent, one per cent of heat ! Potatoes have eleven per cent, 
turnips three per cent, gooseberries only one. 

Literally, incalculable are the good results which would fol- 
low a practical attention to these facts. Those who are wise 
will take no tonics for the spring, will swallow no teas to purifj- 
the blood, nor imagine themselves to be about getting sick, be- 
cause they have not in May as vigorous an appetite as in De- 
cember, but will at once yield themselves to the guidance of 
the instincts, and eat not an atom more than they have an in- 
clination for to the end of a joyous spring-time and a summer of 
glorious health ; while those who will eat, who will stimulate 
the stomach with tonics, and " force" their food, must suffer 
with drowsiness, depression and distressing lassitude ; and while 
all nature is waking up to gladness and newness of life, they 
will have no renovation and no well-springs of joyous and 
exuberant health. 



SINGULAR MEDICINE. 

Isaac V. Fowler, our city Postmaster, is said to be the 
handsomest bachelor in New- York ; but next to him is one of 
his " subs.," whom, meeting in Nassau si, the other day, so 
rosy, rubicund and round, we thus accosted : 

" Why, you're as hearty as a buck !" 

" Yes ! I keep the bowels free, and read Hall's Journal 
of Health." 

"With the utmost confidence we advise all who are well, and 
desire to keep so, to follow the same prescription. As to those 
who are ailing, there can be no doubt that three fourths would 
get well of all ordinary maladies, by the same means ; but the 
practical motto is: "Untold thousands to regain health; to 
retain it, not a dollar." Weeks and months of effort to arrest 
the progress of wasting disease ; to prevent its commencement, 
not an hour. Such is the inconsideration, such the improvi- 
dence of nine persons out of ten, even among the educated. 



120 hall's journal of health. 



SLEEPING IN CHTJECH. 

Most persons know the distresssing effort it requires, some- 
times, to keep awake, during the delivery of a long and not 
particularly interesting sermon, on a summer's day ; various 
expedients have been devised to remedy the indecency, such as 
pinching one's self, holding one foot three or four inches above 
the floor, or taking a short nap immediately before going to 
church. One of the most quiet, efficient, and prompt remedies 
we have yet fallen upon, is to put into the vest-pocket, a tea- 
spoonful of the powder of pure cayenne pepper, and when any 
drowsiness is experienced, put a good pinch of it in the mouth. 
Some enterprising apothecary might make a hit by fabricating 
Red Pepper Lozenges. 



BALANCE OP POPULATION. 

In Newtown, Mass., one person in every seven, of eight 
thousand souls is Irish ; at the same time, half of all the births 
were of Irish children ; that is, one Irishman is equal to six 
Americans in populating power. It is stated that in Boston, 
the births from Irish parents are more numerous than Ameri- 
can. At this rate, we will soon be extinguished, like the Sand- 
wich Islander and the Indian. But there is an antagonizing in- 
fluence always at work. The Irish are day -laborers ; the Ame- 
ricans are well to do, hence, live ten or fifteen years longer ; in 
addition, the inherent love of liquor, an appetite which seems 
to be born with them, works an early death ; another still greater 
cause of mortality, is their domestic habits ; as a class, they live 
in hovels, unfit even for the beasts of the field ; this, with their 
notorious improvidence, aids in bringing about the general re- 
sult of a greater proportional mortality. 

The same general rule holds good as to rich and poor ; the 
laboring poor have the most children, as in the days before 
Moses and Aaron ; at the same time, their greater exposures, 
hardships, privations, excesses, and sorrows equalize life. 



j»0fc MotUtfl. 



H. B. Price, 884 Broadway, New-York, has issued in handsome style, a book 
which few can read without pleasure and profit, being Fragments from the Study 
of a Pastor. 252 pages 12mo, 75 cents. By Rev. George W. Nichols, A.M. 

Gould & Lincoln, Boston, merit the patronage of the Christian public by pub- 
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454 pages, $1.25. It is eminently worthy of a wide circulation. 

Phonography. Pitman's Manual, Cincinnati. 12mo, 50 cents. It is the most 
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Among a multitude of valuable issues, the Messrs. Francis, 554 Broadway, in 
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A book which of itself is a library, and without which no gentleman's or scholar's 
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Journal of Rational Medicine, Cincinnati, 0. Edited by C. H. Cleaveland. $1 
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Public Schools. The school committee of Salem, Mass., to prevent overtasking 
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Balance of Brain and Body is a singularly instructive, practical, and curious 
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American Druggists' Circular, New-York, contains more practical information in 
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All subscriptions to the Journal of Health begin with January last. 



IJoto, §txk\w, #k 



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HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] JUNE, 1860. [No. 6. 



DONATION-PARTIES, 

Surprise- visits, lottery-drawings, fairs, et id omne, away with 
them ! they are a hypocrisy, a cheat, a degradation, the whole 
of them, not a single exception, and being so, the sooner they 
are abandoned the better. 

Donation-parties and surprise-visits are the ways and means 
of giving material aid to clergymen, who either need it or do 
not : if they do not need this aid, then the proceedings are 
simply a stultification of all concerned ; if they do need such aid, 
it shows the great inconsideration if not actual injustice, of 
those to whom the minister preaches ; it clearly indicates the 
fact that he is not properly sustained, and that his parishioners 
know it. 

The practical workings of these machineries are always de- 
ceptive, always degrading, and lead to unmixed harm ; they 
are a pecuniary loss to the clergyman himself, and a moral loss 
to the people of his charge. 

It is the nature of gifts to degrade, to cause a feeling of de- 
pendence, of inferiority, and of obligation. A minister's palms 
should be as guiltless of a bribe as that of a judge. No for- 
eign minister of our government is allowed to receive a present 
of any description in his official capacity, or even privately, by 
virtue of his station ; not even the President of the United 
States can receive a gift or present from any nation. This is 
wise, and is based on a true knowledge of human nature ;; audi 
neither ought a minister of the Gospel, who is, by virtue of 
his office, a minister from the Court of the King of kings, an 
ambassador from the skies. 

To the disgrace of the American people, three fourths of the 

no. VI.— vol. vii.— 1860. 



122 

clergy who should live by the Grospel, who should be amply 
supported, are not adequately paid, are compelled, if they have 
no private means, to the most pinching economies ; live in cir- 
cumstances distressingly straitened ; and endured, too, in multi- 
tudes of cases, with an uncomplainingness and a heroic courage 
which is beyond praise. 

The usual history of a case is this ; a Society needs a min- 
ister ; they engage to give him a certain amount, which is most 
generally barely if at all adequate to his necessities, arid the 
people know it. Perhaps not one in any dozen would be 
willing to give a year's labor for what is promised the minister ; 
but there is an unexpressed feeling that there are certain perqui- 
sites which may supply the deficiencies ; there are the wedding- 
fees, and the donation-visits and surprise-parties, the proceeds 
of which are of course greatly exaggerated ; the consequence 
is an actual pecuniary loss in the long run to the minister, who 
is supposed to have been benefited by them. If there were no 
perquisites at all, then a larger salary would have been provided, 
and it would be more promptly and punctually and fully paid, 
with the incalculable advantage of enabling him to make his 
calculations and frame his expenditures to the amount received, 
with the result of a mind at easa all the year round. But 
knowing the salary to be inadequate, and not knowing what 
the sum total of the perquisites will be, there is hesitancy, un- 
certainty, disquietude, perplexity and unrest from one year's 
end to another, crippling the energies of the minister himself, 
depressing his wife, and causing a somber cloud to rest upon 
the whole household, to the moral injury of the minister him- 
self and that of every single member of his society. The most 
wearing of all feelings is that of uncertainty, and especially of 
apprehension, and these are the abiding feelings of a large class 
of men who are literally the salt of the moral world, the 
national conservators; men who, for intellectual attainments, 
for moral culture, and a refinement of feeling at once elevating 
and pure, have not their equals in all human society besides ; 
and all the more galling to these superiorities, are the uncer- 
tainties of an indefinite salary. 

Another constant source of deception is, presents of articles 
are made, which the minister's family does not want ; or are 
commercially valuable, but not worth to the minister one tenth 



DONATION-PARTIES. 123 

part of what they cost. A twenty dollar " work-box" is a beau- 
tiful present to a minister's wife ; but she could do without 
it, and two dollars in money would be practically more valuable 
to her. That two dollars would purchase a religious news- 
paper, which would be of more actual advantage to a minister's 
growing family, and to himself, too, than a room full of twenty- 
dollar work-boxes, which, as presents, he would not feel at 
liberty to sell. Moral : If you have any thing to give to your 
minister, give it to him in money, and it will be worth to him 
at least double its value in any thing else, in three cases out of 
four. 

It then follows that these machineries, which the Evil One no 
doubt contemplates the workings of with considerable satisfac- 
tion, operate a pecuniary loss, both to the receiver and to the 
giver ; to the giver, because two dollars in money would have 
done more actual good than the twenty- dollar work-box ; while 
as to the minister, these costly presents are counted as cash, as 
that much of a salary, when he is not able to make use of them. 
So these fancy, costly presents to ministers' families are money 
thrown away by the parishioner, and money lost to the persons 
intended to be benefited by them. 

It is not in human nature to resist the mollifying influences 
of gifts : the great mind of Lord Bacon could not resist it ; 
hence it is every where ground for impeachment and removal 
as to our j udges, and there is a universal sentiment of approval, 
even in the midst of the most uncultivated of our population. 
In short, there is only one true, honorable, safe and manly 
course to be pursued in reference to our clergy, and if it were 
universally adopted, it would throw over this nation a con- 
servative and an elevating influence which would make it in 
reality the glory of the whole earth ; and it is this : Let every 
evangelical clergyman of all sects have a salary fully adequate 
to a plain, unostentatious mode of life, and let it be promptly, 
regularly and fully paid in money, to the very last cent ; and 
never let him be presented with a single dollar or its value, ex- 
cept under circumstances which would effectually prevent the 
giver being known, except to that giver and to God, who will 
reward him openly in due time. 

To pay a laborer half-a-dollar for a day's work, when it is ac- 
knowledged to be worth a dollar, and then to make a present 



124 

to him of the other half — what is it ? Your minister ought not 
to be treated thus. The laborer is worthy of his hire. A 
clergyman's salary is his right, it is for work done, and he is en- 
titled to his pay in money, in full, and promptly at the day. 
But to seek to pay a part of it as a gratuity, is nothing less than 
a trickery, a subterfuge, a meanness, and a degradation, and is 
direct temptation, a bribe and a command : " Speak unto us 
smooth things." Hence these things are a profanation, and 
always will bring leanness to priest and people. 

Since the above was put in type, it is stated that, " At one 
of the recent festivals in Boston, Judge Thomas of the Supreme 
Court, in urging the necessity and justice of giving an adequate 
support to clergymen, condemned donation-visits, as being mor- 
tifying confessions of the failure to pay an honest salary to the 
clergy, and as eking out an insufficient support by giving what 
is not wanted, and what is worse, making a charity of the 
wages of honest labor." 



WHISKY- DOCTORS 



A considerable number of persons*' applying to us for the 
treatment of throat and lung affections, in answer to the in- 
quiry, " What have you been doing for your ailment," reply, 
"Using Bourbon whisky:" nine times in ten adding, "It 
seemed to do good for a while, but has not effected any perma- 
nent benefit." Yery many persons troubled with a tickling in 
the throat or annoying hawking or hemming, as a consequence 
of a disorder of the stomach, evidenced by a changeable or in- 
different appetite, bad taste in the mouth of mornings, cold feet, 
or general chilliness, have been " advised to take a little whis- 
ky at meals." The very fact of their seeking further counsel 
after trying the whisky treatment, is conclusive of its ineffi- 
ciency. In nearly all the cases, especially from New-England, 
the practice has been adopted by the "advice of the family 
physician." One of the best American surgeons known to us, 
is the most inveterate liquor-drinker. Loving it himself, it was 
a standard item of commendation to a great number of his pa- 



WHISKY-DOCTORS. 125 

tients. This might be accepted as a proof of the efficiency of 
whisky as a medicine, except for the fact that for the last few 
years the community have lost confidence in him, and he is no 
longer considered as A ISTo. 1 among his brethren. 

Some physicians have a practice of attempting to make a 
good first impression by " bolstering" up their patients at once 
with the various preparations of alcohol or opium, so as to get 
a good report started. " Why ! as soon as Dr. Blank came to 
see me, I began to get better, even from the first dose of medi- 
cine." But when the inevitable death takes place, it is compa- 
ratively easy to find a plausible reason for the result, in a sud- 
den change of the weather, in an unfortunate cold, or an error 
of diet. It is not believed that among regularly-educated prac- 
titioners, there is one such in five hundred ; but there are such, 
and it is well for the intelligent reader to be on his guard 
against employing a man who is not slow to advise whisky, or 
gin, or beer, or any other alcoholic material, as a daily medi- 
cine, and for the very sufficient reason : 

The " benefits" arising from the daily use of any thing that 
can intoxicate is always factitious, unreal, and deceptive, and 
sooner or later, the cheat will be found out, by the system not 
only failing to be kept up, but going down to a point lower 
than that from which it started, with the attendant ill results of 
its greater inability to rise, and its greater inability to repel the 
attacks of disease or the ill effects of deleterious agencies. 

It is the very nature of alcohol, in all its forms, to goad, and 
not to strengthen ; as it is of opium to blunt and not to eradi- 
cate ; neither of them ever cured, or aided to cure, any human 
ailment, except so far as they gave nature time to rally her 
forces; hence, beyond one or two administrations or " doses," 
in any given case, their use is mischievous ; for, while their im- 
mediate effect is deceptive and unsubstantial, the secondary ten- 
dency is always, and under all circumstances, to aggravate the 
malady and to increase the chances against restoration. 

It is not contended, at least at this time, that neither opium 
nor alcohol in any form ought ever to be used as medicines, but 
it is asserted without any fear of disproof, that the physician 
who never prescribes or takes either, will be the most success- 
ful man as to promptness and permanency and frequency of 
cure. 



126 hall's journal of health. 

It is with these views that two articles have been read in the 
April number of the American Gazette, whose able and veteran 
editor stands among the highest in the allopathic ranks, which 
good and wise men will not fail to regret. One is a philippic 
against Dr. Hiram Cox, of Cincinnati, whose efforts, in an offi- 
cial capacity, to present to the people demonstrative evidence of 
shameless and perfectly murderous adulterations by the liquor 
trade certainly merit the countenance and commendation and 
respect of every benevolent man. 

In the same number, which attempts to bring ridicule on Dr. 
Cox, there is found an indorsement of some body's whisky, all 
the way from Philadelphia, as the real, original, identical "Ja- 
cobs," as being pure as the dew-drop, and " as the very best 
thing for the sick." This " celebrated" whisky is. commended 
by the editor, on the very conclusive and absolutely irresistible 
ground that the maker of it stands " vouching that nothing 
but the genuine pure article" will ever be offered for sale. So 
will the milkman within five minutes from a "swill-dairy," 
vouch, nay assert his willingness to make his "affidavy" that 
he sells pure Orange county milk, and as further proof points 
to the name of "Orange" in gilt and gold on one end of his 
cart, and a cow with a long tail on the other, exclaiming, with 
the conscious pride of argumentative strength: "Don't yer 
know that it's only stump-tail cows what gives swill milk?" 
In addition, the official opinions of four expert chemists are 
paraded to give weight to the whisky ; and in close proximity 
to their names is read: " Such whisky is in many cases of dis- 
ease, a nutritious and wholesome stimulant." But whether said 
chemists say these identical words, is not stated ; even if they 
did, their sentiments must be taken with some allowance, for 
some of these sponsors for the superior excellence of Philadel- 
phia whiskey have "aforetime" stood god-fathers for lager beer, 
German gin, under the name of " Schiedam Schnapps," and 
swill-milk; that "lager," in any takable quantity, could not 
intoxicate, and that there was not such a tremendous sight of 
difference between swill-milk and other ordinary kinds. It 
seem to us that Wolfe's gin was chemically analyzed and be- 
praised by some of these men ; and the professional opinions 
which they have given of the hurtless nature of the contents 
of patent medicines which have been submitted to their analysis 



WHISKY-DOCTORS. 127 

for the last few years, would fill a volume. Does any body 
with a single mite of sense left, suppose that a patent medicine 
compounder would put the real constituents of his "stuff" in 
the sample which he furnished the chemist for analysis ? "Would 
he not be a "born fool" not to keep out of "that bottle" at 
least, all the corrosive sublimate, prussic acid, sugar of lead, 
copperas, and strychnine which was common to the articles "on 
sale" ? It is greatly to be regretted that scientific men should 
for pay, in money or soft sawder, lend their influence to sim- 
pletons and knaves, to the risk of the health and life itself of 
the community at large. 

The assertion that Mr. Thingumbob's Philadelphia whisky is 
" nutritious," and " good for the sick," draws rather strong on 
common-sense; but money is the stronger — so down it goes! 
This Philadelphia whisky is said to be " celebrated." We 
never heard of it before, or in our multitude of exchanges came 
across its name once ; but on the day we read of it, we heard 
of a " Philadelphia fact" of some " celebrity," and from one of 
the denizens thereof, that within, the memory of the present 
generation, it has never been known that so many persons have 
died suddenly as during the last winter in the City of Brotherly 
Love ; that a most extraordinary mortality has been observed 
to prevail during the last eighteen months among business men 
and others of the " fast" class, between the ages of forty -five and 
fifty-five. They herded together pretty much. They dined, 
and drank, and played, and champaigned, and terrapined, and 
lobstered with each other by turns. They were very proper 
men. Nobody ever saw them drunk ! 

" They were nae fou' 
But just had plenty." 

Now if the Philadelphia man's whisky was so particularly 
good, it must have come to their knowledge and patronage, and 
putting the two together, it is perfectly plain as to the manner 
in which the apple got into the dumpling and the milk into the 
cocoa-nut. " Vivas," long and loud to chemical experts and 
accommodating editorial doctors, to Philadelphia whisky and 
humbug ! 



128 



PROSTITUTION OP HIGH HEALTH. 

Never having read Shakspeare, or Milton, or Byron, or the 
productions of the " Great Unknown," the presumption is that 
we have missed a great deal or nothing. Schiller is the high- 
priest of some, and we have heard Emerson quote Goethe, as if 
he were a god in his estimation. The life of the " Patriarch 
of German Literature," was one of great contradictions. Before 
he was eight years old, he was exercising in German, French, 
Italian, Latin, and Greek, yet did not die of brain-fever or 
dropsy in the head. He drank wine, was prodigal of money, 
and was odd in his manners. His "social faults looked society 
contemptuously in the face," but as a swordsman, a rider, and 
a skater, beyond most of his time, he lived to the age of eighty- 
two years. He wrote one of the most doleful books ever pub- 
lished, known as the Sorrows of Werther, yet himself took life 
without sadness, and enjoyed it to the full. His writings gave 
out a light of their kind, in the glare of which multitudes de- 
light still to live ; yet at the age of sixty he doubted the exist- 
ence of a divine providence, because he could not see through 
His dispensations, who in wisdom ruleth over all, and at the age 
of eighty-two, he still could not see, and died exclaiming : 
" More light!" He died in darkness when the world was in a 
blaze of sunshine ! And why ? because he was without a 
Bible, without a religious faith, and without a God, if we take 
his favorite expression a3 the embodiment of his creed, 

" The end of life is life itself," 
which, if it means any thing, is, 

Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. 

Goethe had high health, a vigorous constitution, a great posi- 
tion, and a world of friends. But with the baleful sentiment 
that this life was every thing, God was not in all his thoughts, 
and he lived only in himself. 

This narration is given as a warning to the few who never 
have an ache or a pain, that they may not grow up and live 
thankless and thoughtless of the great talent of perfect health, 
but rather consecrate it; in humility, to good-doing, so that 
when the mortal eye closes in the night of the grave, it may 
open upon the ineffable splendors of an immortal existence. 



CLERICAL MARRIAGES. 129 



CLERICAL MARRIAGES. 

Some irate individual has worked himself up to fever-heat, 
and the next very natural step of fault-finding, in the daily 
papers, that young clergymen would marry almost as soon as 
they obtained their "license," with the doleful result, in a 
great many cases, of a houseful of children on a starvation 
salary. Perhaps this gentleman was so ugly or so shamefaced, 
that he could get no body worth having to marry him ; for oi 
all persons in the world, girls of any kind of spirit have a con- 
tempt for " sheepish" young men and small-soul calculating 
people. Maybe he was more successful in getting a wife than 
children ; and took to the tactics of the Fox without a rudder. 
Be that as it may, every liberal-minded man will cordially ad- 
mit, that as the clergy, as a class, are the best educated, the 
most influential, as well as the most unexceptionable in their 
deportment in the relations of life, whether as citizens, neigh- 
bors or kindred, they are richly entitled to all the privileges 
and immunities of law-abiding men, whether they be candidates 
for matrimony or for Congress. Let young clergymen take 
their chances, and if they have to pay a good price for the same, 
if the whistle costs them dear, it is their own look-out. " As 
they mak their bed, so they maun lee doon." 

It is particularly doleful to have a whole houseful of child- 
ren, and not have the wherewithal to support them in any 
kind of respectability ; but then there is something in the doc- 
trine of compensations ; and who shall deny that a dear, 
delightful, sweet-tempered wife, as neat as a new pin, as prudent 
as Miss Prim ; as firm as a rock in the right ; as pure as the dew- 
drop, and as smiling as the morning, is worth more than a 
houseful of children, and will counterbalance many of the in- 
conveniences of too much property of that sort, and not enough 
of another kind ? 

In important respects, a man without a wife is of " no ac- 
count." He has very little "position," either in society or in 
the financial world, because it is felt that there is nothing to fix 
him ; nothing to prevent him any day from spiriting himself 
away to "parts unknown." These items hold good as to 
clergymen, while their relations are such, that being unmarried, 



130 

they are disqualified from the unexceptionable performance of 
some of their duties ; making them liable to be thrown into 
many embarrassing situations ; besides, they can not truly and 
properly sympathize with those who are married and have 
children, and are sore vexed, and " careful about many things." 

But any thing can be done which, under the circumstances, 
ought to be done, and the following straight shoot between 
Scylla and Charybdis is proposed : 

Whereas, a man without a woman is " a poor shoat" any how ; 
and 

Whereas, he is a baby, without a wife, and is always in a 
fret or a stew or most annoying unfixedness, being in " a strait 
betwixt two," (a wife or no wife) ; and 

Whereas, a state of betweenity is as uncomfortable as a 
locality upon the points of two horns of a dilemma; and 

Whereas young clergymen will get married, whether it is 
prudent or advisable or not ; 

Let it be permitted that they marry immediately if not 
sooner, with the following sole restriction : 

That no unmarried clergyman be allowed to take to wife 
any one who is not a maiden of a third of a century in age. 

The advantages of such an arrangement are neither few nor 
small, while the disadvantages are not important. 

There would most probably be no more than three or four 
children. 

The chances would be very great that the mother would 
have the health, strength and vigor to perform to them all of a 
mother's duties, live to see them settled in life, and still not be 
very old. 

The minister would then have a wife whose maturity of 
judgment, whose force of character, and whose bodily energy 
would enable her to be to him a counselor, a sustainer, a 
housekeeper — thereby not only being a help-meet for him, in 
his official capacity, but by relieving him of all household 
cares, he would have leisure to devote himself entirely to his 
more appropriate duties. 

A woman at the age of thirty-three and a third years, who 
has never been married, is considered passee ; is called an " old 
maid," and the term is most unjustly used in derision. The 
very fact of being an old maid is prima facie evidence of the 



CLERICAL MARRIAGES. 131 

posses-ion of purity, prudence and self-denial, and these are 
essential to the character of a perfect wife • without them, no 
woman is worth having. 

Being an " old maid," implies decision of character ; neither 
shams nor shows nor courtly manners nor splendid persons 
have won them over ; nor fair promises nor shallow tears ; 
they looked beyond the manner and the dress, and finding no 
cheering indication of depth of mind and sterling principles, 
they gave up the specious present for the chance of a more 
solid future, and determined in hope and patience and resigna- 
tion, to " bide their time." 

It is this firmness of purpose, this trait of the mind which 
looks at future utility, more steadily than at present gratifica- 
tion, that makes all the difference between a mother who is 
priceless, or of nothing worth. She can not gratify her child or 
herself to-day, for the reasonable chances of an ill to-morrow. 
The too-yielding mother has been the utter ruin of multitudes, 
who else might have been an honor to their kith and kin and 
country. 

In a hygienic point of view, the advantages of marrying a 
woman who is mature in body, in age, in mind, in judgment, 
in culture, can not be easily computed ; they are beyond mea- 
sure. On the other hand, for a mere girl to become a mother, 
is to give up almost every chance of health, and peril life 
itself ; is to throw away a decade of joyous youth, of delicious 
anticipations "long drawn oat" in gladness, growing the 
sweeter in their expectancy, making of girlhood a lengthened 
sabbath of sunshine, which ending in a wise marriage, is looked 
back upon to the close of life with the most delightful associa- 
tions, yet not regretfully, a deeper sweetness being in the 
present — all this is thrown remorselessly away, by her who 
marries too early. 

The subject may not be better closed, than by recording the 
sentiments of a noted name in behalf of that class, from among 
whom this article recommends the clergy to wed. " I have no 
sympathy with that rude, unfeeling, and indelicate phrase, old 
maid, which is bandied about in the mouths of rude, unfeeling, 
and indelicate persons. It is true, that a selfish nature, cut off 
from all duties and ties, and sinking back into the solitary life 
of a selfish heart, becomes most unlovely and useless. But 



132 

shall the few cloud the true nobleness of the many ? How 
many elder sisters, it may be unblessed with outward comeli- 
ness, have entered into a brother's or a sister's family, and 
accepted all its cares as the duty of their life, and, joining 
hands with the mother, given to each child, as it were, two 
souls of love, like two wings of God, to help it fly up withal 
from weakness and ignorance to manhood and strength ! How 
many have cheerfully given up their own whole life, built no 
nest, sought no companion, but sang in the tree, and near the 
younglings of another's nest, patient in toil, watchful and labo- 
rious in sickness, frugal amidst poverty, rich in nothing but 
good works, and in these abounding in wealth ! When the 
roll is read above, and they are named that lived in self-sacri- 
fice, in gentleness, in patience, in love, and in the only triumph 
of disinterested mercy, they who are unmarried and childless, 
that they might more heroically serve the households of others, 
and become mothers of children not their own, shall stand 
high and bright." 



WHAT KILLED HIM? 

Pleasant memories gather around the name of Washington 
Irving. By six years, he had passed the " threescore and ten," 
and with the advantage of his quiet and regular mode of living, 
he might well have remained with us for some years to come, 
had it not been for advice, kindly intended no doubt, but given 
in thoughtlessness and reckless ignorance. He had a cold, 
which " by some injudicious prescription, had been converted 
into an asthma, which was at length accompanied by an en- 
largement of the heart," of which he died without a moment's 
warning ; this at least, is the published record. Who gave that 
"prescription," and what it was, the outside world may never 
know. Doubtless half a dozen lines would embody it, and 
would do more good as a beacon-light than will be done by any 
hundred pages of his " Complete Works," now in process of pub- 
lication by Putnam. It may be safely taken for granted that 
the prescription was a drug of some kind, if not a dozen of 
them, " simple" and unsimple, the main one being opium in 



WHAT KILLED HIM? 133 

some form, laudanum, paregoric, or morphine, for no mixture 
ever sold for coughs, colds, and consumption, ever, by any 
chance, fails of one of these ingredients. Such mixtures always 
soothe, always diminish the cough, causing a belief that they 
are doing good, hence they are more freely and frequently 
taken. It is precisely as if, when the hold of a ship is on fire, 
the hatches are closed, and because no more smoke is seen to 
arise, the captain should immediately place himself at ease, 
under the conviction that the fire is out, while in reality it is 
but kept under, gathering force, only a little later to break 
forth with resistless power. 

Opium does not cure any thing ; it never did. All that can 
be scientifically claimed for it is, that it gives time to nature or 
the physician, as does closing the hatches when the hold is on 
fire ; but if the time is not wisely improved, disaster must 
follow. 

Cough, in a cold, is nature's effort to eject from the lungs 
what does not properly belong there ; precisely as when a 
crumb "goes the wrong way," that is, into the windpipe instead 
of the stomach. In each case opium diminishes . the sensibility 
of the parts so that they do not feel the presence of the offend- 
ing particles, and nature is cheated. Any one can see that be- 
cause a dose of morphine quiets the cough from a crumb in the 
windpipe, it does not "cure," it does not bring it away. Most 
precisely so is it with phlegm in the lungs ; it has the effect to 
keep it there to accumulate, just as water does in the spout 
of a pump, when little boys close the mouth of it with their 
hands, pumping on all the time. Here the comparison ends. 
However long the water is kept in, it is water still. Not so 
with phlegm in the lungs ; every instant it is kept there, the heat 
of the parts being a hundred degrees of Fahrenheit, it evapo- 
rates, becomes less watery, and of consequence, more tough, 
harder to dislodge, increasing in bulk by accumulations which 
also grow thicker by evaporation, until " the pipes" are plugged 
up with tough phlegm so that the air passes it with increasing 
difficulty, and the patient wheezes like — an asthmatic ; the 
lungs labor fearfully for breath, they can not get enough air, 
hence the blood becomes impure and thick, and in this condi- 
tion goes to the heart, which labors to send it on through the 
body, but can not wholly empty itself at each beat, as is natural ; 



134 hall's journal of health. 

and the blood still pouring into it from the lungs, it gets pre- 
ternaturally full, hence its fibers are relaxed and then distended : 
this is " enlargement of the heart." For a while nature strug- 
gles to relieve herself of this surplus, until the laboring heart 
has expended all its strength in the vain effort, until it can not 
give another beat, and suffocation is the instantaneous result. 

Many a man before now, has been literally " killed with kind- 
ness," as it would seem was the fate of Washington Irving, of 
whom it may be truthfully said, he was kindness personified. No 
sooner does a man show that he has a cold, than advice is pro- 
truded in the glibbest manner possible by every second friend 
he meets. Let the reader learn by the sad narration given, 
never to give or take advice, even in so simple a thing as a 
common cold. Let counsel come in all cases from common- 
sense or a physician. 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

Muscle, not money, has been the absorbing topic of conver- 
sation for some weeks past, on both sides of the water. It is 
well to derive what good we may from passing events, espe- 
cially as in them there is much that is exceedingly curious, in- 
teresting, and instructive. A " ring" is made, which can be de- 
scribed by a rope inclosing a space of twenty -four feet square ; 
into this arena the two champions enter, each having his " cor- 
ner," with two seconds beside him; the spectators are outside 
the ropes. At a signal, each approaches the center, and od meet- 
ing, begin to batter each other's faces and heads with their fists. 
The moment one falls to the earth by slip or stratagem, or a 
knock-down, both retire to their respective corners, to remain un- 
til the referee calls out " time." Each of these operations is 
called a " round." Ordinarily, persons might suppose, that when 
a man is knocked down, he should be carefully placed in a bed, 
with camphor and smelling-salts, and a soft sponge, and delicate 
cotton rags, or the finest lint, and the nicest court-plasters should 
be put in requisition, to restore him as soon as possible. Not 
so in the prize-ring. The interval between a man's being felled 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 135 

to the earth like a bullock, and that of his facing his antagonist 
for the chance of another flooring is very short, generally short 
of a single minute ! In the famous battle in 1825, between 
Jack Jones and Pat Tunney, two hundred and seventy-six 
rounds were fought in two hundred and seventy minutes. This 
statement is made to show first, how little time a man has for 
rest after having been knocked down — not half a minute on an 
average — and second, how rapidly, in a high state of health, 
the human constitution recovers from such shocks. 

It is exceedingly curious to notice with what studied care the 
strength of the combatants is husbanded, and it should be made 
a note of by all who are called to nurse the sick ; for to " save 
the strength," that it may be expended by nature in bringing 
the invalid back to life and health, is in many instances of vital 
importance. Nothing is allowed in the ring, which by any pos- 
sibility could be seized upon, in a fit of passion, to inflict an 
injury; hence a chair or stool is not permitted. Everyone 
knows that it requires a great deal more effort to rise from the 
ground or floor, than from a chair; hence the second, or bottle- 
holder, takes his position with one knee on the ground, the other 
so disposed, that it makes a convenient and soft seat for the con- 
testant during the very brief period of his rest. 

In the recent contest, when one of the combatants was down, 
his seconds would not allow him to waste any of his strength in 
efforts to rise, but ran to him and brought him to his corner in 
their arms. Towards the last of the contest, the Englishman 
did not waste his strength in keeping his arms up in the attitude 
of defense, until his opponent came almost within reach of him ; 
it perhaps did not amount to ten seconds of time, but it was 
something. There are cases of spasmodic asthma, when the pa- 
tient feels as if he would almost die if he were to speak three 
words, there is so little breath to go upon ! In an election-fight 
in our childhood, between Isaac Allen and John Lyon, which 
was continued after both of them were unable to speak, and 
neither could strike hard enough to hurt a chicken, the former 
proved victorious ; but he afterwards said that the friendly pat 
of encouragement with the ends of the finger on the side, 
seemed to almost knock the breath out of his body. He was 
much the smaller man, and lived to the age of four-score years. 
Hope our readers will not jump to the conclusion that i sticufrs 



136 

promote longevity ! Within three years we saw a gentleman 
dying ; he sat up a moment or two, and motioned to be laid 
down ; his attendant was not strong enough to place him on his 
pillow in an easy, gentle manner, but did it with a sudden ef- 
fort, which had the effect to knock out what little air there was 
in the lungs, and death was instantaneous ; it might otherwise 
have been deferred for hours. Hence it is impossible to be too 
tender, to be too gentle with the sick. If persons could know 
the effort the sick have to answer a simple question, even if it 
could be done with a yes or no, they would be very sparing of 
them. When a person is quite ill, it requires strength to listen 
to a question ; it requires strength to frame an answer, and 
strength for enunciation, all of which is strength wasted, in very 
many cases indeed. 

There is an immense amount to be learned in the item of 
nursing the sick ; untold agonies might be saved to them in the 
matter of tone, and look, and gesture, and motion. We have 
not seen Florence Nightingale's book on nursing, but from ex- 
tracts in the papers, it is very likely the most useful book on 
the subject ever printed, for it seems to be the result of obser- 
vation, not of " authority" or mere theory. 

As every reader is destined to nurse or be nursed, sooner or 
later, and as very many of them may be earnestly longing for 
that vigorous health and strength which they once possessed, 
but of which, alas ! they were too prodigal, we think a good 
purpose may be subserved by copying from the New- York Clip- 
per an article headed " Training," being hints on diet, exercise, 
muscular development, etc., including a description of the man- 
ner in which the principles were carried out in actual practice 
in several cases, embodying, as they do, a sound physiology, 
according to the best lights of the times. 

" It is an indisputable fact, that no animal is so much improved by train- 
ing as man— none stands such long and severe preparation with advantage, 
and none displays the difference between condition and its absence in so 
great a degree. But it is not only that man may be enabled to do certain 
feats of activity and strength that training is desirable, but that he may do 
them with pleasure to himself, and even with advantage to his general 
health ; and this marks the grand principle which every man who values 
health should constantly keep in view, namely, that no one should attempt 
to compete in any contest requiring agility or strength, unless he has had 
such a preparUi n as shall enable him to perform his task without feeling 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 137 

any ill effect from it. For instance, the man in condition can row through 
a race of three or four miles, in which his whole powers are taxed to their 
very utmost, and shall at the end of it be almost blind from the exertions 
he has made ; and yet before he gets out of the boat he is f. all right,' and 
could go through the same in half an hour without injury ; whilst the man 
out of condition lies nearly fainting, or perhaps quite insensible for many 
minutes, or even still longer, and is only revived by stimuli to an extent 
which will not allow any further liberty to be taken with his naturally strong 
constitution. Pluck will do much in place of condition ; but numberless are 
the instances of ruined health from the excessive drafts which have been 
made upon this valuable quality, whilst a little care and abstinence would 
have prevented any such irreparable misfortune. To enable the man who is 
of sound constitution — but, from mismanagement, out of health — to restore 
himself to such a state as will allow him to go into training without mischief, 
is rather a difficult task in most cases, because it not only requires some 
skill to know what to do, but also great self-command to avoid that which 
ought not to be done. In the vast majority of instances the health has been 
impaired by excess of some kind, and in many by every variety of excess 
which human ingenuity can suggest. But it is wonderful how completely 
the anticipation of a great match or contest will enable a ' fast man' to 
throw all temptation on one side, and to adhere to all the rules laid down for 
his guidance with the rigidity of an anchorite. His reply to all tempting 
offers is : ' No, that is bad training.' Such is not always the case, it is true ; 
but to a great extent ; and more pluck is frequently shown *in abstaining 
from temptation, than in sustaining the prolonged efforts which such a race 
demands. There are two kinds of excess which are the most likely to have 
produced such a state as we are supposing — namely, excess in eating, drink- 
ing, etc., and excess in literary or other sedentary pursuits. Either will for 
a time entirely upset the powers of the stomach, and in fact the whole sys- 
tem, and each will require very different treatment in order to restore those 
powers. These conditions will also vary very much according to the rank 
in life, habits, and natural constitution of the individual. For instance, a 
gentleman's son, having been generously brought up, goes to the university 
and indulges to excess in wine, smoking, etc., all the while taking strong 
exercise. For a time his naturally strong constitution enables him to with- 
stand the attacks of the poisonous doses of wine and tobacco which he is 
taking, but soon his hand begins to shake, his appetite for solid food ceases, 
his eyes become red, his sleep is restless and unrefreshing, and he is threat- 
ened with an attack of delirium tremens. Now, if in such a state as this an 
attempt is made to go suddenly into training, the consequence is either that 
the above disease makes its appearance at once, or, in milder cases, that the 
stomach refuses to do its duty, and the prescribed work can not be performed 
from giddiness, faintness, sickness, or headache. By a little care and time, 
however, this state of things may be removed. But suppose the case of \ 
young man in a lower rank, who has been brought up on a spare and rig- 
idly abstemious fare, and who from circumstances is suddenly allowed to,, 
ndulge in all the temptations of the public house ; he has no other resource^ 



138 hall's jouenal of health. 

— no hunting or cricket to take up his attention — no lectures to attend, and 
the consequence is, that beer and tobacco commence the day, and tobacco 
and spirits wind it up. Such a man suddenly finds all his energies going ; 
his mind dull and enfeebled, his body weak, flabby, and bloated. In a happy 
moment he bethinks himself that he will take to boating, or some other 
amusement which he has formerly perhaps been addicted to, and at once 
proceeds to the river or the road. "Well, what is the consequence ? Why, 
instead of feeling the better for his exertion he is completely knocked up, 
and perhaps permanently discouraged and deterred from any further trial ; 
in fact, he requires a much more careful treatment to get him into a state of 
health fit for such an exertion than some others, because the change from 
his former habits has been greater, because the imbibition of beer and spirits 
has been more uninterrupted, because the rooms he has frequented have 
been less perfectly ventilated, and because he has taken little or no exercise. 
Indeed, it is astonishing what quantities of intoxicating drinks may be im- 
bibed without much injury, provided that a corresponding amount of exer- 
cise is regularly taken. We have known young men take from one to two 
gallons a day of strong ale for many months, etc., without any great injury. 
One of the most plucky oarsmen we ever knew, regularly swallowed the 
above quantity, and still pursues the same course, apparently uninjured by 
it. This gentleman, however, is always walking or riding, and is also by 
nature of an iron constitution. But a far more difficult task lies before the 
reading man, who has been devoting twelve to eighteen hours a day to a 
preparatfon for honors ; and who, finding his health giving way, determines 
upon going in for honors of another kind. Here the nervous system has 
been overtaxed, aided by green tea, wet cloths around the head, and perhaps 
a liberal supply of tobacco ; the consequence is, that the neglected muscular 
system is unfit for exertion, and the limbs become stiff" and cramped on the 
slightest effort. This state of things requires many weeks, or even months 
to restore the system to a state fit for undertaking any severe work, because 
the muscles are wanting in solid material, and the nervous system is so irri- 
table as to be totally incompetent to stimulate them with that steadiness and 
regularity which is essential to success. The same state of things often oc- 
curs in the counting-house — a young man is confined for ten or twelve hours 
a day to the desk and ledger ; he has no time for exercise, and his nervous 
system is over-stimulated by incessant calculation, and also by the constant 
view of the white paper spread before his eyes ; he' gets the 'ledger fever,' 
and many a young man is rendered by it utterly incompetent to continue 
this kind of drudgery. Some relieve this unnatural condition by early rising 
and pedestrian or horse and rowing exercise. 

"CAPTAIN BARCLAY'S METHOD OF TRAINING. 

" The great object of training for running or boxing matches, is to increase 
the muscular strength, and to improve the free action of the lungs, or wind, 
of the person subjected to the process, which is done by medicine, but may 
be effected by regimen and exercise. That this object can be accomplished 
is evident from the nature of the human system." (To be continued.) 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 139 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



The May article on this subject has elicited very considera- 
ble attention and commendation. A physician of long expe- 
rience and close observation called to express his gratification, 
and, at our request, made the following statement corroborative 
of our views : 

" I have, in many instances, explained, warned, and remon- 
strated in vain with parents, against the overstraining of the 
brains of children. A lady informed me that she did not know 
what to do with her little boy, aged six years. He had become 
fractious and irritable ; small provocations threw him into a vio- 
lent passion, and he was becoming uncontrollable. On inquiry, 
I learned he was going to school, was learning very fast, often 
repeated parts of his lesson in his sleep, which was restless and 
disturbed. At one time his head was hot, at another the per- 
spiration from it would drench his pillow ; his appetite was ca- 
pricious, his limbs were small, his flesh, which he was losing, 
was soft; all indicating, as I informed her, an over-worked 
brain, and that the powers of life were being rapidly exhausted. 
She promised to speak to the father, but proceeded : ' What 
in the world shall I do with him? He is so fractious, there is 
no living in the same house with him. Besides, the teachers 
do not want to give him up. He is one of the best scholars at 
school. If taken away now, readmission may be refused here- 
after.' In about a month after I met the mother again, but she 
was in deep mourning. The element of household disturbance 
had been removed, but in a manner most unwelcome. The child 
had taken a fever, which at once settled on the brain. The 
1 best boy in the school' talking incessantly : day and night, 
in his delirium, he kept on repeating parts of his' lessons, and 
so continued until the last hour of his life ! 

" This is not a solitary case. There are others like it of daily 
occurrence, and the child of promise and of pride passes away ; 
the parents, meanwhile, all unconscious of the very direct 
agency they had in a death so premature and sad. Prompt re- 
forms are needed in all schools, public and private ; parents and 
people, the pulpit and the press, should agitate and agitate un- 



140 hall's journal of health. 

til wiser and better and more humane counsels prevail. Our 
public schools are too much on the high pressure system ; too 
many hours are allotted to study ; too many lessons ; too many 
kinds at one time ; too much urging ; too much stimulation by 
compulsion or penalty ; by shame or fear ; above all, too much 
is imposed on the pupils out of school-hours. Mothers in fee- 
ble health are compelled to toil from morning until night in the 
performance of household duties, while their half-grown daugh- 
ters are poring over their hard lessons, with tired and fevered 
brains ; both mother and children needing help in their respec- 
tive employments." 

To these well-put statements of Dr. Shepherd, another may 
be added, which commends itself to the humane. Public 
schools were primarily intended for the poor, whose children 
otherwise would have grown up in ignorance, neglect, idleness, 
and crime. But by the systematic, thorough, and able manner 
in which they have been conducted in the city of New-York, 
some of them, especially those located in certain districts, have 
so commended themselves to the higher classes, that, in bad 
weather, private carriages, with their various liveries, are seen 
to take up or deposit the " responsibilities" of our wealthier 
citizens at the doors of the public school-room, with this most 
oppressive result to the poor, and their children : Lessons are 
invariably given to the children to be learned at home, in addi- 
tion to the six hours spent in the school-room ; to master these 
requires almost the entire time from dismission in the afternoon 
until the hour for reassembling in the morning ; and even this 
would, in many instances, be an impossible task but for the 
aid which educated and well-to-do parents can render their 
children. But when the parents are poor and ignorant, they 
have not an hour to spare, even if they had the mental ability 
to aid their children in their tasks. In fact, in many cases, the 
almost discouraged and exhausted mother needs the aid of her 
half-grown daughters, as Dr. Shepherd so well observed, in the 
performance of indispensable household duties. How many of 
these children of poverty, in their ambition to stand well in 
their classes, study themselves into exhausting nervous fevers, 
inflammation of the brain, and an early death, we may never 
know, but the number must be great ! This goading of the 
children of the poor to death is worse than the overseer's lash ; 



HAMMER ON. 141 

it is literally a murderous inhumanity, and reason and common- 
sense call aloud for its immediate rectification, by the uncondi- 
tional and absolute abolishment of study out of school-hours, 
in the city, out of the city, every where ! 



HAMMER ON. 



Fortunate are they who, while they are living, can witness 
the fruit of their good doings, and are further rewarded by evi- 
dences of a grateful appreciation on the part of those for whose 
benefit they live and labor. 

A worthy and conscientious clergyman — and there are many 
such — was greatly distressed in the inability to see that he was 
living to purpose : his advice was unheeded ; his counsels dis- 
regarded, he seemed to himself like one who was beating 
the air, and that the work of his hands was labor lost. Nor was 
this the greater trouble ; with the humility which belongs to a 
good heart, he began to lay all the blame on himself ; to feel that 
he was not only not doing any good, but was hindering some 
other and more able laborer from saving the " lost." In such 
a frame of mind, scarcely knowing what to do, it is related that 
he had a dream, to the effect, that with the tiniest hammer, he 
was appointed to break in pieces an immense rock. The task 
seemed utterly hopeless, yet he did as he was bid, without 
seeing that he made the slightest impression, and he was on the 
very point of exclaiming, in irrepressible impatience, " Where- 
fore all this useless labor ?" when the huge mass crumbled to 
pieces. He was one of that happy class of minds which en- 
deavored habitually to see the hand of Providence in all that 
occurred, and felt and sang 

" In each event of life how clear, 
Thy ruling hand I see." 

And with unwonted alacrity, he girded himself to new and 
wider labors, with the result of gathering such a harvest as in 
his wildest imagination he never dreamed of. 

While this is a beautifully encouraging lesson to all who are 
called to work in darkness, it should make those thankful who 



142 

are permitted to see that they are doing a good work, that they 
are accomplishing useful ends, and that lookers-on clap their 
hands and pleasantly exclaim : ff Good speed be to ye." 

This latter is the editor's lot in conducting the Journal of 
Health. Letters of commendation are coming in from all 
quarters, written by stranger hands ; names unknown take upon 
themselves a personal visit, to express a word of encouragement. 
A professional gentlemen of this city, who is destined to emi- 
nence, made free to say: "I hope you will never abandon your 
writing, whatever you may do as to your profession. You are 
filling a space which was never thus occupied beforehand which 
is of the highest importance. I hope you will hammer on." 

We do confess to an abiding yearning after earlier paths, and 
can not say what a day may bring forth : we make no engage- 
ments, only to let every thing be arranged for perfect freedom 
of action when the time for action comes. Fetters, avaunt ! 

A correspondent says : " There was one suggestion in one of 
the early numbers of 1859, which has been worth a dollar a 
week to me every since. I allude to your advice to eat abso- 
lutely nothing after four o'clock in the afternoon. My sleep, 
since I acted on this advice, has been so much sounder and more 
refreshing, that I begin to feel like another man. 

" I was much interested in the bachelor's tract, on page 
279, of vol. 6, 1859. Inclosed is something similar, a re-publi- 
cation of essays to do good, selected from Hall's Journal and 
others, which is being circulated here gratuitously, in the hope 
that it may help to happify many hearts and homes. 

" It is my intention to do more than ever this year to extend 
the knowledge of your Journal among clergymen and theologi- 
cal students, many of whom are perishing, or leading compara- 
tively useless lives, for want of the hints it gives, and which can 
be found no where else that I know of, unless where they are so 
mixed up with phrenology, or a quasi-infidelity, that these good 
men are not likely to esteem as truth what they find in such 
doubtful company." 

Will the Messrs. Fowler, the editor of the Herald of Pro- 
gress and the Water Cure, who write so many good things in 
reference to temperance and a wise life, make a note of it that 
we are only making a verbatim quotation ? ! 

A letter dated from the " House of Representatives'' says : 



HAMMER ON. 143 

" I feel constrained to say, that I am more than satisfied with 
your Journal, as eminently deserving the support of an intelli- 
gent people. Indeed, I have said more than once, ' It is worth 
fifty dollars a year,' and I believe it." 

Another writes : " I had the opportunity, a part of last winter 
and spring, of reading your Journal of Health, at the house 
of a relative, and I was so well pleased with it, that I have de- 
sired to have it myself, but I can not spare the dollar. I am an 
invalid, a broken-down clergyman ; I have no salary, and con- 
sequently can not send you the subscription-price. I hope you 
will not give me the go-by, for I will pay you as soon as I am 
able." 

Keader, don't you wish you had the chance of paying for that 
subscription ? You can't have it ; that's all. But you might 
do well to order the Journal of Health for your own minis- 
ter ; it would be difficult for you to spend a dollar for him to 
greater advantage, or to make so acceptable a present at so little 
cost. We have had a number of contributions of this sort, but, 
with a very few exceptions, they have all come from the south 
of Mason & Dixon's line. Who will explain it ? 

A letter just received from a Southern planter, in closing an 
account of long years of suffering from nervousness and sudden 
attacks of debility, says : " When half a mile only from home, I 
would at times feel as if I could never get there. About that time, 
I began to take your Journal of Health, and then obtained 
your book on Health and Disease, and learned how to manage 
myself better, and have gradually improved every year. I had no 
hope of getting better, but after I found I improved every year 
from reading your writings, (for there is no doubt it was the 
saving of me,) I thought I would now explain my case to 
you." 

Letters like the above, from unknown persons, and verbal re- 
lations of strangers from a distance, who come to express their 
gratifications in person, are, without exaggeration, of almost 
daily occurrence, and are certainly calculated to encourage us 
to " hammer on," in cheerful hope that we are doing a substan- 
tial good to many whom we may never see or know. Let such 
of these as may chance to read this page, pay us in full, by 
doing some act of goodness to any brother being next them, 



144 

with the sweet assurance of promoting human harmonies there- 
by, and that 

" It will all be right in the morning." 

A literary gentleman wrote us five years ago : " I read your 
Journal with great pleasure and profit, the only medical work 
I ever saw that was full of one's own symptoms, and yet not 
calculated to give him the blues, en avant" Oui, Monsieur, Ya, 
Mynheer, Si, Signor. In the light of these things we will 
" hammer on," not, however, with the happy don't-careativeness 
and abandon of former years ; for, with a steadily-increasing 
circulation, there grows apace an increasing feeling of responsi- 
bility, and a fear of compromising any influence for good which 
the Journal possesses, by some ill-advised expression or senti- 
ment. We fear that we are approaching the confines of the 
other half of the century, for we do daily find that there is a be- 
ginning of " fears in the way," that the repressive influences of 
"policy" are more and more decidedly felt ; an inkling after 
conciliation rather than provocation ; an effort to " walk softly ;" 
there is an instinct for whispering out unpalatable truths, and 
for assuming the "stereotype smile." Tell us, ye aged pilgrims 
on the lowering side of fifty, if it was thus with you at an earlier 
time ? Say, is it an infallible sign of coming age ? If so, please 
remember all signs fail in dry weather. Our family Bible was 
lost in a wreck, and people who haven't the slightest use for false 
teeth, wigs, " specs," or hair-dye, can't be old; it is out of the 
question ; they are only growing wise, learning by degrees that 
it is better to make a friend than an enemy, and that under any 
circumstances, a man's "last word" should be one of self-respect 
or courtesy, if not of actual kindness ; for then it is the other 
party who " burns," or passes a sleepless night, not you ! 



COURTESY. 



No woman can be a lady who would wound or mortify an- 
other. No matter how beautiful, how refined, how cultivated 
she may be, she is in reality coarse, and the innate vulgarity 
of her nature manifests itself here. Uniformly kind, courteous 
and polite treatment of all persons, is one mark of a true woman, 
and of a true man also. — Anon. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 

WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] JULY, 1860. [No. 



ATHLETICS. 

New-Yoek is destined to be one of the grandest cities in the 
civilized world ; because it has within it the elements of me- 
chanical and commercial greatness possessed by none other on 
the globe. The only obstacles at present seen, which can blast 
these anticipations, are the want of physical and moral health. 
The latter may, with great confidence, be committed to an 
educated, active and devoted clergy, and a consistent, liberal 
and zealous church membership : as to the former, there are 
signs of promise ; thanks to the intelligent and persevering efforts 
of Drs. Grriscom, Sayers, E. Y. Bobbins and a few others, pub- 
lic attention is strongly turning towards securing clean streets, 
clean houses, clean cellars, clean yards and well-ventilated 
buildings for the accommodation of the poor. In due time, 
cheap bathing-houses for the masses ; elevated, large, light and 
airy work-rooms for those who live by sewing, knitting and 
embroideries, the use of which may be obtained for a few cents 
a day, thus giving them warmth, pure air, quiet and cleanliness, 
enabling them to work in comfort, cheerfulness, and health. 
These things will follow in due time, with others of a like hu- 
manizing and benevolent character. 

We look with great delight in another direction for facilities 
to promote the health of the children, the boys and the girls, 
the young men and maidens of our growing city ; that is, to the 
Centkal Paek, one of the very largest for purely public pur- 
poses in the world. 

Fresh and full of sunshine are the memories of what we have 
seen on the Paseos of Havanna and Matanzas on the sea, in 
the garden of the Tuileries, the splendid Champs Elysees and 
the Parks of London, of thousands of well-dressed people on 

NO. VII.— VOL. VII.— 1860. 



146 

horse, on foot, in carriage, bent on some gladsome enjoyments, 
some to see, others to be seen ; and all brimful of animation, 
activity, and life ; these daily cavalcades of wealth and fashion 
and youth and beauty, will of themselves add more to the de- 
sirableness of the Metropolis as a residence, than any one other 
thing connected with it; they will promote health, banish 
ennui, increase enjoyment, and scatter money, transferring it from} 
the coffers of the liberal rich, to the pockets of the industrious 
poor and the enterprising, thus increasing the pleasure and 
happiness of all. 

The Central Park will be a magnificent gymnasium, where 
opportunities will be afforded for every variety of exhilarating 
exercise. There will be no vain beatings of the air, no frog- 
puffing, no pendulations of doleful dumb-bells, no vulgar fisti- 
cuffs, no objectless arm-swingings ; but there will be the drive, 
the saddle, the promenade, the row, the skate, the cricket and 
the base-ball. There will be a five-mile foot-path for the 
lounger, the lover and the contemplative ; there will be a nine- 
mile carriage-drive over an easy graded and beautifully smooth 
turnpike and a separate bridle-road of twenty miles, now up- 
hill, now down, straight a bit, then winding around some pro- 
jecting rock or miniature mountain, through shaded dell and 
by secluded cavern, over hills and through tunnels, thus giving 
to our sons and daughters invaluable opportunities for perfect- 
ing themselves in that most exhilarating and health-giving of 
all the graces, riding on horseback. 

For this good time coming and soon to be here, we look long- 
ingly ; for Gotham will then be the Mecca of the sick, the very 
paradise of doctors, the maelstrom of apothecaries and all 
druggery ! These are not inconsistent ends ; they logically 
concatenate ; the ratiocination is perfect, the reasoning is without 
a flaw. In the first place, the sick will congregate here from 
all points of the compass for the unequaled (in the whole 
world) facilities for securing all forms of exercise in the open 
air, without the disadvantages of dangerous exposures ; and as 
judicious out-door activities, with waking up entertainments, 
is the million of remedies out of a million and one for the cure of 
ordinary ailments, the people, through the influence of common- 
sense and Hall's Journal of Health, will at once be arous- 
ed to the advantages offered. The sick being once brought 
here. New- York will be the very elysium of the educated phy- 



ATHLETICS. 147 

sician, because he will have nothing to do but sit in his office 
during certain specified hours daily, give advice and take the 
fees, which last will be liberal, as travelers always have money ; 
and travel has the effect of liberalizing expenditures ; for any 
reader of reflection must know that he does not think one tenth 
part as much of a dollar abroad as he does at home. 

11 Apothecaries" will go to pot, because there will be no use 
for their "villainous compounds." The fresh out-door air amid 
sunshine and fashion and youth and beauty, is more infallibly 
exhilarating than any branched " tonic" ever devised — the best 
anodyne in the world is out-door exercise. No sudorific ever 
compounded, concocted, macerated or mixed, is more certain of 
its desired effect, than a walk, or drive, or game in the open air. 
Nothing so infallibly acts " like a charm" in loosening cough 
and dislodging phlegm, as wisely conducted out-door activities. 
Let the experience of any man give its certificate, signed, sealed 
acknowledged and sworn to, of the appetizing effects of five 
miles on horseback " and repeat." Does anybody, can any 
body have the impudence to assert that there is any better 
' ; Liver pill" in the world than a two-hours' trot in the saddle 
at a two-forty pace ? The most unsophisticated ninny of a 
"first course" student knows that if the appetite is right, the 
skin perspires, the cough is loose, and the "liver works," a man 
can't die of any thing except of love or a bullet, or some other 
incongruous concatenation of circumstances. The Central Park 
then being a panacea for all sickness, drugs and druggery must 
go by the board, swilling liquor under the guise of "tonics," 
will be done away with, which by the way has unsuspectingly 
lured many a man to the bottle, and many a splendid woman 
to the poppy, to fade away from the society they once ornamented 
to go down eventually to a contemptuous grave ; so that the 
great Central Park of New- York City, with its eight hundred 
and forty-four acres of hill and dale, of field and woodland, of 
rock and plain, will not only be a splendid gymnasium, but a 
free dispensatory, not of drugs ! but of health, and a grand 
Temple of Temperance. 

But there is one point which yet remains to be clarified. How, 
under these circumstances is New- York to become the paradise 
of doctors, the regulars we mean ! for we throw overboard as 
unfit for ballast even, the steamer, the mesmerist, the clairvoy- 
ant, the cold waterist and the infinitesimal, et id omne class of 



148 hall's jouenal of health. 

v r agarists, for none of them ever had an idea which was not 
derived from the investigations, researches, and studies of re- 
cognized medicine ; nor can the whole cavalcade of them name a 
single authenticated discovery in anatomy, physiology, surgery, 
or physic, nor indeed in any thing else, unless in certain forms 
of vulgar legerdemain, by which a transference of " meum and 
teum" is effected by means of oil or fog, without any honorable 
" quid pro quo." But let that go down into the tomb of all 
the Capulets. 

Scientific medicine will flourish in the dawning Gothamite 
millennium in this wise. Its legitimate object is to teach the 
people how to keep well, how to avoid disease, the high and 
first "chair" in which "school" was conceived, founded, in- 
augurated and occupied by the editor of the Jouenal of 
Health. But there will be cases, not a few, where there will 
be causes of mishap and disease which no human sagacity can 
either foresee or prevent ; in such cases, the educated practitioner 
will be called in to ascertain the exact " state of the case," and 
to "prescribe," not drugs, but such forms of activities and such 
rules of dress, rest, eating, drinking and sleeping, as will most 
happily meet the requirements of each particular patient ; then 
by degrees, curing disease without physic, even in homeopathic 
quantities, will become more and more a science, educated 
allopathy will be king, and New- York become the home and 
the Temple of Hygeia ! 

Nor is this day indefinitely distant. Says the Daily Times, 
already are the available spots of the Central Park visited by 
large numbers on fine days ; citizens of all classes, from the mil- 
lionaire to the humble artisan, may be seen enjoying the de- 
lightful walks and drives, and snuffing the invigorating atmo- 
sphere. When the boats and cheap hacks and the grounds for 
the ball-players, cricketers, and military are finished, the Park 
will present on fine days, a scene of brilliancy and picturesque- 
ness unequaled by a Venetian carnival ; and that day ! thank 
the energy and fidelity of the Commissioners, is not far distant. 
Already has it become a fashionable resort. On any fine day 
at five in the afternoon may be seen a display of equipages 
quite surpassing any thing of the kind on this continent. 
Horseback-riding is coming more into vogue since a place is 
provided where that health and grace-provoking amusement 
can be comfortably prosecuted. Not a few families have changed 



ATHLETICS. 



149 



their hour of dining in order to be able to ride or drive at a 
time when the world is to be seen. Not a few persons of 
means, who heretofore have not cared to keep carriages and 
horses merely to drive around town, have obtained them recent- 
ly. Livery-stable keepers have not open vehicles enough to 
supply the demand of those who wish to hire. The Park is all 
the rage ; it is more frequented and more talked about than the 
opera ; the imported swans are discussed more vigorously than 
the prima-donnas ; riding-habits are in greater demand than 
opera-cloaks, and a new bridge on a new road provokes more 
comment even than the debut of another tenor, or the announce- 
ment of another work of Yerdi. The leaders of the ton have 
agreed to make Wednesday and Saturday the fashionable days 
for the drive. Eeader, let us be there to see ! 

English tourists may remember that the Oxford students have 
boats for rowing, sharp, narrow and long, holding but one per- 
son only, and in these they spend many an hour, acquiring hj 
degrees an agility of management and a rapidity of motion 
very remarkable. It is greatly to be desired that some of these 
should be promptly prepared for use on the lake in the Central 
Park under such regulations as will best secure their proper 
and general use. There is perhaps no form of mere exercise 
so well calculated to bring into free play the whole muscular 
system, and so specially well calculated to develop the chest 
and the strength of the arms ; its advantages to girls would be 
almost incalculable. 

It may be of general interest to append the size of the city 
parks, fractions omitted, and the largest ones elsewhere, pre- 
mising that the Central Park is, we believe, the largest in the 
world within the limits of a great city and set apart exclusively 
for purposes of public pleasure, recreation, and amusement. 



Acres. 

Bowling-Green, New- York, \ 

Grammercy, 1-J 

Union Square, 3 

Stuy vesant, 4 



Hudson, , 
Madison. 



Park, City Hall, 11 

Battery, (enlarged,). 

Boston Common, (near,) 

Fairmount, Philadelphia, 

Thiergarten, Berlin, 



25 

50 

72 
200 



Acres. 

St. James', London, 290 

Victoria, 290 

Regent's, 860 

Hyde Park, 395 

Birkenhead, Liverpool, 500 

English Garten, Munich, 500 

Central Park, New-York, 844 

Phoenix Park, Dublin, 1000 

Prater, Vienna, 1500 

Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, 2158 

Versailles Garden, 3000 



150 hall's journal of health. 



THE TEETH 



Said Dr. Ostrander, (at the head of his profession in his own 
State :) "If dentistry had reached its present perfection when I 
was a young man, the whole tenor of my life would have been 
altered." 

Why ? 

" I was addressing a young lady of great moral worth, of 
unusual personal attractions, and the heiress of a large fortune. 
She had not reached her twentieth year. In a state of repose, 
her face was perfectly beautiful. But when she smiled, a set 
of teeth were presented, so discolored, so uneven, so defective 
and decayed, and the breath was so offensive, that I could not 
possibly reconcile it to myself to be linked for life to circum- 
stances so repulsive. The very thought of it was abhorrent to 
me, so I gradually withdrew my attentions, and wedded pov- 
erty with a sweet mouth." 

Charity may cover a multitude of sins ; and a great estate 
may veil as great a multitude of personal defects, to the un- 
educated and the vulgar, but the wealth of Croesus could not 
reconcile a man of culture and refinement to wed a snaggled 
tooth and an odoriferous breath. In the matter of lovability, 
nothing can compensate for the absence of beautiful teeth and 
a sweet breath. Hence, parents will perform towards their 
children most important service by doing what they may to se- 
cure to them perfectly sound teeth, not only as an important 
means of preserving health, but as an invaluable aid in form- 
ing desirable alliances. 

Two things are indispensable : First, from the age of four 
years, until marriage, have a good dentist to examine every 
tooth most minutely, several times a year ; second, begin quite 
as early to impress the child with the importance of keeping 
the teeth clean, and how best to do it. 

A child has ten teeth in each jaw ; all these, and these only, 
are shed ; generally, in healthy children, two teeth are shown 
at eight months, at least eight in fourteen months, and the 
whole twenty at two and a half years. 

From five to six years of age the first permanent teeth ap- 
pear ; and from that time the frequent and vigilant services of 
a sharp-eyed dentist ought to be secured. The eye-teeth ap< 



THE TEETH. 151 

pear between the eleventh and twelfth year ; at fourteen the 
large double-teeth present themselves, and the wisdom teeth at 
about twenty. 

Hot and cold drinks should be avoided, particularly at the 
same meal. 

The teeth should not be washed in cold water, especially after 
eating, because the contrast between it and warm or hot food 
is too striking, and chills them. 

Each person should have two tooth-brushes, one moderately 
stiff, to be employed the first thing in the morning ; the other, 
which may be a morning one, which has been used for some 
time, should be softer, and should not be used in rubbing across 
the teeth much, lest it might cause the gums to recede, and thus 
pave the way for their falling out, but should be twisted up and 
down, so that each bristle may act as a tooth-pick, to dislodge 
any particles between the teeth. 

These softer brushes should be used immediately after each 
meal, taking care, at the end of the operation, to pass the brush 
across the back part of the tongue, and then gargle the mouth 
and throat well with water. } 

For cleaning the teeth and mouth, warm water, always at 
hand in cities, should be used, but never employ water so hot 
or cold as to cause uncomfortableness to the teeth, for they will 
soon be destroyed thereby. When it is very inconvenient to 
have warm water, hold the cold water in the back part of the 
mouth, keeping it from the teeth with the tongue as much as 
possible, until it is warmer, and then use the brush. 

It is frequently advised to clean the teeth the last thing at 
night ; a much better plan is to do it the first thing after supper, 
and then they are in a clean condition for four or five hours 
longer out of every twenty -four, while the trouble of cleaning 
the teeth a second time would tend to prevent eating any thing 
later than supper. 

The tooth-brush should be always used leisurely, for a slip 
or inadvertence may scale or break off a valuable tooth. Once 
or twice a week, the first or last brushing should be with pure 
white soap, thus : Wet the brush, and draw it several times 
across the soap, then put it in the mouth, rubbing the teeth 
until the mouth is full of foam, and for a minute or two em- 
ploy the brush on the side of the teeth next the tongue, above 



152 hall's journal of health. 

and below, for it is there that tartar collects, to the eating away 
of the gums, and eventual falling out of the teeth. In most 
cases this tartar is deposited by a living creature, which is in- 
stantly destroyed by soap-suds, when tobacco-juice and the 
strongest acids have no effect. 

Charcoal, even when made of the bark of wood, is one of the 
most destructive of all tooth-powders. Eminent dentists agree 
in this ; it finds its way between the teeth and the gums, and 
destroys both. 

Almost all the tooth-powders have a strong acid of some 
kind, and this cleanses the teeth, but destroys their texture ; 
this may be obviated to a great extent if, immediately after 
using any tooth-powder, the teeth are well brushed with soap, 
to antagonize any acid which may be left about them. 

If the brush is used as above, powders will not be necessary 
more than two or three times a year ; in our own case, common 
salt, once in two or three months, seems to have answered an 
excellent purpose ; put on a damp brush, rubbed across and up 
and down the teeth. It is not advised to keep the teeth always 
of a pearly whiteness, for they may be cleaned so much as to 
be worn away. It would be a good plan for a dentist, once a 
year, to go over every tooth with powdered pummice-stone and 
a piece of soft wood. Bad teeth induce dyspepsia, from insuf- 
ficient chewing of the food ; they also corrupt the breath, and 
are frequently the causes of serious and distressing disease ; while 
good teeth not only beautify the face, but promote health and 
long life ; hence, special care expended on their preservation 
will be repaid an hundred fold in the course of a life-time. 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

The following is a continuation of the article in the June 
number on the same subject, and merits especial attention, par- 
ticularly on the part of those who wish to obtain more physical 
vigor, and wish to do it in a safe way, avoiding the shocks, 
irregularities, strainings, wrenchings, etc., which attend gym 
nastic trainings: 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 153 

" It has been proved by experiment that every part of the firmest bones 
is successively absorbed and deposited. The bones and their ligaments, the 
muscles and their tendons, all the finer and the more flexible parts of the 
body, are continually renewed, and as properly a secretion as the saliva that 
flows from the mouth, or the moisture that bedews the surface. The health 
of all the parts, and their soundness of structure, depend on this perpetual 
absorption and perpetual renovation ; and exercise, by promoting at once 
absorption and secretion, promotes life without hurrying it, renovates all the 
parts, and preserves them apt and fit for every office. When the human 
frame is thus capable of being altered and renovated, it is not surprising 
that the art of training should be carried to a degree of perfection almost in- 
credible, and that by certain processes, the breath, (or wind,) strength, and 
courage of man, should be so greatly improved as to enable him to perform 
the most laborious undertakings. That such effects have been produced is 
unquestionable, being fully exemplified in the astonishing exploits of cele- 
brated pedestrians and pugilists, which are the infallible results of such pre- 
paratory discipline. The skillful trainer attends to the state of the bowels, 
the lungs, and the skin ; and he uses such means as will reduce the fat, and 
at the same time invigorate the muscular fibers. The patient is purged by 
drastic medicines ; he is sweated by walking under a load of clothes, and by 
lying between feather-beds. His limbs are roughly rubbed. His diet is 
beef or mutton ; his drink, strong ale ; and he is gradually inured to exer- 
cise by repeated trials in walking and running. By exterminating the fat, 
emptying the cellular substance, hardening the muscular fiber, and improv- 
ing the breath, a man of the ordinary frame may be made to fight for one 
hour, with the utmost exertion of strength and courage, or to go over one 
hundred miles in twenty- four hours. The most effectual process for train, 
ing in the days of Tom Cribb, was that practiced by the celebrated pedes- 
trian, Captain Barclay, and the particular method he adopted has not only 
been sanctioned by professional men, but met with the unqualified approba- 
tion of amateurs. The following statement, therefore, contains the most ap- 
proved rules ; and it is presented to the reader as the result of much expe- 
rience, founded on the theoretic principles of the art, and as practiced by 
Captain Barclay : 

" The pedestrian, who may be supposed in tolerable condition, enters upon 
his training with a regular course of physic, which consists of three doses. 
Glauber salts are generally preferred, and from one ounce and a half to two 
ounces are taken at each time, with an interval of four days between each 
dose. After having gone through the course of physic, he commences his 
regular exercise, which is gradually increased as he proceeds in the training. 
When the object in view is the accomplishment of a pedestrian match, his 
regular exercise may be from twenty to twenty-four miles a day. He must 
rise at five in the morning, run half a mile at the top of his speed up-hill, 
and then walk six miles at a moderate pace, coming in about seven to break- 
fast, which should consist of beef-steaks or mutton-chops underdone, with stale 
bread and old beer. After breakfast, he must again walk six miles at a mod- 
erate pace, and at twelve lie down in his bed without his clothes for half an 



154 hall's jouknal of health. 

hour. On getting up, he must walk four miles, and return by four to dinner, 
which should also be beef-steaks or mutton-chops, with bread and beer as at 
breakfast. Immediately after dinner he must resume his exercise, by run- 
ning half a mile at the top of his speed, and walking six miles at a moderate 
pace. He takes no more exercise for that day, but retires to bed about eight, 
and next morning proceeds in the same manner. After having gone on in 
this regular course for three or four weeks, the pedestrian must take a four- 
mile sweat, which is produced by running four miles, in flannel, at the top 
of his speed. Immediately on returning, a hot liquor is prescribed, in order 
to promote the perspiration, of which he must drink one English pint. It is 
termed the sweating liquor, and is composed of the following ingredients, 
namely : one ounce of caraway-seed ; half an ounce of coriander -seed ; one 
ounce of root-liquorice ; and half an ounce of sugar-candy ; mixed with two 
bottles of cider, and boiled down to one half. He is then put to bed in his 
flannels, and being covered with six or eight pairs of blankets and a feather- 
bed, must remain in this state from twenty-five to thirty minutes, when he 
is taken out and rubbed perfectly dry. Being then well wrapped in his 
great coat, he walks out gently for two miles, and returns to breakfast^ 
which, on such occasions, should consist of a roasted fowl. He afterwards 
proceeds with his usual exercise. These sweats are continued weekly, till 
within a few days of the performance of the match, or, in other words, he 
must undergo three or four of these operations. If the stomach of the pe- 
destrian be foul, an emetic or two must be given about a week before the 
conclusion of the training, and he is now supposed to be in the highest con. 
dition. 

" Besides his usual or regular exercise, a person under training ought to 
employ himself in the intervals in every kind of exertion which tends to ac- 
tivity, such as cricket, bowls, throwing quoits, etc., so that, during the whole 
day, both body and mind may be constantly occupied. 

"The beneficial consequences, both to the body and the mind, arising 
from training, are not merely temporary, but may be . made permanent by 
proper care and attention. The simplicity of the rules is a great recommen- 
dation to those who may be desirous of trying the experiment, and the whole 
process may be resolved into the following principles : 1st. The evacuating, 
which cleanses the stomach and intestines. 2d. The sweating, which takes 
off the superfluities of flesh and fat. 3d. The daily course of exercise, which 
improves the wind and strengthens the muscles ; and lastly, The regimen, 
which nourishes and invigorates the body. 

" The criterion by which it may be known whether a man be in good 
condition, or, what is the same thing, has been properly trained, is the state 
of the skin, which becomes smooth, elastic, and well-colored, or transparent. 
The flesh is also firm, and the person trained feels himself light and full of 
spirits. But in the progress of the training, his condition may be ascertained 
by the effect of the sweats, which cease to reduce his weight; and by the 
manner in which he performs one mile at the top of his speed. It is as dif. 
ficult to run a mile at the top of one's speed as to walk a hundred ; and ? 
therefore, if he performs this short distance well, it may be concluded that 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 155 

his condition is perfect, or that he has derived all the advantages which can 
possibly result from the training process. 

"Training for pugilism is nearly the same as for pedestrianism, the object 
in both being principally to obtain additional wind and strength. The pro- 
cess observed by Cribb, the champion of England, preparatory to his grand 
battle with Molineaux, which took place September 29, 1811, is as follows: 

"THE TRAINING OF TOM CRIBB. 

"The champion arrived at Ury, Capt. Barclay's residence, July 7 of that 
year. He weighed 224 lbs., and from his mode of living in London, and the 
confinement of a crowded city, he had become corpulent, big-bellied, full of 
gross humors, and short-breathed ; and it was with difficulty he could walk 
ten miles. He first went through a course of physic, which consisted of 
three doses ; for two weeks he walked about as he pleased, and generally 
traversed the woods and plantations with a fowling-piece in hand. The re- 
ports of his musket resounded every where through the groves and the hollows 
of that delightful place, to the great terror of the magpies and wood-pigeons. 
After amusing himself in this way for about a fortnight, he then commenced 
his regular walking exercise, which was at first about ten or twelve miles a 
day. It was soon after increased to eighteen or twenty ; and he ran regu- 
larly, morning and evening, a quarter of a mile at the top of his speed. In 
consequence of his physic and exercise, his weight was reduced, in the course 
of five weeks, from 224 lbs. to 205 lbs. At this period he commenced his 
sweats, and took three during the month he remained at Ury afterwards ; 
and his weight was gradually reduced to 187 lbs., which was ascertained to 
be his pitch of condition, as he could not reduce farther without weakening. 
During the course of his training, the champion went twice to the Highlands, 
and took strong exercise. He walked to Mar Lodge, which is about sixty 
miles distant from Ury, where he arrived to dinner on the second day, being 
now able to do thirty miles a day with ease, and probably he could have 
walked twice as far if it had been necessary. He remained in the Highlands 
about a week each time, and amused himself with shooting. The principal 
advantage which he derived from these expeditions was the severe exercise 
he was obliged to undergo in following Captain Barclay. He improved more 
in his strength and wind by his journeys to the Highlands than by any 
other part of the training process. His diet and drink were the same as used 
in the pedestrian regimen, and in other respects, the rules previously laid 
down were generally applied to him. That he was brought to his ultimate 
pitch of condition was evident from the high state of health and strength in 
which he appeared when he mounted the stage to contend with Molineaux, 
who has since confessed that, when he saw his fine condition, he totally 
despaired of gaining the battle. Cribb was altogether about eleven weeks 
under training, but he remained only nine weeks at Ury. Besides his regu- 
lar exercise, he was occasionally employed in sparring at Stonehaven, where 
he gave lessons in the pugilistic art. He was not allowed much rest, but 
was constantly occupied in some active employment. He enjoyed good 
spirits, being all the time fully convinced that he would beat his antagonist. 



156 

He was managed, however, with great address^ and the result corresponded 
with the wishes of his friends. 

"HOW THE BENICIA BOY WAS TRAINED. 

" He rises at six o'clock a.m., and strikes out a couple of hundred times 
with small dumb-bells just to stretch the muscles. As soon as he is dressed, 
he takes a walk of about three miles. Upon reaching home on his return, 
he does some ' sprint' running at the top of his speed — a hundred yards, say, 
six or seven times. In this performance, Cusick and Falkland stand at 
either end of the distance, with watches in their hands, giving him half a 
minute's time for rest at the score. He then goes into his room, and if per- 
spiring freely, (which is seldom the case,) is rubbed down. Then, after a 
rest, breakfast is served precisely at eight. This meal is composed of mut- 
ton-chops or beef-steek cooked very rare. He is very particular as to the 
time of his meals. Half an hour after breakfast, he takes a salt-water bath. 
The bath is prepared every day, and consists of soft water and rock-salt. 
After this he puts on his sweating-suit, and at nine o'clock, accompanied by 
Cusick, (and now with McDonald or Cusick.) he starts out for his ten-mile 
walk, carrying in either hand a three-pound dumb-bell. The firstfour miles 
are covered at a gentle pace, after which he increases his speed gradually. 
When within four miles of home on his return, he puts on a mask (to sweat 
the face) made of white flannel, with openings for the mouth and eyes, but 
none for the nose. He then commences a pace of ten minutes to the mile, 
finishing the last mile home at a Flora Temple speed, always leaving the 
company behind. As soon as he gets into his room, he sits by the fire to 
assist the perspiration, and when he thinks he has had enough of it, he strips 
to the buff, and is briskly rubbed down. Now, during his hard training, he 
takes an egg in a glass of sherry after this. It is then half-past eleven, when 
he proceeds to the barn, and strikes out the dumb-bells, slings the clubs, or 
battles with the bag. Exercising in this manner for some time, he walks 
into farmer Pocock's library, and selects a book to amuse himself with until 
dinner, which is served at one o'clock precisely, consisting of roast beef, roast 
mutton, or boiled mutton. A rest of an hour or so intervenes, which is con- 
sumed in reading or talking, when he accouters himself for his afternoon's 
walk of eight or nine miles. This he commences at 2:30, or thereabouts. 
He returns at near five o'clock, when he changes his clothes, and then takes 
another rest before tea, which is at six o'clock, consisting of dry toast, no 
butter, weak black tea, with occasionally an egg. Half an hour or so after 
this, he commences his ' sprint' running. He then returns to the house, and 
sits up talking or reading until nine o'clock, when he takes a bowl of thin 
oat-meal gruel, and at ten o'clock he retires to bed, to rise again at six next 
morning, and go through the same course of exercise, diet, and treatment. 

"SAYERS IN HIS TRAINING. 

" Sayers rises from his virtuous couch at six o'clock in the morning, and 
soon after starts out for a quiet walk of three miles, or thereabouts, return- 
ing leisurely to his habitation. At eight o'clock breakfast is announced, for 



PHYSICAL TRAINING. 157 

which the champion is now ready. The meal is plain, consisting, as a gen- 
eral thing, of mutton-chops, (with the addition, occasionally, of eggs,) with 
a single cup of strong tea, of the proper strength of which Sayers is allowed 
to be the judge. After having finished breakfast, he takes a rest of an hour or 
two, the time being enlivened by the telling of anecdotes by Bob Fuller, his 
trainer ; Sayers now and then, in turn, regaling Bob with a laughable yarn. 
At the conclusion of this mirthful repast, the champion goes out for his long 
walk, which he terms the ' sweating process.' The distance covered in this 
pedestrian-excursion is from twelve to fourteen miles, during which the 
champion carries a seven-pound dumb-bell in each hand. By the lime he 
gets through with this performance, and returns home, it is 12 o'clock. He 
is then rubbed dry with hard towels, next washed with cold water, and again 
rubbed vigorously with dry towels, which brings the blood to the surface 
of the skin, and gives a clear and healthy glow to the cuticle. Fuller now 
puts on the finishing touches like a skillful painter, and to attain this end he 
dons a pair of horse-hair gloves, and with these he gives the champion a rub- 
bing such as but few persons could undergo. 

" After submitting to these ' gentle and soothing' specimens of the veteran 
Bob's handiwork, the skin of the champion is moistened with Irish whisky, 
after which he is incased in a thick, dry suit of flannel, and then he saun- 
ters forth for a short ramble, returning home to dinner at two o'clock. This 
meal consists of roast beef, roast or boiled mutton, varied from day to day. 
Of course, the morning exercise has given him a keen appetite, and he dis- 
cusses the fare with a lively sense of the importance of the occasion. The 
inner man satisfied with a due allowance of plain but wholesome food, a 
1 season of rest' is indulged in — the champion being permitted to use his own 
judgment at to the requisite length of the time for the siesta — at the expira- 
tion of which, another walk of nine or ten miles is prescribed, in thick 
clothing, which, on returning home, is immediately changed for a dry flannel 
suit. Thus wears the day along, and from the hour of returning from the 
afternoon walk, generally about five o'clock, Tom is master of his own time, 
and passes it, as in his judgment, may seem most fit and proper. The last 
meal is extremely simple, consisting of dry toast and tea, with, very fre- 
quently, a beaten egg or two in the latter. After resting sufficiently, he 
takes a gentle walk of four or five miles over the heath, and then returns 
home to entertain, or be entertained by any friends who may have called to 
see him. At half-past nine o'clock, ' balmy sleep, tired Nature's sweet re- 
storer,' wooes him to her couch ; when, to use the champion's own words, he 
enjoys ' most delicious repose in the arms of Mons. Murphy? " 

If for brutal honors men like these encounter self-denials 
with heroic resolution and cheerful acquiescence, how ought we 
to be willing to crucify " the flesh with the affections and lusts," 
in order that we might "win" the meed of immortality; might 
secure that high health of body and manly vigor which are 
essential to the safest and purest enjoyment of religion ; essen- 



158 hall's journal of health. 

tial to an active and efficient life of good doing, a death of 
ease, of triumph, and beatific Faith, in being that same u day" 
— "in Paradise." 

Men of low nature " endure" "joyfully" the self-denials of 
the appetite, and the most laborious exercises, to prepare them 
for their brutal conflicts, and in the engagement, encounter the 
most fearful u millings" courageously and uncomplainingly, that 
they may obtain a " corruptible crown." Let us, then, who seek 
an " incorruptible that fadeth not away," consider habitually, 
that it is no trial to deny ourselves " the world, the flesh, and 
their blandishments," only if thereby we are able so "to fight 
that we may obtain " 



DESSERTS. 



These are the agents which cause a vast amount of human 



l £> 



suffering, inasmuch as they tempt the appetite and bribe nature 
to a transgression, which never fails of being punished sooner 
or later. All eat as* much as they want of the ordinary dinner 
before the dessert comes in, and, without the dessert, would feel 
a comfortable exhilaration for the remainder of the day : but 
the tempter comes in ; the satiated palate is tickled, is whipped 
up ; the man stuffs on, and for the remainder of the day is more 
like a gorged anaconda than any thing else — so full, that he 
rises from the table with deliberation, strives against coughing, 
lest he might jolt up his dinner, and then sits down to doze 
away a whole afternoon under the oppressive influence of an in- 
glorious surfeit. 

A large addition would be made to the comfort and health of 
any family which should discard the whole catalogue of pies, 
pastries, and puddings as desserts, and take, in their stead, one 
or two oranges or apples, or a dish of fresh ripe berries in their 
natural state ; or if out of season or unattainable, an agreeable, 
neat, and healthful substitute may be found in a "mint-stick," 
a bit of cream-candy, or a piece of pure maple-sugar. 



WATER-FILTERS. 159 



WATER-FILTERS. 



There is such, a thiug as going headforemost, of progressing 
backwards, and the use of water-filters in many cases is one of 
these, especially in New-York. The waters of the Mississippi, 
from St. Louis downwards, are thick with mud, and yet those 
who live along its banks and use it habitually, do not complain 
of its unhealthiness. If water passes through a common fil- 
ter, its impurities are left in that filter ; the next water which 
passes through has to pass through the detained impurities of 
the previous portion, and thus it goes on from day to day, for 
a new filter every day has not been advocated by any one. But 
it is the nature of the substances which water ordinarily holds 
in solution, to remain unchanged as long as they are covered or 
held in a plentiful amount of cool water, but when the water 
has been withdrawn, and they remain merely damp, they do, 
in the ordinary heat of summer, begin to undergo a process of 
destructive decay, they rot, and the very gases which they dis- 
engage in that process are speedily destructive of health and 
life, being the miasms which originate the deadly fevers on 
water-courses ; if the gases be thus deadly, it may well be sup- 
posed that the more solid portions are not without their ill effect 
when taken into the stomach with water which is known to 
pass into the circulation within a few moments after it has been 
swallowed. That filtered water becomes changed in its charac- 
ter, is known by the familiar "flat" taste which belongs to it. 
Under this view of the case, it would be well to discard filters 
altogether, and not for the sake of getting rid of a few micro- 
scopic bugs and monsters, to take into the system instead, the 
deadly miasm which is generated in the sediment of all river- 
water, as soon as the water is removed and a summer tempera- 
ture is applied to it, for then there is destructive decay ; but no 
such thing can take place in the human stomach, although the 
sediment is swallowed in much larger quantities. These re- 
marks do not apply to substances which may be thrown into 
the water and precipitate its impurities to the bottom, from 
which the water is at once poured off and used and the sedi- 
ment thrown away ; nor does it apply to any filter which may 
be thoroughly cleansed after each single filtering process. All , 
nitrations yet known do take away from the water that fresh, 



160 hall's journal of health. 

sparkling, and refreshing quality which belongs to the bubbling 
spring, or is taken from the brim of " the moss-covered bucket 
which hangs in the well." 

The " Double Grlobe Filter," patented in January last, has 
been brought to our notice since the above was put in type. It 
costs three dollars, can filter a gallon of water in five minutes ; 
it does it nearly as fast as it runs from a " Croton" faucet, to 
which it is attached permanently or removed in half a minute. 
It is metallic, and, with care, will last a lifetime. This filter is 
thoroughly washed and cleansed in an instant by the easy crook 
of the finger ; and if this cleansing is neglected, the water will 
not run. It is capable of universal application, it delivers the 
water with all its freshness, and seems to perform its office as 
perfectly as is necessary for all drinking and cooking purposes. 



DYSPEPTIC LETTERS. 

New- York, Feb. 16th, 1860. 

Dear Sir: You have a most tremendous sight to learn, 
if you would get along swimmingly in this mundane sphere. 
As far as health and medicine are concerned, you will have to 
begin at forty degrees below ABC. You have dyspepsia 
and liver complaint ; these give debility and promote discharges 
which react and increase the debility. Some pills act on the 
stomach, such as Ipecac or Tartar Emetic. Some act on the 
upper portion of the bowels, as Rhubarb. Some act on the 
rectum, or lower bowel, as Aloes ; others act on the whole, 
by acting first on the liver : and yet you say my pill acted as 
any pill would. I gave you a pill to act on the liver, and the 
difference in color of the action of such a pill and one which 
merely acts on the bowels, is as different as black or green from 
yellow or red. 

You say you don't think you need medicine. If you know 
so much, you ought to have cured yourself. If you consult a 
physician, you ought to make up your mind to take his advice 
and his medicine too ; he don't want to know what you think, 
because he knows your " thinks" are not worth a button. 



DYSPEPTIC LETTEES. 161 

You are young — you have a good constitution, and have no 
serious disease at this time ; yet what you complain of will in 
time destroy both body and mind. Already you complain that 
your mind is not clear, and that when you go to bed, if you 
can not go to sleep at once, you lie and think, and sweat, and 
fret, and fidget, and toss, and tumble for hours together. You 
complain also of an emptiness before meals, and a distressing 
palpitation of the heart, which incapacitates you from exercise. 
These symptoms are present in a greater or less degree in all 
cases of torpid liver and a weak digestion. Some hearts pal- 
pitate so much on going to bed as to prevent sleep for hours ; 
it or some of the larger blood-vessels beat and tick and throb 
and thump and click and breeze for half a night. 

Some minds in dyspepsia are not only not clear, but are in- 
capacitated for connected thought. The attention can not be 
fixed steadily on any thing, and horrible fears come on ; dread 
of loss of character ; of loss of reason ; of loss of friends ; of 
loss of money ; at other times most terrible fancies run riot 
through the brain ; temptations of darkest import assail the 
heart, and nothing is safe, nobody is safe — it is a perfect 
11 mania," not a "Potu,"but "mania Phagi," not a madness 
from drinking, but a madness from eating, and from this, some 
of the best and most useful and successful men go down to the 
terrible grave of a suicide every year, every month. A drunk- 
ard seldom kills himself a dyspeptic often does ; and the cor- 
oner's verdict is, "Died by his own hand while in a state of 
mental aberration." If they do not murder themselves, they 
live only to be the pest and plagues of themselves and those 
who are nearest and dearest to them. 

One of the reasons of the incurability of dyspeptics is, that 
they have not sufficient force of will, sufficient persistence of 
purpose, to follow out the continuous plan necessary to their 
restoration. To-day they think they would be willing to do 
any thing, to-morrow they determine they will do nothing. At 
one time they will swig cod-liver oil by the gallon, rub goose- 
grease on their nose, make ducks of themselves at water-cures, 
drink their own urine by the quart ; all these things are done, 
as physicians know, constantly. At another time they will 
assert, like you, that they don't think they need medicine ; that 
they are tired to death of medicine, and had rather die than 



162 

take another dose. A great name told us once, having written 
for advice, that he would take no medicine from any man, 
especially if he did not know what it was, and gave his reason 
for it. Now a fool's reasons always confirm him in his foolish- 
ness. It was, that he had been taking medicine of his own 
prescribing for twenty years, and it had done him no good. 
We wrote to him that he could go to grass. We don't like to 
be made a fool of. 

Years rolled on, and he rolled with them into the Niagara 
Eiver. From these things I would be glad to rescue you, but 
then you must not bother me with your' u thinks" and sugges- 
tions. Tell me what your actual sensations are ; then I will tell 
you how to remove them, and send or describe the instrument- 
alities. I have no objections to tell persons what I give, or 
why I give it — I always prefer it when I am satisfied that the 
patient has any sense ; if .he has not, what's the use of wasting 
time ? 

Hoping that you may be profited by these hints, I send in 
another paper such directions as I think are applicable to your 
case. Duly yours. 

A physician must be crusty sometimes. The above was 
written for a young gentleman who subsequently became a very 
obedient patient, and we have published it, for the suggestions 
contained may be practically useful to a large class of persons - 
the patient was laboring under dyspeptic debility, constipation, 
etc. 



THE TWO BEST DOCTORS. 

For all minor aches and ails, Dr. Letalone is the most uni- 
formly and happily successful physician I ever knew ; but in 
the severer forms of disease it is always wisest, safest and best 
to seek promptly the advice of an educated practitioner ; and 
a fortunate thing would it be for humanity, if not an atom or a 
drop of physic were ever taken, unless specially prescribed by 
those who had the advantage of a thorough medical education. 



163 

potto, §mtw, (&it. 



Blackwood 's Magazine, and British Reviews. L. Scott & Co., 54 Gold St., New- 
York, continue to publish the following leading British Periodicals: 1. London 
Quarterly, Conservative ; 2. Edinburgh Review, Whig ; 3. North British Review, 
Free Church ; 4. Westminster Review, Liberal ; 5. Blackwood's Magazine, Tory ; 
presenting the three great political parties of Great Britain, Whig, Tory, and 
Radical. But politics form only one feature of their character ; as organs of the 
most profound writers on science, literature, morality, and religion, they stand, as 
they ever have stood, unrivaled in the world of letters, indispensable to the 
scholar and the professional man, while to intelligent readers of every class, they 
furnish a more correct and satisfactory record of the current literature of the 
day, throughout the world, than can be possibly obtained from any other source, 
and at a cost extraordinarily small — of ten dollars a year for the five ; three dollars 
each, singly. Any subscriber sending us a check for ten dollars, payable to the 
order of Leonard Scott & Co., will receive for one year the five publications above 
named, and Hall's Joural of Health from January last. In cities and large towns, 
Blackwood and the Reviews are delivered free of postage ; elsewhere, Blackwood 
is twenty-four cents a year, each Review, fourteen cents. 

The British and Foreign Medico- Chirurgical Review ; or, Quarterly Journal of 
Practical Medicine and Surgery. Republished by S. S. & W. Wood, 389 Broad- 
way, New-York, at $3 a year, in advance : free of postage, is in its twenty-fifth 
volume, and is now, as it always has been, a standard and sterling medical quar- 
terly, which every educated physician ought to patronize. 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, $3 a year, is a monthly in its sixty- 
second volume ; is edited with industry and ability, and is widely patronized. 

The Christian Review. E. G. Robinson, editor. Published at $3 a year, by 
Sheldon & Co., 115 Nassau street, New- York. Is one of the ablest quarterlies in 
the Protestant Church, and a credit to the Baptist Church, of whose doctrine and 
polity it is the exponent ; its reviews of new publications are always written dis- 
criminately, conscientiously, and after a full examination ; a line of conduct which, 
as is to be regretted, too many so-called reviews fail to follow, to the deception 
and injury of their patrons. 

The same enterprising publishers isssue monthly, at $1 a year, the Mother's 
Journal, edited by that excellent woman, Mrs. Caroline 0. Hiscox. We wish it 
could be, as it well deserves, a family visitant to multitudes of homes. 

The Home Monthly. Buffalo, N. Y. ; $1.50 a year, edited by Mrs. Arey and 
Gildersleeve ; has the very suggestive motto : " There is a power behind the 
school-room and the church." It is judiciously edited, and its selections are 
always good. 

The Happy Home. Boston, monthly, $2 a year, C. Stone & Co. Is largely 
drawn upon by the press, a substantial evidence of its value. 

The Ladies'' Home Magazine. By T. S. Arthur <fc Co., 323 Walnut street, Phi- 
ladelphia, Pa., $2 a year, with the editorial aid of Virginia F. Townsend. Will 
profit and instruct and refine and elevate any family which secures it monthly. 

Godey's Lady's Book, $3 a year, Philadelphia. This is The Pictorial Monthly. 
The most elegant in the Union, and distances all competition. Now in its sixtieth 
volume. Its practical value has been increased of late by the contributions of Dr. 
J. S. Wilson, of Georgia, to the Health Department. 



164 hall's jouknal op health. 



The reader is specially invited to read all the following notices, for many of 
them are practical, and all are useful. 

Balliere Bros., 440 Broadway, New- York, have issued a comely 12mo of S18 
pp., $1, entitled, A Knowledge of Living Things, with the Laws of their Existence, 
by Dr. A. N. Bell, late Surgeon in U. S. Navy, and now physician to Brooklyn City 
Hospital. It is a volume which may be read with absorbing interest by every 
student of nature, and by every scholar, while it abounds with information practi- 
cally useful for all classes of readers. 

The Human Voice. Fowler & Wells. 30 cents. By Rev. W. W. Cazalet, A.M. 
Cantab. Its right management in speaking, reading, and debating, including the 
principles of true eloquence ; contains a large amount of useful information to all 
public speakers and singers. 

The Chemist and Druggist. A monthly trade circular, 24 Bow Lane, London. 
$2 a year, single numbers, 12 cents. Contains a vast amount of information for 
apothecaries, druggists, medical and surgical instrument dealers, etc. etc. New- 
York office, C. F. A. Henricho, 150 Broadway. 

Patients' and Physicians' Aid. By Dr. E. M. Hunt ; 365 pp. 8vo. with copious 
index. Published by C. M. Saxton, Barker & Co., New-York, and H. H. Bancroft 
& Co., San Francisco. Showing " how to preserve health, and what to do until 
the doctor comes," a kind of information greatly needed in multitudes of families 
in the country. There is not a household in the land which should be without a 
plain, reliable book of this kind, it would prevent much mental and bodily suffering, 
and often save life. 

Thermometers. — V. Beaumont, 1*75 Centre street, New-York, has patented a cir- 
cular, dial-plate, metallic Thermometer, where no mercury is visible ; a long index, 
like that of the minute-hand of a watch, shows the degree of heat or cold by 
Fahrenheit's scale parallel with the centigrade. Its delicacy is such, that laying it 
on the hand for an instant, changes the degree. It can be easily carried in 
the vest-pocket, and is altogether the best pattern of a thermometer we have ever 
seen. 

The Water-Cure Journal. Monthly, $1 a year, New- York. Fowler & Wells 
have done much for the promotion of temperance, cleanliness, and hygiene. But 
why don't it keep its temper ? A madman always loses the battle, whether in the 
" Ring," on the Forum, or on the Tripod. Look how it blazes away at some per- 
son whom it supposes advocates tight-lacing. Now tight-lacing is a prime remedy 
for maniacs ; nothing so calms them down as a strait-jacket ! 

" One of our allopathic medical journals has advocated tight-lacing as a pre- 
ventive and a curative measure for consumption ; a proposition so self-evidently 
absurd, so ridiculously silly, would hardly call for serious refutation, were it not 
put forward and urged and reiterated with a show of anatomical and pathological 
knowledge just sufficiently plausible to deceive the ignorant and mislead the un 



BOOK NOTICES. 165 

thinking. The author of this outrageously foolish notion is not only the editor of 
a medical journal, but the author of a work on consumption ; and however non- 
sensical his teachings may seem to us, and are of themselves, we are bound to 
regard him as earnest and honest in his opinions. It can not be possible, at least 
we will not believe it, that he misleads the people intentionally for the sake of the 
professional perquisites and advantages. We treat his lucubrations on this subject 
with more attention, also, because they have been extensively copied and circulated 
through the newspapers of the country without note, comment, or dissent, which 
is equivalent to their indorsement." Yerily ! 

We thought that hydropathists contended that if a man would live on bran, ber- 
ries, and fruits, would soak in cold water every day, and open a canal for it through 
the body to slosh out all its impurities, he would become as active and unkill- 
able as a cat ; his heart all the time chock full of love towards every body and the 
rest of mankind too, while the mind would be habitually as clear as a bell and as 
calm as a summer evening. Rather think there is a screw loose somewhere. 
Either the theory won't work, or the editor won't practice it, and both are going to 
seed. Hope not, for few papers contain more good things when its editor is oblivi- 
ous of the fact that there is a drug or an allopathic doctor in existence. 

New- York Teacl sr. Albany ; $1 a year, 48 pp. There are several articles in 
this valuable monthly for May, which merit a wide distribution. Physical Culture, 
(from the Massachusetts Teacher, Boston,) Classical Training, by Henry C. Mitchell, 
Necessity of Teaching Children to Think, Aids to Science, Spelling and Writing, 
At what Age and how many hours for Schooling Children, by Luther Haven, of 
Chicago, The Family. 

The Western Watchman, of St. Louis, is one of the handsomest sheets among 
our religious exchanges, and we always open it with interest. Neither it nor the 
Watchman and Reflector, of Boston, nor the True Union, of Baltimore, nor the 
Examiner or Chronicle, of New-York, ever pass from our hands without the wish to 
read them more thoroughly. These are all Baptist publications, and are well worthy 
of a large patronage among that very numerous denomination of Christians. 

No lover of the beautiful in art and mind culture, can open the fair pages of the 
Musical World ($2 a year, New- York) without finding something to feed upon ; 
something elevating and refining. Its last page of reading-matter, made up of 
short sentences, must be the work of a cultivated mind and heart. 

The Louisana Baptist, at Mount Lebanon, we always receive with interest ; we 
trust it receives the patronage which it merits among that large body of Southern 
Christians. 

The Banner of tJie Cross, of Philadelphia, seldom passes from our hands, without 
the wish for leisure to read more of it. It is really a family paper which can not 
fail to benefit those who read it regularly. 

We would like to know that the Witness, of Indianapolis, is as liberally patron- 
ized as a paper of its merit and influential position deserves. We have pleasant 
memories of beautiful Indianapolis. 

Bare Necks, Arms, and Legs of Children, their evil effects ; see June Number, 
1859. 

A Wonder. A lady correspondent writes : "My mother has taken from the left 
side, near the heart, a piece of a needle an inch in length, which broke off near 
the center of the palm of the left hand fifteen years before. For nearly all that 
time it has caused untold sufferings, feeling the pain at intervals in arm, back, 



166 

shoulders, spasmodic anguish at the heart and many other symptoms indescribable.'' 
Similar cases are given in standard medical works. It is a rule in the animal econ- 
omy that when any foreign substance is introduced into the living body, nature 
gives no rest until it is expelled ; hence the utmost care should always be given to 
extract every wounding material, whether of wood, glass, or metal ; the sOoner it 
is done after an accident the better. This piece of needle traveled up the arm, 
over the arm-pit, along the ribs and thence outwards. 

Lung and Life-Preservers. As to our May article on Wind and Lungs, we 
merely add : If a person wishes to be benefited, let him purchase any where an 
India-rubber life-preserver to be inflated with air. Let a healthy man of your own 
age, weight, and hight see how many breaths it requires for him to fill it to the 
utmost. If he does it at one full expiration, and you can not, your lungs are work- 
ing imperfectly. If it requires two full breaths for him, and three for you, then 
one third of your lungs are inoperative, and you should practice its inflation several 
times a day, or run a certain distance and back tbrice a day with the mouth closed 
until the life-preserver can be easily filled by you in the same number of breaths as 
by your friend. Forty cubic inches to a pint is the standard adopted by English 
physicians for lung-measurement. That need not be taken into account. The 
question is, can you fill a life-preserver with as few full breaths as a man of the above 
conditions ; if not, you are in danger of dying of consumption sooner or later, and 
will certainly do it (unless this ill condition is rectified) if you do not perish by 
violence. 

Right pungently does the veteran editor of the American Medical Gazette apos- 
trophize his readers on the occasion of so slim an attendance on the sanitary lecture 
of E. Y. Robbins, Esq., of Boston : 

" New-Yorkers are too busy in paying their devotions to the almighty dollar, to 
attend to such insignificant matters as life and death, health and sickness, etc. ; 
they can not be persuaded from the opera, the theater, the ball-room, the negro- 
minstrels, and the grog-shops, to learn how to prevent pestilence or lessen mortality. 
Alas ! that "Wendell Phillips & Co., lecturing on the everlasting Negro, and teach- 
ing treason, should draw crowds of listening dupes, while lessons of philosophy and 
wisdom from eloquent lips should be repeated to empty benches. He who would 
attract the multitude should play the fool, make gorgeous shows of magic-lanterns, 
administer laughing-gas, or shoot off fire-crackers, for nonsense and humbug are in 
the ascendant." 

That's true, Doctor, but people must have fun, and they will crowd where there is 
the most of it. Phillips is full of mirth and wit. People go to hear him because 
they know they will get a good number of tremendous laughs, while they might 
not, and many of them do not, value his principles or his logic beyond the worth 
of a pewter button. They will command the largest audiences in a New- York 
community who will abound most in mirth and wit, the subject being secondary, 
Let public speakers, reformers, and humanitarians remember this ; for after the 
severer occupations of business and labor during the day, the body demands repose 
and the mind yearns for diversion, which is its rest, and will have it, and when 
pleasurable, so much the more satisfactory, efficient, and recreative. 

Life Illustrated calls us to task for heading an article " Protest against Early 
Rising." It was done for us by some lazy editor. It well says that the title alone 
would give a first impression which would be injurious as well as untrue. We both 
agree that under all circumstances a plenty of sleep is essential to health, and that 






BOOK NOTICES. 167 

all should practice early rising, and begin the day at least at sunrise with mind, 
body, and brain fully rested and renovated. 

Health and Disease. A correspondent from the " Old North State," says, of this 
publication : " I am so pleased with its just and sensible views, that I feel I am doing 
a real good to every one whom I can induce to get a copy." A lawyer of this city 
said of it to a friend : " I have derived more instruction, and have been made better 
acquainted with the nature of health and disease by reading Dr. Hall's book on that 
subject, than from all the books read in a lifetime." The third edition of this 
book having been called for within nine months after its first issue, is evidence of 
its appreciation. It is sent, post-paid, for one dollar. 

A Westoner writes of the Jouknal of Health : "I am well pleased with it. 
You talk more to the point than any man I have ever read ; in other words, you 
have more white-oak sense than any one I have found. I mean by that, more 
good mother-wit." He wanted us to give him a book. "We did ! 

Milk. Dr. Gardner, of this city, a connoisseur in milk, says that he had used 
the milk of the Rockland Co. Association, and knew it to be good ; had recom- 
mended to various families, and of all the children brought up on it from birth, 
under his eye, not one had failed to do well and gain flesh. Dr. Clark, of Newark, 
and the veteran Dr. Reese, with the Hon. Erastus Brooks, all of whom have used 
the milk, corroborated the statements of Dr. Gardner. We ourselves know that 
it is pure milk from farm-house fed cows. 146 E. Tenth st., New- York. 
The editor of the Hightstown Village Record pokes fun at us in this style : 
" Rules for Sleep — An Improvement on Dr. Hall. — 1st. As soon as you are 
in bed, have Bridget hand the wash-bowl to you. Then place it immediately 
beneath the small of your back, and you will immediately sink into a calm slumber. 
It should not remain in that position long enough to produce stupor. 

M 2d. Try to think of something you can't remember ; the more you can't think 
of it, the sleepier you will get. 

" 3d. Let John or Phineas pour ice-water down the sleeve of your shirt for an 
hour or two, while he holds a lump of assafoetida to your nose. 

" 4th. Count two millions slowly and deliberately. You will certainly be asleep 
before you have counted that number. 

11 5th. Hold a wire against the nerve of your tenderest tooth. This is infallible 
— patent applied for. 

" 6th. Have your back gently smothed with a curry-comb. 
" *7th. Try and fix your mind on one thing ; if that don't succeed, fix it on two." 
In examining the exchanges brought to us on Saturday last, there were seventeen 
articles from our pen, which shows very fairly the partiality of our editorial breth- 
ren. A few days earlier we took up a paper which contained five columns of our 
handiwork, but looking for the " credit," we found "nary red." A sixth column, 
however, in another part of the paper, seemed to indicate that the editor had some 
recollection of the fact that there was such a publication as Hall's Journal of 
Health. But who cares for credit as long as the more important thing is done, 
that of disseminating what is useful and true ? Let us all join in the song : 

" Row, brothers, row, 
The tide runs fast; 
The rapids are near, 
And the daylight's most past," 

and " Work while the day lasts." 



163 

Hall-y. George J. Hall, of Hall County, Georgia, writes to Dr. Hall to send him 
Hall's Journal of Health for 1860. 

A gentleman who has been married for perhaps two weeks, at a guess, writes : 
" We, (that is, self and wife,) the only two members of as happy a family as ever 
was, can not do without the Journal of Health." He wants further to know 
what is the cause and cure of palpitation of the heart. The first kiss from " sweet 
seventeen" will give it to any body; the "mitten" will cause its very speedy sub- 
sidence. It is an unimportant symptom of dyspepsia. 

A subscriber to the Journal of Health, and to the Fireside Monthly, writes : 
" ' Dr. Hall says so,' is thought the finale in any argument or recommended in my 
family." 

That excellent and standard weekly, The Country Gentleman, quotes from 
Lavater, " Young women who neglect their toilette indicate in this very particular 
a disregard for order, a deficiency in taste, and the qualities which inspire love. 
The girl of eighteen who does not desire to please in so obvious a matter as dress, 
will be a slut and probably a shrew at twenty-five ;" and that there is more pleasure 
in giving than in receiving, especially as to medicine, kicks and advice ; and further : 
" Most persons are particularly spiteful against the follies in others which they 
themselves have." 

Missing numbers of the Journal are supplied to subscribers for six cents. All 
subscriptions begin with January last. 



CONTENTS OF HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH FOR JULY. 

(New-York, $1 a year.) 

Athletics, 145 

Central Park, 147 

Size of Parks, 149 

The Teeth, 150 

Physical Training, 152 

Water Filters, 159 

Dyspeptic Letters, 160 

Two Best Doctors, 162 

Notices, Reviews, etc., 163 

Book Notices, 164 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, T5 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] AUGUST, 1860. [No. 8. 



IS CONSUMPTION CONTAGIOUS? 

Eminent French, English and American physicians advocate 
the doctrine that " consumption is catching." Morgagni, one 
of the greatest medical lights of his time, was such a firm be- 
liever in the opinion, that he never would assist in the examina- 
tion of a person who had died of the disease. Some of the 
most distinguished writers as well as some of the most 
celebrated and successful practitioners in that disease have 
eventually died of it themselves, among whom were the great 
Laennec, Morton, Wooster, and not forgetting the empiric 
St. John Long, (so said.) 

A large number of persons evidently consumptive will be 
found on inquiry to have had a husband, wife, sister, or child 
to have died of that disease. Statistics seem to show that a 
wife whose husband is consumptive, is more liable to consump- 
tive disease than a healthy husband with a consumptive wife : 
the reason of this, if true, will suggest itself to the thoughtful. 

Introducing the matter of small-pox into the system prevents 
small - pox. Laennec inoculated himself with consumptive 
matter but it did not " take." He subsequently died of con 
sumption himself. He made this experiment to show that 
consumption was not inoculable. MM. Alberti and Biett 
thought that cancer was not communicable by the matter of 
cancer, and to prove it, tried to inoculate themselves with it 
but it did not " take." Both of them died afterwards from 
cancer. 

It is most probable that consumption is not of itself com- 
municable, that it can not beget consumption in one who has 
vigorous health and is perfectly free from all taint of the disease 

no. viii. — VOL. VII.— 1860. 



170 hall's journal of health. 

But if any person who has not a vigorous constitution, whether 
inclined to consumption or not, lives, eats and sleeps with a 
consumptive, as man and wife do, as a sister is apt to do with a 
consumptive sister, or a mother with consumptive children, such 
persons will very generally die of consumption themselves, not 
from its communicability per se, but from the foulness of the 
atmosphere about a consumptive, from warm rooms, decaying 
lungs, large expectoration, sickening night-sweats and bodily 
emanations ; but the same amount of exposure to air made foul 
in any other way would light up the fires of consumption in 
one of feeble vitality or broken constitution. It is best, there- 
fore, that the nurse of a consumptive should possess the most 
vigorous health, and to make assurance from infection doubly 
sure, the most scrupulous cleanliness possible should be observ- 
ed and carried out in every conceivable direction, extended to 
every minutiae and maintained with the most inveterate constancy 
through every hour of the twenty- four, not allowing any ex- 
cretion, even a single expectoration, to remain about the person, 
bed or room for one instant. An incessant ventilation should 
be going on in the chamber, the best method for which under 
most circumstances is simply to keep a fire on the hearth and 
an inner door open ; even in mid-summer, this is better for the 
patient as well for the nurse than a room kept closed all the 
time from an almost insane dread of taking cold. 



TABLE MANNERS. 



Of all the articles copied from the Journal of Health, 
that has had the widest and most persistent circulation, which 
suggested the importance of the family meeting around the din- 
ner-table, and breakfast and supper as well, in a happy, loving, 
and cheerful frame of mind. It went across the water, and re- 
turned as copied from Chambers's Journal, under which credit 
it is going the rounds of the American press again. It was 
scarcely half a page, but it has caused us a great deal of re- 
flection. Why was it so extensively copied at home and 
abroad ? Was it because of the justness of its views? or ra- 
ther that the experience of the press, as to the reverse of the 



TABLE MANNERS. 171 

picture, is so universal ? If so, many gentlemen of education 
and culture have experienced the sad feeling of having wives 
or children come to the table, only to fret, and growl, and com- 
plain, and sulk. It is horrible to think of. And yet it may 
be presumed, that the happiness of quite as many excellent 
wives is marred, if not wholly eaten out, by husbands who 
come to the table with a terrible dignity ! or with a selfishness 
so predominant that it places every body else and every thing 
under tribute to its supreme gratification ; moroseness stamped 
on every feature ; a belittling querulousness in every uttered 
sentence. Here one comes now as stately as a turkey-cock, as 
cross as a bear, and as rough as a corn-cob. He speaks in short, 
crusty words ; the innocent prattle of his children is an appar- 
ent torture to him ; there must not be a whimper or a whis- 
per, for he is poring over a newspaper, or in the midst of some 
plan or project for gain or fame. His very presence is felt as a 
cloud, an incubus, an iceberg ; and there is only gladness when 
he is gone ; it is then only that the sunshine of family affection 
and love comes out, and filial and motherly sympathies well up 
from loving hearts. 

To meet at the breakfast-table, father, mother, children, all 
well, ought to be a happiness to any heart ; it should be a source 
of humble gratitude, and should wake up the warmest feelings 
of our nature. Shame upon the contemptible and low-bred 
cur, whether parent or child, that can ever come to the break- 
fast-table, where all the family have met in health, only to 
frown, and whine, and growl, and fret ! it is prima facie evi- 
dence of a mean and groveling and selfish and degraded na- 
ture, whencesoever the churl may have sprung. Nor is it less re- 
prehensible to make such exhibitions at the tea-table ; for be- 
fore the morning comes, some of the little circle may be stricken 
with some deadly disease, to gather around that table not again 
forever ! Children in good health, if left to themselves at the 
table, become, after a few mouthfuls, garrulous and noisy ; but 
if within at all reasonable or bearable bounds, it is better to 
let them alone ; they eat less, because they do not eat so rapidly 
as if compelled to keep silent, while the very exhilaration 
of spirits quickens the circulation of the vital fluids, and ener- 
gizes digestion and assimilation. The extremes of society cu- 
riously meet in this regard. The tables of the rich and the 



172 hall's journal of health. 

nobles of England are models of mirth, wit, and bonhommie ; 
it takes bours to get tbrougb a repast, and they live long. If 
any body will look in upon tbe negroes of a well-to-do family 
in Kentucky, while at their meals, they can not but be im- 
pressed with the perfect abandon of jabber, cachinnation, and 
mirth ; it seems as if they could talk all day, and they live long. 
It follows, then, that at the family-table all should meet, and 
do it habitually, to make a common interchange of high-bred 
courtesies, of warm affections, of cheering mirthfulness, and 
that generosity of nature, which lifts us above the brutes which 
perish, promotive as these things are of good digestion, high 
health, and a long life. 



TOMATOES. 

This is one of the most healthful as well as the most univer- 
sally liked of all vegetables; its healthful qualities do not depend 
on the mode of preparation for the table ; it may be eaten thrice 
a day, cold or hot, cooked or raw, alone or with salt or pepper 
or vinegar, or all together, to a like advantage and to the ut- 
most that can be taken with an appetite. Its healthful quality 
arises from its slight acidity, in this, making it as valuable per- 
haps as berries, cherries, currants, and similar articles ; it is also 
highly nutritious, but its chief virtue consists in its tendency to 
keep the bowels free, owing to the seeds which it contains, they 
acting as mechanical irritants to the inner coating of the bowels, 
causing them to throw out a larger amount of fluid matter than 
would otherwise have been done, to the effect of keeping the 
mucous surfaces lubricated and securing a greater solubility of 
the intestinal contents, precisely on the principle that figs and 
white mustard seeds are so frequently efficient in removing con- 
stipation in certain forms of disease. The tomato season ends 
with the frost. If the vines are pulled up before frost comes, 
and are hung up in a well- ventilated cellar with the tomatoes 
hanging to them, the " Love- Apple" will continue ripening 
until Christmas. The cellar should not be too dry nor too 
warm. The knowledge of this may be improved to great prac- 
tical advantage for the benefit of many who are invalids and 
who are fond of the tomato. 



ICE- WATER. 173 



ICE -WATER. 

If the reader is down-town or away from home on a hot day, 
and feels as if it would be perfectly delicious to have a glass of 
lemonade, soda-water, or brandy toddy, by all means let him 
resist the temptation until he gets home, and then take a glass 
of cool water, a swallow at a time, with a second or two inter- 
val between each swallow. Several noteworthy results will 
most assuredly follow. 

After it is all over, you will feel quite as well from a drink of 
water as if you had enjoyed a free swig of either of the others. 

In ten minutes after you will feel a great deal better. 

You will not have been poisoned by the lead or copper which 
is most generally found in soda-water. 

You will be richer by six cents, which will be the interest on 
a dollar for a whole year ! 

You will not have fallen down dead from the sudden chills 
which sometimes result from drinking soda, iced water, or toddy, 
in a hurry. 

No well man has any business to eat ices or to drink iced 
liquids in any shape or form, if he wants to preserve his teeth, 
protect the tone of his stomach, and guard against sudden in- 
flammations and prolonged dyspepsias. It is enough to make 
one shudder to see a beautiful young girl sipping scalding 
coffee or tea at the beginning of a meal, and then close it with 
a glass of ice- water ; for at thirty she must either be snaggle- 
toothed or wear those of the dead or artificial. 

Fresh spring or well-water is abundantly cool for any drink- 
ing purpose whatever. In cities where water is artificially sup- 
plied, the case is somewhat different ; but even then there is no 
good excuse for drinking ice- water, because, even if the excuse 
were good in itself, the effects on the stomach and teeth are the 
same. 

Make a bag of thick woolen doubled, lined with muslin ; fill 
it with ice ; have in a pitcher an inch or two of water above 
the faucet, and let this bag of ice be suspended from the cover 
within two inches of the surface of the water. The ice will melt 
slowly and keep the water delightfully cool, but not ice cold. 
A still better effect will be produced if the pitcher is also well 
enveloped in woolen. Again, water almost as cool as it can be, 



174 

unless it has ice actually in it, may be had without any ice at 
all, by enveloping a closed pitcher partly filled with water, with 
several folds of cotton, linen, or bagging, and so arranging it 
that these folds are kept wet all the time by water dripping 
from another vessel, on the principle of evaporation. 

As to the management of refrigerators, Bartlett's " Polar," 
being the most philosophical, the ice never comes in contact 
with the provisions, (for freezing disorganizes all meats and 
vegetables,) hence can not freeze them, but keeps them just 
above the freezing point, dry and cool, while the arrangement 
is such, that the ice as it melts, is used for drinking purposes. 
Thus, six cents' worth of ice a day, or about twenty pounds, is, 
with proper management, enough for the use of a family of ten 
persons throughout the summer, not only for drinking pur- 
poses, but for the preservation of the eatables. 



REGIMEN. 

Eight well hath some old codger of the ancient time written 
in respect to health and its preservation ; doubtful are we that 
any man of this diluting age could possibly comprise so much 
sound sense in as few words as those which follow : 

There is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of physic. A 
man's own observation what he finds good of, and what he finds 
hurt of, is the best physic to preserve health ; but it is a safer 
conclusion to say: " This agreeth not well with me, therefore I 
will not continue it ;" than this — " I find no offense of this, 
therefore I may use it ;" for strength of youth in nature passeth 
over many excesses which are owing a man till his age. Dis- 
cern of the coming on of years, and think not to do the same 
things still ; for age will not be defied. Beware of sudden 
change in any great point of diet ; and if necessary, enforce it, 
fit the rest to it ; for it is a secret both of nature and state, that 
it is safer to change many things than one. Examine thy 
customs of diet, sleep, exercise, apparel, and the like ; and try 
in any thing thou shalt judge hurtful, to discontinue it little 
by little ; but so, as if thou dost find any inconvenience by the 
change thou come back to it again ; for it is hard to distinguish 



SLEEPING : OR, THIS AND THAT. 175 

that which is generally held good and wholesome from that 
which is good particularly, and fit for thine own body. To bs 
free-minded and cheerfully disposed at hours of meat, and of 
sleep, and of exercise, is one of the best precepts for long- 
lasting. As for the passions and studies of the mind, avoid 
env} r , envious fears, anger, fretting inwards, subtle and knotty 
inquisitions, joy and exhilarations in excess, sadness not com- 
municated. Entertain hopes ; mirth rather than joy ; variety 
of delights rather than surfeit of them ; wonder and admira- 
tion, and therefore novelties ; studies that fill the mind with. 
splendid and illustrious objects — as histories, fables and con- 
templations of nature. 



SLEEPING: OR, THIS AND THAT. 

Some one-sided, one-eyed individual has made the following 
calculation, which is mathematically correct, but practically as 
false and mischievous as can well be expressed in plain English. 

THIS. 

" The difference between rising every morning at six and at 
eight, in the course of forty years, amounts to twenty -nine 
thousand three hundred and ninety hours, or three years, one 
hundred and twenty-one days and sixteen hours, which are 
equal to eight hours a day for exactly ten years ; so that rising 
at six will be the same as if ten years of life were added, 
wherein we may command eight hours every day for the culti- 
vation of our minds and the dispatch of business." 

THAT. 

The following communication was recently made to a British 
society : 

" A Chinese merchant had been convicted of murdering his 
wife, and was sentenced to die by being deprived of sleep. 
Thi3 painful mode of death was carried into execution under 
the following circumstances : 

" The condemned was placed in prison under the care of three 



176 hall's journal of health. 

of the police-guard, who relieved each other every alternate 
hour, and who prevented the prisoner from falling asleep, night 
or day. He thus lived for nineteen days without enjoying any 
sleep. At the commencement of the eighth day his suffer- 
ings were so intense that he implored the authorities to grant 
him the blessed opportunity of being strangulated, guillotined, 
burned to death, drowned, garroted, shot, quartered, blown up 
with gunpowder, or put to death in any other conceivable way 
which their humanity or ferocity could invent." 

Crazy people can't sleep at all. The man who is "fat as a 
fool," sleeps all the time, except when eating. A thin Yankee, 
so keen after making money that the look of his eye goes right 
through you, and his word pierces like a poniard, goes to bed 
at midnight and is ready for work or a bargain at peep of day, 
is teetotally dried up at the age of forty years ; the skin fairly 
clings to his bones, and before you know it, he has evaporated. 
But look at that fat, lazy Dutchman, who never was fairly and 
fully awake since he was born, and, in spite of pipes of " lager," 
and whole tierces of tobacco, he lives to see the third, if not in- 
deed the fourth, generation. Whoever heard of any one sleep- 
ing himself to death ? But no sleep brings death in nineteen 
days. 

It is stated of one of the most eminent, one of the very best 
of the men of this nineteenth century, that, while at college, he 
retired at twelve o'clock at night and rose at six and a half. A 
man of his activity of brain ought to have had at least eight 
hpurs' sound sleep in every twenty-four. But look at the sketch 
he makes of himself about this very time : 

.J? Pardon the vagaries of a half-crazed student. My old com- 
plaint, the blues, has come upon me like a strong man armed. 
Misanthropy, I despise it, I loathe it, yet I hug it to my heart. 
Truly I am depressed, devoured by spleen, fostering a crabbed, 
morose, silly, churlish, sinful despondency." 

Such feelings as these continued to haunt this gentleman 
more or less throughout life, and he failed to reach "three- 
score " by several years. That insufficient sleep would aggra- 
vate the malady of misanthropy, even when it does not largely 
aid in originating it, and that it lays the foundation for a pre- 
mature death, no intelligent physician will deny. The observ- 
ant reader need only bring to his remembrance the disagreeable 



TOBACCO-USERS. 177 

feelings of any day which has been preceded by a sleepless 
night, to be fully convinced of the serious evils which must fol- 
low a systematic short allowance of sleep. 

We heard one of the greatest theological minds of the cen- 
tury advise that time should not be wasted ; that students 
should carry some book in the pocket which they could take 
out and read, when waiting at an appointment or for sitting 
down to a dinner, while others were collecting ; that even if 
but half-a-dozen lines were read, it was that much time saved. 
He believed in his theory, put it in practice, died early and — 
demented ! The brain must have rest ; sleep is the best rest. 

Let parents who do not want their children to die of water on 
the brain, allow them to have the fullest amount of undisturbed 
sleep they possibly can take, especially while at school. 

The more sick people can sleep, the sooner they will get well. 
Sleeping in the daytime, if before noon, enables them to sleep 
better the following night. Students, women, and nervous per- 
sons need all the sleep they can get, and so do the melancholy 
and those who are in trouble. Early rising is not condemned, 
it is heartily commended. But if not preceded by an early re- 
tiring, it is a crime against the body. 



TOBACCO-USERS. 



It has become very common to invest chewing-tobacco and 
snuff in lead-foil. Herr Hockel examined some snuff from a 
quantity, part of which had been used by a patient who was 
laboring under a severe attack of lead poisoning, and found 
that it contained two and a half per cent of metallic lead. The 
tobacco near the corners of the package, being more perfectly 
inclosed by the foil, contained the most lead, which is decom- 
posed by dampness and remains in the tobacco or snuff in the 
form of carbonate of lead, which is the white lead paint of 
commerce, which inflicts such horrible sufferings on many of 
those whose business compels them to work in it. The slaves 
of the disgusting "weed" would do well to make a note of this, 
and either abandon the inexcusable fllthiness or avoid using 
any that is enveloped with lead-foil. 



178 hall's journal of health. 



C S L L A B 



There ought to be no cellar under any building designed 
for the residence of families ; but in cities where ground is very 
valuable it is considered a necessity. The only access to the 
cellar of a New-York dwelling is through the lower hall or 
passage ; hence, whenever the door is opened, all the fumes, 
gases, odors and damps which arise from it, ascend through the 
building and impregnate every room with the foul air generated 
by decaying wood, vegetables, bones, skins, scraps of meat, etc., 
of which the cellar is too commonly made a common receptacle. 

In the spring or early summer, every movable thing should 
be taken out, the walls and floor should be most thoroughly 
swept, and then the walls and ceiling should be most profusely 
whitewashed. No cellar should be without a well -plastered 
ceiling, not only to exclude the dampness and bad air ; but to 
protect the lower room from cold and changeable weather. 

There can be no doubt that an ill-conditioned cellar is the 
unsuspected cause of death among many a happy household. 
A gentleman recently built for himself a splendid mansion in 
this city. He had not been in it long before several members 
of a hitherto healthy family became unwell. On minute in- 
quiry he found that the house had been erected on a fllled-in 
swampy lot. He at once removed elsewhere, and the usual 
health returned to his household. 

During one of the cholera years in Boston, the whole city 
was divided into small districts, and trusty citizens were ap- 
pointed to visit each, and to leave no part of any suspicious 
premises unexamined, with power to compel a thorough and 
immediate cleansing. Their care was happily rewarded : only 
in one neighborhood was there any marked disease, when upon 
a more rigid exploration of a particular building, it was found 
that one compartment of a dark cellar was almost filled with a 
disgusting compound of all the offal of a kitchen for a long 
period. With such facts, those who possess any intelligence, 
with even a moderate affection for their wives and children, 
will give a prompt and wise attention to the subject. 



SPITTING BLOOD. 179 

SPITTING BLOOD. 

From an old Patient to a Clergyman who had Hemorrhage. 

" Five years ago, after having had a bad spasmodic cough for 
about three months, I suddenly bled about a gill, cough con- 
tinuing and slight bleeding for two months more ; was feeble all 

summer and following winter ; tried Dr. and then Dr. 

and S , who, I thought, helped me much, and in great joy 

I wrote him a letter, which he published. But I think my re- 
covery after all was owing to out-door exercise, regularly and 

perse veringly kept up. I called on Dr. • , a year ago last 

spring, when I considered myself pretty well. He examined 
my lungs and told me they were then sound and working well, 
that my recovery was complete. Last winter, however, I had 
no time for any thing, and by hard work and confinement 
brought on my former difficulty, cough ; bleeding in April of 
last year about as before, repeated two or three times, the last 
the fifth of July. Did not preach from June to October. I 
consulted no physician during this sickness, relying on my 
former experience and my former method — out-door exercise. 
But Dr. Hall's advice was what I followed, taken when I before 
consulted him for such difficulties. 

"First. All the gentle out-door exercise possible, short of fa- 
tigue. Never get exhausted. 

" Second. All the good plain food you can digest ; avoid pas- 
tries and cakes. The best diet is plain bread and beef. 

" Third. Try and have pure air always. Connected with this 

advice of Dr. , I used, by the advice of a Boston physician, 

a tablespoon of Bourbon whisky three times a day before eating. 
Furthermore, I rubbed my chest daily with a crash towel, then 
a strong liniment. I think a warm bath in a warm room once 
a week all-sufficient in the matter of bathing. I think the great 
thing is out-door exercise — that is the cure. It was very ob- 
stinate — so was I. I persevered, almost despairing many times ; 
but the last Sabbath in October I tried preaching. For four 
Sundays it was hard work. From that time until the present, 
however, my voice never was clearer and stronger. I have 
preached and talked just as much as I chose. Henceforth I 
hope not to over-do, and to have a plenty of out-door exercise. 
I would advise you by all means to go to Dr. . I think he 



180 HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

is the man of all others. Be of good courage. I do think that 
no one need die of consumption ; as long as one can walk a 
quarter of a mile he can be cured. 

" In your case all violent or protracted exercise ought for a 
time to be avoided. 

" P S. — Coarse brown or Graham bread is better than all 
wheat bread. A free passage daily of the bowels is of vital 
importance. If brown bread sours on your stomach, do not eat 
it. The idea is to get up a good digestion, and so build up the 
general strength." 

The above letter incorporates our own sentiments, and it may 
be suggestive to state that the person to whom it was addressed 
declined placing himself under our care because we refused to 
prescribe any medicine, showing, as far as it goes, that druggery 
is the folly of the age, not from the prescription of the physician, 
but from the folly of the people, added to their impatience ; they 
are willing to do any thing that will make them feel better for 
the moment rather than adopt means, which, although slower in 
the promotion of beneficial results are radical, safe, and lasting, 
any one of which three things are of the first importance. A 
wise man ought to want to be safely dealt with, to be thoroughly 
cured, and to be cured lastingly, yet such are the views prac- 
tically of very few people, and every educated physician has 
cause to lament it constantly. 



SMALL BED-CHAMBERS. 



There is reason to believe that more cases of dangerous and 
fatal disease are gradually engendered annually by the habit of 
sleeping in small, unventilated rooms, than have occurred from 
a cholera atmosphere during any year since it made its appear- 
ance in this country. Yery many persons sleep in eight by ten 
rooms, that is, in rooms the length and breadth of which mul- 
tiplied together, and this multiplied again by ten for the height 
of the chamber, would make just eight hundred cubic feet, while 
the cubic space for each bed, according to the English appor- 
tionment for hospitals, is twenty-one hundred feet. But more, in 



EACH THE BEST. 181 

order "to give the air of a room the highest degree of freshness," 
the French hospitals contract for a complete renewal of the air 
of a room every hour, while the English assert that double the 
amount, or over four thousand feet an hour, is required. Four 
thousand feet of air every hour ! and yet there are multitudes 
in the city of New- York who sleep with closed doors and win- 
dows in rooms which do not contain a thousand cubic feet of 
space, and that thousand feet is to last all night, at least eight 
hours, except such scanty supplies as may be obtained of any 
fresh air that may insinuate itself through little crevices by door 
or window, not an eighth of an inch in thickness. But when it 
is known that in many cases a man and wife and infant sleep ha- 
bitually in thousand-feet rooms, it is no marvel that multitudes 
perish prematurely in cities ; no wonder that infant children 
wilt away like flowers without water, and that five thousand of 
them are to die in the city of New- York alone during the hun- 
dred days which shall include the fifteenth of July, eighteen 
hundred and sixty ! Another fact is suggestive, that among the 
fifty thousand persons who sleep nightly in the lodging-houses 
of London, expressly arranged on the improved principles of 
space and ventilation already referred to, it has been proven that 
not one single case of fever has been engendered in two years ! 
Let every intelligent reader improve the teachings of this article 
without an hour's delay. 



E ACH THE BEST. 

A gentleman called for medical advice the other day, whose 
reputation as the manufacturer of a certain article of hard- 
ware would sell any thing with his name upon it. On being 
asked if the quality of the article depended on any secret mode 
of preparation, or any peculiarity of handwork, or any patent 
protection, he replied: " Nothing of the sort; the article is not 
patented, nor is there any secret in my establishment. On the 
contrary, while my process is peculiar, it has at the same time 
been made public, and I have debated the propriety of my 
course, and defended it against my friends and rivals in the 
same business. I took my stand at the age of twenty years, and 



182 

have resolutely adhered to it for nearly a third of a century 
through every phase of the market ; there is no year, of all that 
time, in which we failed to make money ; although, at times, 
we may have been compelled to sell at actual cost. But now, 
for many years, I have had the preference in the markets of the 
world ; seeing this, my name was pirated by thirty manufactu- 
rers in Manchester, at one and the same time, and in every sin- 
gle case, the English courts decided in my favor, and compelled 
the rectification of the wrong. My plan was simply this ; I al- 
lowed my name to be stamped, only on the very best article 
my establishment could turn out. I had a finished expert in 
each particular branch and stage of the manufacture, to inspect 
the article ; he had nothing else to do, and it was not ' passed,' 
until each one had declared that it was without a flaw. At first, 
multitudes were thrown aside, but by rigidly requiring each 
department to strive to make each successive article the best of 
any that preceded it, we now habitually make ' each the best,'' and 
this is the answer to your question." So he will live longer, who 
will strive to make each day the best, in industrious exercise and 
a comprehensive temperance ; who, if he work too little to-day 
for a good night's rest, will strive to work more to-morrow ; if 
he eats too much to-day for subsequent comfort, will retrench 
to-morrow, or so modify his eating in quantity or quality, that 
there will be no unpleasant reminder after any meal, that an ex- 
cess has been committed; this apparently little thing has en- 
gaged the attention, and waked up the resolves, and baffled the 
efforts of the greatest minds in all ages ; showing that a brute 
appetite wars daily with a nature divine, as, in handicraft, 
cupidity tempts integrity and generally overcomes it ; hence so 
few men, in any branch of business, legitimately succeed in the 
long run. Let every nurse, then, endeavor to do better with 
each succeeding invalid ;• let every physician endeavor to give 
more thought and attention to each new patient, and let us all, 
in all things, strive patiently, resolutely, persistently, to make 
each day "the best" of any that preceded it, and thus do more 
than could possibly be done in any other way, to prevent our 
lives being a failure ; a calamity than which no greater could 
befall any man. Eeader ! let you and I strive to live, so that it 
mav be justly inscribed on the slab which covers our graves : 
"He did not live in vain." 



EIGHT TO SIXTEEN. 183 

EIGHT TO SIXTEEN. 

Lord Shaftesbury recently stated in a public meeting in 
London, that from personal observation be bad ascertained, 
tbat of tbe adult male criminals of that city, nearly all bad 
fallen into a course of crime between tbe ages of eigbt and six- 
teen years ; and tbat if a young man lived an bonest life up to 
twenty years of age, there were forty-nine chances in his favor, 
and only one against him, as to an honorable life thereafter. 

Thus is it in the physical world. Half of all who are born, 
die under twenty years of age, while four fifths of all who reach 
that asre, and die before another "score," owe their death to 
causes of disease which were originated in their "teens." On a 
careful inquiry, it will be ascertained that in nearly all cases, 
the causes of moral and premature physical death, are pretty 
much one and the same, and are laid between the ages of " eight 
and sixteen years." This is a fact of startling import to fathers 
and mothers, and shows a fearful responsibility. Certainly a 
parent should secure and retain and exercise absolute control 
over the child until sixteen ; it can not be a difficult matter to 
do this, except in very rare cases, and if that control is not wise- 
ly and efficiently exercised, it must be the parent's fault ; it is 
owing to parental neglect or remissness. Hence the real source 
of ninety eight per cent of the crime of a country such as Eng- 
land or the United States, lies at the door of the parents. It 
is a fearful reflection ; we throw it before the minds of the fa- 
thers and mothers of our land, and there leave it, to be thought 
of in wisdom, remarking only as to the early seeds of bodily 
disease, that they are nearly in every case sown between sun- 
down and bed-time, in absence from the family circle, in the 
supply of spending-money never earned by the spender, open- 
ing the doors of confectioneries and soda-fountains, of beer and 
tobacco and wine, of the circus, the negro minstrel, the restau- 
rant and the dance ; then follow the Sunday excursion, the 
Sunday drive, with easy transition to the company of those 
whose ways lead down to the gates of social, physical and moral 
ruin. From " eight to sixteen I" in these few years are the des- 
tinies of children fixed ! in forty-nine cases out of fifty ; fixed 
by the parent ! Let every father and every mother, solemnly 
vow : " By God's help, I'll fix my darling's destiny for good by 
making home more attractive than the street." 



184 hall's jouknal of health. 



DRINKING WATER. 

Even pure cold water may be drunk too freely in summer- 
time. Persons who are in feeble health or suffer from the effects 
of summer diseases, will derive great advantage from swallow- 
ing bits of ice whole, after craunching them with their teeth, in- 
stead of taking large draughts of ice- water, which often have the 
efiect to increase the thirst ; this is not the case if ice is eaten. 

A person who drinks water largely in the early part of a 
summer's day, will be more troubled with thirst during the 
remainder of the day than if these cravings had been resisted 
for a few hours. 

The more water a man drinks in summer, the more he per- 
spires, and after a certain point, perspiration becomes debili- 
tating, and is then a cause of disease. 

"When persons are feverish and thirsty beyond what is natu- 
ral, indicated in some cases by a metallic taste in the mouth, 
especially after drinking water, or by a whitish appearance of 
the greater part of the surface of the tongue, one of the best 
"coolers," internal or external, is to take a lemon, cut off the 
top, sprinkle over it some loaf sugar, working it downward into 
the lemon with the spoon, and then suck it slowly, squeezing 
the lemon and adding more sugar as the acidity increases from 
being brought up from a lower point. Invalids with feverish- 
ness may take two or three lemons a day in this manner with 
the most marked benefit, manifested by a sense of coolness, 
comfort, and invigoration. A lemon or two thus taken at " tea- 
time," as an entire substitute for the ordinary "supper" of 
summer, would give many a man a comfortable night's sleep 
and an awaking of rest and invigoration, with an appetite for 
breakfast, to which they are strangers who will have their cup 
of tea or supper of "relish" and "cake" and berries or peaches 
and cream. 

The lemon thus eaten was the great physical solace of Gene- 
ral Jackson in his last illness, which was consumption combined 
with dropsy. It loosened the cough and relieved him of much 
of that annoying hacking and hemming which attends diseases 
of the throat and lungs, many times more efficient, speedy, and 
safe than any lozenge, or " Trochee" ever swallowed. 



DRUNKEN WOMEN. 185 



DRUNKEN WOMEN, 



Or " Intemperate Ladies," as a cotemporary more elegantly 
expresses it ; but it is better to speak of evils so as to bring 
them np before the mind in all their startling deformity ; still 
we recoil at the heading, and are conscious of an inner effort to 
persuade ourselves that there is not such a thing in existence as 
a "drunken woman." My mother drunk? my sister? my 
daughter ? my wife ? Impossible ! yes, impossible to me, but 
not to all. 

One of the handsomest young wives in New- York, and of a 
family name, which, as to social position, was second to none, 
died of an over-draught of her favorite stimulus. In default of 
other supplies, she frequently drank the cologne water of her 
toilet-table ; and yet for the troubled and the sorrowing she 
had a heart so generous and a nature so kind, we have known 
her, when sudden and crushing trials came to the poor and 
obscure, of whom she never heard before, to visit the saddened 
household, speaking words of sympathy, and sharing her ward- 
robe with the children of sudden misfortune. 

Not long ago there died the wife of a great name, whose in- 
fatuation for the cup was such, that for the last years of her 
life an attendant was appointed to follow her, every hour of 
her waking existence, and yet the heiress of hundreds of 
thousands died a drunkard's death ! 

For a summer we lived in the same house with a lady whose 
intellectuality shone conspicuously in any company ; whose 
poetry, as pronounced by herself, would charm all hearers; 
and whose vivacity and conversational powers, were such as 
to compel the admiration of every stranger ; and yet when the 
desire for drink came upon her, like a strong man armed, she 
hesitated not to practice the most degrading deceptions, to 
feign the most fearful diseases, that in the absence of her 
accomplished husband, stimulants should be brought to her by 
kind and unsuspecting attendants ; and then for several days 
she would revel in the most beastly intoxication. 

An official announcement was made not long ago, that some 
four hundred applications had been received for admission into 
the asylum for inebriates, now in process of erection at Bing- 
hamton, a large portion of which were from women in the 
upper walks of life. 



186 hall's journal of health. 

Not long ago a man of great wealth was applied to for a 
donation for the State Asylum ; he declined on the ground that 
he had no personal interest in such an establishment, as there 
was no danger of any of his family requiring its aid. Later on, 
a young man of this city died in a drunken revel ; it was his 
son, just entering manhood ! The truth is, no parent can say 
that any son or daughter will not die an inebriate. A writer 
says of New-York : 

" There is a great and growing evil in this city, but one of 
such delicate nature as to almost forbid being dragged into 
public print. I refer to the increasing and lamentable habit 
now so common, of the indulgence by ladies in intoxicating 
drinks. I do not refer to those who do wrong almost from 
necessity, but to that other class who have rich husbands and 
homes that might be made happy. A larger number of this 
class seem steadily to be diving deeper into dissipation every 
year, than many persons greatly interested in their welfare and 
happiness even imagine. I have heard recently of several 
distressing cases of this kind, and to-day I learn that the wife 
of a well-known citizen, reported to be very wealthy, has been 
sent to the lunatic asylum, in the hope that she may, with re- 
turning reason, be enabled to overcome the terrible temptations 
which intoxicating liquors have of late had for her. Her hus- 
band's name is almost as familiar in some parts of the South as 
it is here." 

It is unwise to attribute this growing evil to any one cause, 
for there are a variety in operation ; a few may be named, and 
the reader must make such use of them as an intelligent con- 
science may urge. 

Reputable physicians seem to be falling into the habit more 
and more of advising alcoholic remedies, either frankly and 
above-board, or under the disguise of Tonics and Tinctures and 
Bitters. Scarcely a religious newspaper of any name or sect 
can be taken up, which does not contain advertisements of these 
same mischievous agencies with " Reverend" certifiers ad nau- 
seam. The editors of respectable medical journals, and the 
publishers of the same lend their aid towards the introduction 
of wines and beers and brandies into the families by whose pa- 
tronage they live ; thus prostituting their influence to vile pur- 
poses for the sake of the few dollars they receive from the ad- 



METAMORPHOSES. 187 

vertisement of the same. To show the extent to which these 
things are practiced, we take up a medical periodical for July, 
of this city, issuing from the establishment of a name, which, for 
half a century has commanded the respect of this whole commu- 
nity ; the editor, an old man, of learning and culture, and high 
position in his profession and in his church ; such men, we say, 
are found introducing to the knowledge of their readers " Pure 
Liquors for the use of the sick," and telling where such a brand 
of gin and such a quality of whisky can be had ; showing, how- 
ever, some little deference to public decency, by saying: "So long 
as people will take domestic medicines, they ought, at least, to 
discriminate the good from the bad." How is it possible to 
"discriminate" between good and bad London Dock Gin, and 
Philadelphia Whisky, and French Cordials, when all are bad ; 
when the use of any of them for a short time tends to set up a 
desire for more, which no man of intelligence, and who has any 
respect for himself, or for the truth, will deny. How many 
men and women under the habitual use of Tonics, and Bitters, 
and Beers, and Cordials, have waked up at last to the fearful 
truth that they " can not do without tliem," " must have them," 
let our asylums, and prisons, and poor-houses testify, and let 
ruined families, and blasted reputations, and broken hearts 
from the land over, confirm the terrible record ! He, and he 
only, is safe from a drunkard's death, who never tastes a drop 
of any thing that can intoxicate. 



METAMORPHOSES. 

A learned doctor once delivered himself thus : " Alcohol 
arrests the metamorphosis of the tissues ; hence, as Phthisis is 
the oxydation of the exudation corpuscle, the article designated 
should be ' exhibited ' in the premises." 

Man alive ! why didn't you say: "I believe brandy is a cure 
for consumption." 

This grandiloquence is a reminder of another deliverance 
effected safely by a tip-top preacher, on one of the " squares :" 
"Anthropology is Theopneustic:" that is, the Wottapottimy 
man believes in the power of gunpowder. If Drs. Hawkes, 



188 hall's jouknal of health. 

Davidson, McGill, or any other of our clerical D.D.s, will give 
us a more literal and luminous u rendering," we shall be happy 
to avail ourselves of their exegetical acumen and learned lore. 

No doubt some canny Sawney invented the argument in the 
Westminster JReview three years ago, that as alcohol arrested 
the metemorphosis of the tissues, prevented the waste of flesh and 
strength of man, hence " Punch"* was good for every body, sick 
or well. The meaning of this is, that we are all the time burn- 
ing up, the flame must have something to feed upon; that 
flesh is carbon, whisky is carbon : that carbon only will feed 
fire, is food for the fire of life, and that, under the circumstances, 
it is better to furnish whisky, than to supply the demand with 
ones own flesh. Bat if you put some " Old Bourbon" in a 
dish, and set it on fire, it goes off in a blaze, and soon there is 
but little left beyond a spoonful of water, and if the flame is to 
be kept up, more whisky must be supplied : hence, who ever 
heard of a toper who wasn't a personified horse-leech and 
Oliver Twist " give-more !" 

For a time liquor does arrest destructive decay ; the fever of 
disease feeds upon it, instead of the flesh ; but then it creates 
an " excitement," a fever of its own ; this, too, must be sup- 
plied with fuel : hence, in any given case, either in health or 
disease, the alcohol must be supplied in increasing quantities, 
in order to keep the system up to a certain point, and if that 
increasing quantity is not supplied, the body begins to burn 
itself up ; the man feels wretched ; whole pitchers of water are 
ravenously drank in the vain effort to satiate the remorseless 
thirst, but an ocean of cold water can't put out the fire; there 
is a burning fire within the man ; it must have flesh to feed it ; 
there is no appetite for the solid food, which otherwise might 
have formed flesh; the stomach and intestines have been so 
scorched, as it were, by the immense amount of " fire-water" 
introduced into them, that they will receive it no longer, or if 
tolerated, it does not meet the wants of the system, and there is 
no pther alternative but to make fuel of the remnant of flesh 
yet remaining; pound by pound does that flesh melt away, 
and the full-fleshed, red-cheeked, hilarious man of a few months 
ago, has lost his jesting and his jokery, the ruby has faded from 

* A mixture of whisky, hot water, sugar, and lemon ? 



CATARRH. 189 

his face; on cheek, and arm, and hand, and "calf," the dry 
and parched skin clings as tightly as a drum-head ; he totters 
along on two spindles ; eats nothing, drinks nothing, and 
miserably dies ! 

Therefore if any reader of this Journal tries hereafter to get 
well of any ailment nnder the sun by drinking liquor, he is so 
hopelessly stupid, that any additional reading of it will be 
utterly useless, and he had better write for the balance of his 
year's subscription. 



CATARRH 



Is a Greek word, which means a " flowing from," and is syno- 
nymous with a common cold. A cold in the head causes a 
running from the nose ; a cold in the eyes makes them water ; 
a cold in the chest or lungs causes an increased expectoration ; 
a cold in the bowels occasions diarrhea. This "flowing," whe- 
ther from nose, eyes, lungs or bowels, is nature's effort to ward 
off the effects of a previous injury ; it is essentially a curative 
process, and ought never to be interfered with. If this "flow- 
ing from" is stopped in any way, whether by external applica- 
tions or internal medicines, the inevitable effect, always, is to 
drive it to some other part to seek an outlet, for nature will not 
rest ever, until the riddance is effected. "Within a month, a 
lady was attacked with a great itching and running in the nose, 
some ignoramus advised her to use a certain kind of snuff, to 
"dry it up;" it had the effect in a few hours, and she was 
charmed with the result ; she thought it a wonderful medicine ; 
that night she was attacked with asthma, which confined her to 
her bed for two weeks, to say nothing of the distressing suffer- 
ings which rilled the interval, day and night. 

A gentleman complained of a cold in the head, with sick 
headache ; some one advised him to have buckets of cold water 
poured on the top of his head, which was followed by a wel- 
comed relief; the next day he complained of a sore throat, 
which troubled him as long as he lived. 

Many persons have diarrhea as a consequence of a cold; 
they can not rest until they "take something" to "check it," 
with the certain result of its falling on the liver, to end in a 



190 hall's journal of health. 

"bilious attack," if not on the lungs, to cause pneumonia, or 
pleurisy, or other more serious form of disease. 

A gentleman had a cold in the head which affected his hear- 
ing ; it was ignorantly tampered with, and apparently cured ; 
but the eyes began to complain shortly after, to remedy which 
he spent two years and a thousand dollars under the most emi- 
nent Allopaths and "Water-Cures, with no efficient result ; and 
his eyes are as troublesome to-day as they were some ten years 
ago. All "flo wings," "runnings," etc., are the result of what, 
in common parlance, is a " humor in the blood," and nature is 
endeavoring to "run it off," but our reckless and ignorant in- 
terferences thwart her in her efforts, and bring on greater 
calamities. 

In all catarrhs, chronic or acute, long or short, a wise physi- 
cian will do nothing to stop or repress, but will use means to 
cause a greater activity of the liver, and prescribe an unstimu- 
lating and cooling diet, warmth and judicious exercise. 

For ourselves we would give physic a wide berth. If we had 
a "flowing from," a catarrh, a cold, all of which mean precisely 
the same thing in nature and essence, we would let it flow, and 
thus have the system relieved of an enemy, whose presence it 
will not tolerate. But there are three other things which may 
be done to very great advantage, because they would expedite 
the cure. 

1. Keep the body very comfortably warm by all available 
means, especially the feet. 

2. Take a good deal of exercise in the open air, to the extent 
of keeping up a very slight perspiration for several hours dur- 
ing the twenty-four. 

3. Live on light, loosening, cooling food — moderate amounts 
— such as water-gruel, crust of bread, stewed fruits, ripe ber- 
ries, and nothing else, until entirely well. 



LIVING YET. 

More than a quarter of a century ago, while attending 
medical lectures at the University, we wrote a short article for 
the press ; within a few days it has appeared in four different 
newspapers, credited to this, that, or the other source, or none 



LIVING YET. 191 

at all. About three quarters of it had been lopt off, to say 
nothing of change of sentiment and phrase. Thus it is with 
the books which men write : as years roll on, fewer and fewer 
of them are thought worthy of republication; next there is 
only a synopsis of the best, then a chapter, or a paragraph, or a 
single sentence, is all that remains of the work of a life-time. 
Thus, too, is it with the actions of great men. When they die, 
this thing and that is published about them ; long forgotten 
and unimportant incidents are brought up from the musty past, 
and are read with peculiar interest. In a short time the less 
striking acts fall into forgetfulness, until but a single one is 
prominently remembered of all that was ever done ! 

So, too, of the sayings of the great. Words are affirmed by 
some to but air, and yet they are the most enduring monuments 
of men ; just as the hair of the head seems to be the most perish- 
able portion of the human frame, and yet in the grave it sur- 
vives muscle, and brain, and tendon, and nerve, and the solid 
bone itself. The lives of some men are compressed into a single 
sentence, which brings up their whole history; their moral 
photograph is taken at a dash. " Pray to the Lord and keep 
your powder dry," and Oliver Cromwell stands before us in his 
stern, practical, great English heart, that could, like Washing- 
ton, indignantly reject a crown. "Don't give up the ship," 
and the heart yearns for the brave and dying Lawrence, whose 
name is not likely to be forgotten while Liberty lives. " A 
little more grape, Captain Bragg," and old Eough and Eeady, 
the hero of Buena Yista, comes to our memories as the embodi- 
ment of all that is honest, manly and brave. " I'd rather be 
right than President," and we feel that well did such a senti- 
ment become the greatest heart and the greatest orator of his 
age, the peerless Henry Clay. There is no conclusive proof 
that any one of these sayings was uttered by the persons to 
whom they have been attributed, while there is reason to be- 
lieve the contrary ; and that they were words put into their 
mouths by writers who had the rare gift of sketching a charac- 
ter truthfully, with the dash of a pen. 

There are two sayings which are authentic, and which are 
destined to make the names of those who uttered them, as 
imperishable as the mountains of ages : " England expects 
every man to do his duty," and the indomitable Nelson, with 



192 hall's journal of healtpi. 

bis one eye and his arm-stump, looms up before us as the 
greatest hero of the greatest nation. But longer than any of 
these, because a hallowed sweetness gathers around it, and its 
associations, may live the name and utterance of a young man, 
whose body, all torn and bleeding, was ebbing its mortal life 
away, only, however, to exchange it for a life of immortality 
among the hosts on high. " Stand up for Jesus, father!" and 
saying it, died ! Dudley A. Tyng. Blessed man ! "We know 
of no simpler, sweeter, grander sentiment in the whole range of 
language ; fit to echo from the lone hill-tops of the ages, when 
the departure of the last of earth's millions announces that 
" Time shall be no longer !" 

Human life is a talent, a privilege, a probation. To live to 
purpose, men should live long, in order that they may gain 
experiences, for by the wise use of these, grand things are said 
and done. It then follows, that this life should be cherished 
by all those practices which tend to preserve it in its highest, 
healthiest forms, and to its greatest duration, and therefore, 

HEALTH IS A DUTY ! 



CONTENTS OF HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH FOR AUGUST. 

(New-York, $1 a year.) 

Is Consumption Contagious ? 169 

Table Manners, 170 

Tomatoes, 172 

Ice Water, 173 

Regimen, 174 

Sleeping, 175 

Tobacco-Users, 177 

Cellars, 178 

Spitting Blood, 179 

Small Bed-chambers, 180 

Each the Best, 181 

Eight to Sixteen, 183 

Drinking Water, 184 

Drunken Women, 185 

Metamorphoses, 187 

Catarrh, 189 

Living Yet, 19° 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] SEPTEMBEB, 1860. [No. 9. 



HOUSEHOLD SLAVERIES. 

Being on the right side in reference to the " peculiar institu- 
tion," and having been born and raised under its immediate 
influences, our opinions on that subject have been formed from 
observed facts and not from vain imaginations and false teach- 
ings. And now, after some years spent in these Northern 
climes, " far from home," we find it difficult to arrive at a 
satisfactory conclusion, which ; under all the circumstances of 
the case, is the happiest and most cheerful class of persons, — 
the servants in a Southern kitchen, or the mistresses in a North- 
ern parlor. Certainly a greater tyranny may not give as much 
unhappiness in ignorance, as petty annoyances may yield to 
culture and a higher civilization. And it may admit of debate, 
whether more smiles do not flit across the countenances of 
slavery in ordinary families, than illume the features of the 
daughters of the North in any twenty -four hours. Our Northern 
readers need not be at the trouble of imagining that we are 
about to defend slavery. We do not choose to do any thing of 
the sort, but introduce the subject for the purpose of wedging 
in a variety of practical truths in reference to human health 
and happiness, more especially connected with our domesticities. 

In looking at the whole subject from a dispassionate stand- 
point, the most protrusive object in the mind's eye is the con- 
trast between the mountain and the mouse ; the grandeur and 
the ridiculousness ; the magnificent myth of a free country in 
theory, and the contemptible narrow-mindedness of the reality, 
when the North unchurches, excommunicates and hands over to 
unending perdition all who speak for slavery ; and the South 
imprisons, chains, tars and feathers, and hangs as high as Ha- 

xo. ix. — vol. vii. — 1860. 



194 

man hung, all they can — catch ! who speak against it. But 
we must say, that Southern folly and injustice carries away the 
" belt," in present parlance, in charging upon the whole North 
the follies and the crimes of a pitiful few ; in accusing millions 
of doing what never entered the imagination of but some twenty 
persons to conceive. And now that the din and dust of last 
winter's commotions have passed away, let the South learn to 
act a wiser and a nobler part, in the event of the reoccurrence 
of contingencies, similar to those which all intelligent and good 
citizens, North and South, ardently hope may never be repeated* 
From opportunities of personal observation in the highways 
and byways of the North, which not many possess, we firmly 
believe that if any Southerner, from Governor Wise, up or 
down, could possibly be made to feel that an auger-hole would 
be a most welcome refuge, it would be the presentation of the 
actual facts of the case here in the North, in reference to the 
" John Brown Kaid." The instinctive exclamation would 
bound forth : " What a fool I was, to get in such a pucker 
about nothing !" In a multitude of cases, in street or house, or 
car or steamer, it was impossible not to be struck with the 
general indifference to what the papers would make believe 
was the all-absorbing topic of the times. The facility with 
which it was dismissed, the careless levity with which it was 
handled, compelled the conviction, that the great public regarded 
it as a matter with which they had no special concern, as if 
they had said : " That is their business, not ours ; let the South 
alone, to manage it in their own way." 

Scene I. — City Cars. 

11 What do you think of this John Brown affair ?" 
" Oh ! stirring times these ; makes things lively. What 's 
Erie to-day ?" 

Scene II. — Steamboat. 

" This slavery business seems to be looming up." 
" Well ! I don't know. Seems to me to be a bull movement 
of seedy politicians and hard-up newspapers, to raise a ' sell.' 
I bought a house at Yonkers the other day ; it is the most de- 
lightful suburb of the city, accessible at almost any hour by 
rail or boat or horse ; having a population, which for refine- 
ment and culture is perhaps not excelled. One of its sterling 



HOUSEHOLD SLAVERIES. 195 

features, and which must commend it to the appreciation of all 
solid and conservative people, is the number and liberality of its 
churches ; the care they take of their ministers, and the interest 
they show in all that pertains to good doing. But I am in a 
betweenity, locally and morally. I am equidistant from the 
Dutch Eeformed and Episcopal churches, whose respective in- 
cumbents are the salt of the earth. Dominie Hulburt is one of 
the best of men. His heart is always in the right place (in his 
hand) ready to be given at a moment's notice, in kindly sym- 
pathy, in wise admonition, or cheerful counsel; a willing, 
patient and hard worker. My wife has Episcopalian predilec- 
tions, and leans towards Mr. Carter, who will leave a mark for 
good behind him. All the carriages go there, and a great deal 
of money too ; the latter returning never, except it may be in 
the way of bread cast upon the waters ; the talented Eector 
contending that the ungiving, as well as the un/or-giving 
Christian, are pretty much in the same category." 

Scene III. — Ferry-Boat 

" I've seen a great deal in the papers about a rumpus in Vir- 
ginia, but have not taken time to keep the run of it. Can you 
give me a bird's-eye view of the case before we get to the other 
side ?" 

" Certainly. Some old man, Smith, or Brown, or other short 
name, undertook to persuade some slaves to run off to the 
"North, but they wouldn't do it ; meanwhile the whites heard 
that something wrong was going on, surrounded the Brown 
people, killed some, took others prisoners, a few escaping. By 
the way, wouldn't you like to buy that lot of mine adjoining 
your house ? will be sold at a great bargain to ' close a 
concern !' " 

Scene IV. — Broadway. 

" Do you see that little thin man, walking briskly this way ; 
shoulders stooping, eyes earthward, with slouched hat and 
walking-cane ? That's Dr. Cheever." 

" The man who has the ' wealth of anathema' ? " 

" The same." 

" He ought to be hung I" 

"Why?" 

" The malignity which he exhibits against slaveholders, its 
aiders and abettors, is devilish." 



196 

" Hello — stop a minute, or you will show as much ' wealth' 
of malediction as he. Don't you believe in earnest men, con- 
sistent men ?" 

" Yes ; consistency of faith and practice is a jewel, when 
exhibited in a good cause, whether in one of a class, a com- 
mittee, or a country. If a man advocates temperance, or the 
sanctity of the Sabbath, and practices them, I care not how 
severely he comments upon the conduct of the enemies of 
both." 

" Then you must be less severe in your rebuke of the occupant 
of the Puritan pulpit. He is an earnest man, impressive and 
fearless. No one in my hearing has ever spoke more eloquently 
and unsparingly against drunkenness and Sabbath-breaking ; he 
has done great good thereby ; and therein, as you must admit, 
deserves well of every Christian community." 

" Well, I believe you are right, and for his fidelity and fear- 
lessness, for his sincerity and his zeal in what he believes to be 
right, I am compelled to commend him. If he happens to be 
in the wrong, that's his own look-out. But the fact is, I believe 
it's none of my business any how. Things will rectify them- 
selves. Let the South alone, to manage *<te own affairs. Why 
should I go into my neighbor's family on a formal call or social 
visit, and while receiving his confidence and courtesies, go into 
his kitchen, on a chance turning of his back, and persuade the 
occupants to leave him ? By the way, where will you spend 
next summer ? Newport is ruinously expensive. Saratoga is 
a human menagerie, the cages full of dust, all inclosed in a 
patent oven. The 'White Sulphur' is too far off. Beautiful 
Kockaway is too near for delightful exclusiveness. The older 
I get, the more I am convinced that the most comfortable spot 
for a summer's residence is New- York City, any where above 
Fourteenth street, between Third and Sixth Avenues. The dif- 
ference between the range of a large house and that of a ten-by- 
twelve room, between a whole bed with a hair-mattress, and a 
bag of shucks across wooden slats, between the best and freshest 
fruits and berries which the country can afford, and the ring^ 
streaked and speckled, which are retained as being 'good 
enough for boarders ;' between milk drawn at midnight and 
placed fresh and cool on the breakfast-table, as by the Company 
in Tenth street, and that which is left after a journey to New- 



HOUSEHOLD SLAVERIES. 197 

York and back, under a broiling sun ; between a hot roll or 
the light loaf of a baker, and the yellow saleratus biscuit or 
soggy home-made bread of a plowman's cook ; between the 
morning walk on a clean foot-pavement with the animations of 
the street and the diversions of the shop-windows, and silent 
draggles through weeds, wet grass and dust, with nothing show* 
ing rife but pigs and plowmen, the yelp of a dog, the squauk 
of a mud-puddle duck, the gabble of geese and the bellowing 
of cow-beaux; between the coolness of your own sheltered 
house at mid-day and a bald building on a barren hill without 
shade, broiling the whole day long under a summer's sun ; 
between the short and quiet walk to church of a Sabbath morn- 
ing, and the hurry-scurry and haste and bustle attendant on 
saddling horses and gearing carriages and other discomposing 
preparations for a journey of several miles and back — the 
difference, we say, between 'this and that,' is so wide in my 
judgment, that I have concluded to spend ' the season' at 
home, with the advantage that it costs nothing extra to do so. 
I will have neither to spend time, comfort, nor money ; whereas, 
if I go to the Springs, every time I turn round or open my 
mouth, I must put my hand in my pocket. I must lose time 
from my business, be choked with dust in rail-cars, nauseated 
at the thought of hotel and steamboat cookery, nap on ' the 
rail' or dream on a shelf, while the clamor of baggage-men, the 
gauntlets of hack-drivers, and the imposition of porters are all 
standing and standard grievances hard to be borne." 

Such conversations, to be heard any where and every where, 
showed to our eye that the great public sense of the North felt 
no special personal concern in a subject which at that very time 
was regarded by Southerners generally with such a deep and 
intense interest. We give it as our opinion, that the prevailing 
sentiment of Northerners, the bone and sinew of them, on the 
general subject of slavery is this, that in every present slave 
State, slavery and slaveholders shall be protected at any cost 
of blood and treasure which may be required of them for the 
same ; that the Union will and shall be preserved ; that who- 
ever is elected President according to the law of the land, they 
will accept and obey, as they always have done ; they are just 
as unalterable in their determination that domestic slavery as it 
now exists South of Mason's and Dixon's line, shall never be 



198 hall's jouknal of health. 

extended over one single additional inch of territory now 
belonging to the confederation, unless the majority of the peo- 
ple of the United States should vote for it. In such an event, 
they would most certainly acquiesce. Northern opinion on 
another subject is of interest. Millions of voters think that 
there is no necessity for meddling with slavery ; that it is merely 
a matter of time, a matter of dollars and cents ; that as soon as 
it becomes a non-paying institution it will cease to exist, and 
that it will as certainly become so, first on the borders, then 
inwards, as that the sun will shine to-morrow, and they believe 
themselves bound by solemn oath to bide that time. In this 
light, the unfairness and injustice of the South stood out in 
unenviable relief, when, for the fanaticism and murderous 
intent of twenty deluded men, they brought their accusations 
against the millions of Northerners besides, as generous and 
patriotic and as brave as themselves ; they exhibited a want of 
magnanimity and confidence in their Northern brethren which 
is alien to the Southern heart. It is to be hoped that they will 
never again allow themselves to be misled by calculating poli- 
ticians and hair-brained editors, both North and South, who 
merited the halter quite as much as the imbeciles, who, bent on 
robbery, violence and blood, if there was need for it, embarked 
their all and lost it, in an insane raid. Any meddling with 
slavery on slave soil, except to increase the safety of the master 
and to add to the comfort and happiness, present and future, of 
the slave himself, involves the triple crime of theft, perjury 
and murder, than which there can be no greater, no meaner, in 
all the black catalogue of human guilt. Such are the thoughts 
here. 

"As we were saying," the upper crust of New-York, that is, 

ita leaders and rulers, or, to be more explicit, the sovereign 

wives of Gotham, for what is a husband nowadays ? He is a 
mere machine to grind out money and hand it over to the 
powers that be, who know nothing as to how it comes and care 
less, so that it does come, and who spend it as freely as water 
for dress and show, for ribbons and feathers ; if any is left, it is 
thrown into the "sinking fund" of the kitchen, which, if it 
hadn't a maw as large as a continent of greens, would have been 
filled to repletion long ago. And now we come to 

Firstly. There is reason to believe that the amount of do- 



HOUSEHOLD SLAVEEIES. 199 

mestic discomfort in Northern homes, arising from the system 
of domestic help, is greater than in Southern households. 

Speaking in general terms, the domestics of the North, the 
cooks, the chamber-maids, the nurses, the waiters and footmen, 
are foreign or native ; the latter, whether black or white, are 
usually of no account, the colored dishonest, the whites above 
their business ; as to the foreign, their business is above them, 
they are too insufferably stupid or too utterly careless and in- 
different ever to learn ; only two points engaging their atten- 
tion, getting their wages and wasting as much as possible. 
About one in a hundred seems to have any moral sense of the 
duty of taking care of the interests of their employers. It is 
perfectly wonderful to witness sometimes the combination of 
insolence, pertness, and destitution of any sense of justice or 
of right, especially when is known the want and the degrada- 
tion with which they were familiar in their own country — a 
year, a month ! agone. 

The foreign help is made up, mainly, of three classes, the 
Dutch, Scotch, and Irish. The Dutch are so dirty, we will let 
them alone ; the Scotch drink whisky, and need not be counted 
on. The Irish are the main-stay of housekeepers, being too 
generally what phrenology terms "secretive," without moral 
principle, and seemingly incapable of taking any interest in the 
real welfare of the family which they are paid to serve. To 
squander, waste and destroy with utter recklessness, is the trait 
of how many we do not say ; householders can name the 
" figure," which, in their own judgment, is just. 

If they have been with you for years, they will leave you at 
a day's notice ; if you discharge them short of a month's 
1 warning," they are " kilt entirely." If there is any time at 
which it gives them rather more pleasure to leave than any 
other, it is in the midst of preparation for company or of severe 
sickness in the family. The impudence of some of them is 
refreshing. A girl declined to engage herself because she ob- 
served that the front-gate was kept locked, " as if ye didn't 
want ainy one to come and say me at all at all." Another said, 
k ' I jis cum to say how yer house looked on the outside ; it is 
too small entirely, and it's only brick ; it don't suit, so I bid ye 
a good avening." A third came as chambermaid. " I like ye 
very much mam, indade. I see's ye' re a lady, but I don't like 
having the little children to dress.". A fourth was kept wait- 



200 hall's journal of health. 

ing, the mistress of the splendid mansion being necessarily de- 
tained, certainly not over ten minutes, when, on entering her 
own parlor, Biddy said : " Ye shouldn't kape me a waitin all 
this time." A very summary invitation into the street gave 
the young lady to understand that she had miscalculated. 
Another protested : " This is a very fine house and looks well 
kept, and no doubt ye're a fine lady and I would love to live 
wid the likes of ye, but the kitchen (twenty feet square) is too 
small." 

They are extremely sensitive, too. A footman, at twenty 
dollars a month, left, because he was required to wash off the 
bricks in the back-area. Another, for being asked to wash 
the lower hall. " I'm not a maid of all- work." A neighbor 
got up — to no breakfast, because a servant being sick, there was 
a requirement to build a fire that morning. Another insisted 
on having tea for breakfast and dinner, as coffee gave her the 
head-ache. Another wasn't used to riddle out the coal, it 
looked mean. Yery likely some of our city readers could give 
still livelier specimens of the ridiculous, but we have confined 
ourselves to what is literal and known. 

It is a great indignity to require one to do what is the proper 
duty of another, whatever may be the emergency. " It's not 
my business, mam, to cut peraties." " I didn't hire to handle 
dirty clothes." Another came to " cook, and not to answer the 
door-bell when the waiter is out." The line of demarkation as 
to the particular duties of each, is to be defined with all the 
distinctness of a city survey or an insurance document, and to 
go beyond it is considered unendurable. 

Many of them refuse to eat bread which has once been placed 
on their employer's table, although absolutely not touched, even 
with a fork ; the result is, we have known a peck of sliced 
bread to be brought up at a time as the leavings of a week, and 
which may be seen any morning, to aid in filling the ash-barrel. 
We passed a charitable institution, in the ash-box of which had 
just been emptied a basket of good bread, in rolls and slices ; 
reminding us of a bill brought in by the manager of an asylum 
in this city, about the time of the panic of 1857, for some fifty 
or more baskets of peaches, at three dollars a basket. Fine 
thing to be poor in New- York ! or to be the money -handling 
officer of public charities ! But this is off the subject ; still, it 



HOUSEHOLD SLAVERIES. 201 

is ominously suggestive of the sunnyside of poverty, and the 
luckless use sometimes made of charitable funds, by wasteful 
servants. 

The first thing a new help does, when the employer is stupid 
enough to allow it, is to expatiate on the grand scale of living 
at her " last place," The lady "never comes into the kitchen. 
The gentleman never goes to market, but gives the money to 
the head- waiter, to make all the necessary purchases. I carried 
the keys all the time, mam, and when I left, the lady (and she 
was a fine lady too, mam) said she had never missed any thing 
while I was wid her, no indade and she said right. When we 
wanted tay, I wint to the chist and took the fill of my hand for 
one time ; and we never used any thing but loaf-sugar, and it 
was well for me, for any other* kind gives me the head-ache." 

Not the least item is the rod which the cook in the kitchen 
holds over the mistress, who is so terribly afraid of being con- 
sidered close and mean, that she dare not make any suggestion 
about burning less coal or gas, or serving up to a second meal 
any remnant of the preceding ; so one thing goes on to another, 
until the mistress never gives a command, only makes a request ; 
at length cookey becomes chief counselor of state, and reckless 
waste is the order of the day. The inevitable result of these 
things is, that many a freeman works harder and more inces- 
santly than a slave, for he carries the labor of the brain to a 
restless bed, when the body-work of the day is over ; still he 
does not " get along." The leaks in the kitchen are greater than 
the gains of the counter, and the red flag of the auctioneer 
closes the history. 

In a Southern home, the wife is mistress of her own mansion ; 
she expresses her wishes and they are quietly complied with ; 
she retires to her chamber without any misgivings that she may 
have her own fires to build and her own breakfast to cook next 
morning ; she has no apprehension that the hard earnings of 
her husband will be expended in filling stranger's mouths ; if 
her servants help themselves ever so bountifully, she may con. 
gratulate herself that it is only a change of locality from shelf 
to stomach, that her " property" eats her property, and that 
the sum total is still her property, she can not be a loser, for 
she possesses just as much as she had before ! 

It is difficult to form an adequate conception of the amount 



202 

of annoyance, irritation, fretfulness, and settled discomfort, which 
Northern wives suffer from unfaithful and incompetent domes- 
tics ; it is the " skeleton in the house," the raw head and 
bloody bones of almost every family, Yet it must be confessed 
that a large share of it is due to the mistresses of New- York 
mansions. Many know literally nothing of kitchen or cookery, 
because nine out of ten of them were brought up with the im- 
plied understanding, or under the calculation, that they were 
to marry rich men, who could afford to have housekeepers. 
But where so many rich men were to come from, does not 
seem to have been a considered item in the matter. This is a 
fearful and an almost universal oversight on the part of man- 
aging mothers. Apparently, the "chief end," the absorbing 
and sole object of maid and mother, is to catch a husband and 
get a home ; but how to make that home a happiness ; how to 
throw around that husband such cords of love and affection, as 
will bind him to his own hearth, and make his home the eagerly 
sought retreat at each business day's ending, appears not to have 
been thought of ; no preparation seems to have been made for 
it. By degrees, the husband finds, that for all the practical 
purposes of life, his wife is good for nothing. She can not 
work, can not sew, can not counsel, nor even sympathize with 
him, and in deep disgust or moody despair, he looks to the 
club-room, the gaming-table or the decanter for that solace, 
which he had a right to expect in the wife of his choice. 

When the mistress knows nothing of domestic duties, it need 
not be surprising if the maid knows less. If the mistress does 
not take interest enough in her household to bend her mind to 
the learning of what would make her and her husband and 
children happier, there is no ground to complain that the ser- 
vants do not care to learn. 

The Irish are a sprightly race, and can take up a thing quickly, 
only if they have a teacher. But too often, the young wife 
knows nothing, can communicate nothing, and two ignoramuses 
are at the head of the household ! 

But there are other faults about young wives. They are 
passionate, hasty, inconsiderate. They know almost nothing 
about work themselves, and too often impose impossible amounts 
of labor on their servants ; can make no allowance for the 
accidents of the kitchen ; never think of giving words of 



HOUSEHOLD SLAVEKIES. 206 

encouragement ; and as for sympathizing with a cook or laun- 
dress, that is out of the question ; they think that their entire 
duty is performed in paying the wages agreed upon. How 
often those wages are kept back ; how often reduced to the 
lowest possible amount ; how often excessive washes are given 
out ; how often it is twelve or one o'clock before the servants 
can retire, or other unreasonable things are done and required, 
may not be known ; but they are matters of daily occurrence ; 
and that minds uneducated should be gradually soured and 
grow selfish and indifferent, on account of these inconsiderations 
and injustices and unreasonable requisitions, is, after all, not 
very wonderful. If we would have better servants, we must 
ourselves be better ; we must be more considerate, more cour- 
teous, and teach them, by having an interest in their welfare, 
how to take an interest in our own. Human life, in all its 
relations, is a series of generous reciprocities, and they who give 
them wisely, will receive them in return. We who are of 
higher cultivation must take the lead, in the exhibition of all 
good and noble qualities. The matron must lead the maid in 
patience and in forbearance ; must encourage her to habits of 
industry, cleanliness, practicality and system in every depart- 
ment of the household ; and by all means, be considerate ; 
trying faithfully to do towards a domestic, as, if places were 
reversed, they themselves would like to be done to. 

Our own experience in the way of Domestics in New- York 
has been fortunate. Our cooks have always been Irish or 
colored ; we have seldom changed, and in each case on account 
of marriage or sickness ; they have always been scrupulously 
neat, trustworthy and industrious, keeping good hours, with 
few or no visitors. There is something in physiognomy and 
general personal appearance ; a great deal, in letting it be 
understood from the very first, that there must be prompt and 
implicit obedience ; that every thing must be willingly done in 
precisely the way you want it, and in no other, without express 
permission. Keep your servants at a respectful distance ; never 
hold colloquies with them ; never allow a word to be 
repeated as to modes of management in other families ; nor 
relations of what was said and done ; of all mean things in 
creation, an itching ear for servants' tales is the meanest. If 
servants are treated considerately, kindly, patiently and cour- 



204 

teously, many good qualities will be elicited thereby, and a 
gradual and certain elevation in tone and character, and general 
worth would be an inevitable result ; and housekeepers owe it 
to themselves, and to one another, to promptly commence a 
reform on their own parts, with the assurance that good and 
encouraging results will immediately follow therefrom unto 
themselves ; housekeeping will become less a care and more a 
pleasure ; there will be fewer annoyances, fewer irregularities, 
more leisure, more quiet, more smiles and more health ; and 
with these, home will be more inviting to the husband, the 
children will be less in the street ; harmony, cheerfulness and 
good nature will bind together all hearts, and quiet, unity and 
comfort will pervade the household. 



MIASM. 

A shoet word, but it brings sickness and death to hundreds 
of thousands every autumn ; it will bring sickness and death 
sooner or later to many a reader of this article, but a sickness 
and death which could have been avoided. 

Miasm is the principal cause of nearly every epidemic dis- 
ease; that is, of every sickness that "falls upon the people," 
attacks numbers in any community, such as fever and ague, 
diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, bilious, intermittent, congestive, 
typhoid and yellow fevers. But it is an avoidable cause of 
disease. Money and wisely directed efforts can banish it from 
any locality. All that is needed is to know the laws of miasm, 
and adapt ourselves to them. The New- Orleans Bee, which is 
one of the very best daily papers in the South, conducted with 
uniform ability, recently made the following statement on the 
mystery and invincibility of yellow fever. 

" The yellow fever has broken out in New-Orleans under 
every conceivable variety of circumstances — when the streets 
were clean, and when they were filthy — when the river was 
high and when it was low ; after a prolonged drouth, and in 
the midst of daily torrents — when the heat was excessive, and 
when the air was spring-like and pleasant — when excavation 



MIASM. 205 

and disturbances of the soil had been frequent, and when 
scarcely a pavement had been laid or a building erected. If the 
disease is endemic and indigenous — a point still in dispute — all 
we can say is, that research, inquiry, and sagacity are baffled 
in the attempt to trace its origin and develop its causes. It 
comes without warning, and goes we know not whither. 

" Almost the only fixed and undeniable fact connected with 
the disease is that its prevalence is simultaneous with the heats 
of summer and that frost is its deadly enemy. From these 
frank acknowledgments it may be understood how exceedingly 
limited is knowledge of the subject. Although most deeply 
interested in it, and although for half a century the most promi- 
nent and learned physicians have bestowed labor and investi- 
gation upon it, they have failed to establish beyond contra- 
diction and controversy a single fact that would prove of clearly 
practical utility in guarding against the approach of the destroyer, 
or in cutting short its ravages." 

There is not a material statement in the above extract that is 
correct. Sufficient is known of the Law of Miasm to make 
New-Orleans one of the healthiest cities in the Union. Having 
received our medical education in the South, and lived and 
practiced there many years afterwards, and especially in New- 
Orleans, it may be presumed that we speak not altogether un- 
advisedly. Not to keep the reader waiting, the plan vail be 
first stated and then the reasons given ; a mistake is certainly 
not impossible. 

Dig a basin in the swamp, in the rear of the city, its sides so 
cemented that no water can permeate them, and let a system 
of citv drainage be instituted which shall end in this basin, to 
be pumped out from June until frost, and delivered into lake 
Pontchar train. The Dutch have drained a young State by a 
steam-engine. The American ought to be able to reclaim a 
few acres by the same agency. All details are purposely left 
out. The city of Louisville, Ky., in our early recollection, was 
one of the most pestilential spots in the habitable West ; by 
filling and draining it is now one of the healthiest, one 
of the most beautiful and flourishing of the cities of the great 
valley. 

Miasm is an invisible emanation, an emanation from vegetable 
matter, dependent always and every where on three conditions, 



206 

any one of which being absent, its generation .is an impos- 
sibility. There must be vegetable matter, there must be moist- 
ure, there must be heat of eighty degrees Fahrenheit and over, 
for a considerable portion of each day. These things are 
known and acknowledged by all scientific writers on the sub- 
ject, hence it is not necessary to prove them. If then there is 
no wood or leaves in a specified locality, there can be no miasm 
generated there ; nor can there be, if there is no moisture ; nor 
can there be if there is no heat. No human power can get 
clear of the heat of New- Orleans, and profuse vegetation is 
characteristic of that latitude, so that the only practical mode 
of preventing the generation of miasm there, is to cause a 
dryness of the surface-soil by means of drainage. The " Mys- 
tery" of Miasm, is as plain as the face of day when its laws 
are known. Dr. McFarland of New-Orleans has not hesitated 
to publish, that the relative nlthiness of the city has nothing to 
do with its reputed sickliness, in fact, that the filthier parts 
were the healthiest. The nature of miasm is such that an 
epidemic may prevail in New Orleans in a very dry summer or 
a very wet one. One summer may be a dry one, and there be 
no yellow fever ; the next may be a wet one and no yellow 
fever ; the third may be a dry one and yellow fever may be 
epidemic ; the fourth may be a wet one, and the yellow fever 
may be epidemic, and yet one invariable law of miasm governs 
the four years, and which, when understood, is plain, even to 
a child's comprehension. Every man is interested personally 
and vitally in these statements, whose family lives where 
autumnal diseases prevail. 

Among the phenomena of miasm are these. First. It im- 
pregnates the air of the locality, in or very near which it is 
generated, and to be affected by it, a person must be in that 
locality, and breathe its air. 

A son of Colonel Ellis was attacked with yellow fever at his 
residence, where the disease had never been known, and there 
was no other case in the family or in the neighborhood. Just 
before he died, he was asked if he had been to Philadelphia, 
where it was then raging in all its fury, he replied, he had not 
been in the city, had only crossed over to the shipping, but 
had not gone up into town. It was at the shipping, along the 
wharves, where it originated, and always does originate. Fam- 



MIASM. 207 

ilies do not take yellow fever from yellow fever patients, brought 
to them several miles in the country, from the city, if they 
have not been exposed in any other way. To get any prevail- 
ing disease a man must go to the locality where that disease 
exists. None took the National Hotel Disease, but those who 
entered the building. In Boston, during one of the cholera 
years, only the inmates of a certain house, in a specified 
district, were attacked. It was ascertained that in a dark part 
of the cellar, there was an immense amount of kitchen garbage 
which had been in the course of daily deposition for many 
months. The lesson is, that when a disease prevails in a ward 
of the city, in a certain part of a village, or county, or. district, 
there is a local cause for that disease, in a combination of vege- 
table matter, heat and moisture, and families should at once 
be removed, and measures taken to ascertain the source of the 
evil, and remedy it. 

It is a fearful fact, that of each hundred English soldiers in 
India, ninety-four disappear from the ranks before the age of 
thirty-five, when from official statements, it is known that " the 
average standard of health for Europeans in India, would bear 
comparison with that existing any where else in . the civilized 
world if the known sources of disease were dried up." It is 
admitted that in forty years, one hundred thousand men might 
have been saved, if " proper localities had been chosen for 
their dwellings." This shows that a rich man in retiring from 
business, should not be guided in the selection of a locality for 
building or purchase, as a residence by the "prospect," or 
facilities of getting to town. The determination should be 
made, according to the known laws of miasm. 

The hospitals and barracks, in and near Bengal are now 
almost useless, having been erected in places utterly unfitted 
for the purpose, in a hygienic point of view, and yet the cost 
of their erection to the British government was the enormous 
sum of sixty-five millions of dollars ! A very limited knowledge 
of the general laws of miasm would have prevented this shame- 
ful loss. 

Miasm is of a nature so intangible, that no chemical analysis 
has ever been able to fix it, to take hold of it, to discern it ; it 
is as viewless as the air itself. An atmosphere saturated with 
it, gives no more indication of its presence than the purest air 



208 

of the poles. We must therefore judge of its nature and laws, 
from its effects. The low shores of sluggish rivers, lakes, and 
ponds, and flat marshes, when exposed to a hot sun, are the 
great manufactories of deadly miasm. In the heat of the day, 
this miasm is created with great rapidity, but in the heat of 
the day it is innocuous, this seems a "mystery," but it is easily 
explained, when a little more is known. Heat rarefies the air 
which contains the miasm, so rapidly, that it rises instantane- 
ously to the upper regions of the atmosphere, where it can not 
be breathed. But the cool of the evening condenses it, makes 
it heavy, causes it to fall to the surface of the earth, where it 
is breathed and becomes the cause of various diseases, some- 
times of such malignity, as to resemble ailments produced by 
the most virulent poisons, as in the case of the National Hotel 
of Washington City three years ago. Hence it is, that in cross- 
ing the Pontine marshes near the city of Eome, the traveler is 
cautioned against spending the night there, as it is almost cer- 
tain death. 

Very recently a gentleman had occasion to pass that way, 
and contrary to the warnings of his friends in the city, he spent 
a night there, the hotel-keeper assuring him that there was 
no danger whatever to strangers ; the result was, that he died of 
malignant. fever in a few days. 

Very recently a daughter of one of the best and wealthiest 
families in Brooklyn, having graduated with great honor, visited 
Rome, but unwittingly exposing herself to the deleterious 
miasms of the Campagna, " lured by the cool and balmy air of 
an autumn evening" to breathe its poison, she died. Miasm 
which is generated by heat, becomes deadly to man only when 
the atmosphere, by becoming cool, condenses it, makes it heavy 
and causes it to settle near the surface of the earth, where it is 
breathed, to remain there until the morning sun begins to warm 
it up again, rarefy it, and carry it above the breathing-point, 
and so attenuating it, that if it were breathed it would be com- 
paratively harmless. But when the weather becomes so cool as 
to deposit the miasm in a layer of a few inches' thickness on the 
surface of the earth, and the heat of the atmosphere at the sur- 
face is under eighty degrees, epidemics cease ; hence frost is said 
to "kill" yellow fever; this is not exactly so, for if a few warm 
days were experienced the disease would return, would again 



MIASM. 209 

become epidemic, warming the chilled miasm into life, and 
generating more of it. If then cold paralyzes miasm, and heat 
carries it rapidly above, where it can not be breathed, both cold 
and heat are its antagonisms, but to be perfectly efficient, cold 
and heat must be continuous, with this distinction cold only 
paralyzes, heat removes. Heat will disinfect a vessel, where 
disease is raging, and not a single new case will occur, even 
after the heat is removed, if the ship has been left perfectly dry 
inside, because the destructive agent has been carried out of 
the vessel, and has been scattered in the region of space above 
and beyond. Several tons of ice will also promptly cut short 
the disease, more instantaneouly than heat, because it condenses 
the miasm which is thereby made heavier and settles within a 
few inches of the bottom of the vessel, but as soon as the ice 
is removed, the external temperature remaining the same, the 
miasm becomes rarefied, rises and revives the disease. These 
facts give rise to apparent contradictions, and which sometimes 
appear inexplicable. Heat generates malaria, and at the same 
time renders it innocuous, cold paralyzes malaria, and it becomes 
hurtless. Again it is thus seen, how a little heat, applied to 
chilled miasm, may restore to it its violence, while a little cold 
after heat, brings it down to the surface from above, and gives 
it its malignity. Hence, at sun-down of an autumn day, it 
becomes a little cold, and the miasm becomes malign ; at mid- 
night it is colder, and it becomes hurtless ; at sunrise it becomes 
a little warmer, and the miasm rises from the earth, and covers 
it five or six feet deep, to be breathed and to destroy ; by mid- 
day, the greater heat has carried it again beyond the hurtful 
point, thus the reader sees that there is no " mystery" in miasm, 
but that it is governed by laws as fixed as mountains of adamant. 
If a mill-pond is drained in the fall of the year when the days 
are hot and the nights cold, just leaving the bottom in a mor- 
tary condition, it would bring disease and death in a few days, 
if not in a few hours, to all who slept on its banks. "No travel- 
er dared to sleep at night on the flat damp Tsthmus of Panama, 
in the early days of California travel. But if that mill-pond 
were flooded a foot or two deep in water, the disease would 
abate a3 soon as if there had been a severe frost, because miasm 
can not be generated and rise through two feet, or even one of 
water. That is the reason, why the " Swamp," in the rear ox 



210 hall's jouknal of health. 

New-Orleans is sometimes perfectly healthy, when the city 
proper is being wasted by disease, because the swamp is inun- 
dated by the spring rise of the Mississippi or by a steady hard 
wind from the Gulf towards the city, for several days, which 
we have known to raise the lake so as to flood the swamp, and 
nearly the entire city, nearly up to the old State-House on Ba- 
ronne street, where our office was, leaving only a ridge of dry 
land between that and the river, some eight or ten blocks dis- 
tant. Thus a very wet summer would keep the swamp flooded 
so deep as to prevent the generation of malaria ; but if not 
locally wet, on the contrary dry, the Mississippi in its annual 
rise would do the same thing, as also a steady wind from the 
Gulf, and if about the time an " overflow" from either cause 
was subsiding, heavy rains should come, then a fall "blow," 
the swamps would be kept inundated until frost, and thus the 
whole city would have been healthier than was known to 
have been in the memory of the "oldest inhabitant." A very 
long and severe drought, with no "blows" from the Gulf and 
no overflows from the Mississippi would make the swamp so 
dry, that generation of malaria would be impossible. By failing 
to make these discriminations, it does appear to make no differ- 
ence whether it is a hot or comparatively cool summer, whether 
wet or dry, but looking closely into the laws of miasm, order 
is brought out of confusion, and all things proceed in beautiful 
harmony. 

Five families may dwell within half a mile of a drained 
mill-pond, upon the damp bottom of which an August or 
September sun beams with dog-day fierceness, and yet, by the 
known laws of miasm, only one family will suffer from it ; the 
other four will be as well as usual. First. If a rapid river runs 
between the pond and the house, there will be no sickness at 
all. Second. If a thick growth of trees and bushes, only a few 
feet broad, interpose, there will be no sickness. Third. If the 
prevailing winds be from the house to the pond, there will be 
no sickness. Fourth. If the house be on a steep hill, there 
may be no sickness-, because miasm does not cross a wide, rapid 
river ; miasm does not pass a thick wall of vegetable growth ; 
miasm can not travel against the wind ; miasm can not ascend 
a steep high hill. There is no mystery in these varieties? 
and no complexity, because they all arise from simple, unvary " 
ins: natural laws. 



MIASM. 211 

One year a house immediately on the bank of a mill-pond 
will suffer ; the second year it will escape, because it is a very 
cold summer ; the third year it will escape because it is a very 
hot summer ; the fourth year it will escape, because it is a very 
wet summer. Why ? The wet summer kept the bed of the 
pond covered over with water a foot or two deep, and miasm 
could not form. The hot summer made the bed of the pond 
dusty, and miasm could not form ; the cold summer did not 
give a heat of eighty degrees, and miasm could not form. Here 
is variety, but uniformity ; mysterious to the uninformed, but 
to the student and observer, it is as clear as the sunlight ! Any 
man may sleep a whole night in the Pontine marshes with im- 
punity, if he close his chamber, and hang ice in it, so as to 
reduce the temperature below eighty degrees, for then the 
miasm would be condensed to the surface of the floor ; or if he 
have no ice at all, and keep a fire blazing on the hearth. If, 
however, he slept on the floor with the ice, he would breathe 
the miasm in its concentrated form, and suffer for it ; in case of 
the fire protection, he should sleep on the floor, because the 
heat would carry the miasm to the ceiling. All these points 
were beautifully illustrated in the famous or infamous Hotel at 
Washington. The miasm was so deadly, that many intelligent 
persons asserted then, and believe yet, that it was the result of 
mineral poison. This miasm was generated from sewers open- 
ing into the cellar, and from privies on the ground-floor which 
were testified to have been so full, that when a person stepped 
on the floor, the compound beneath spouted up between the 
planks. On an official investigation it was shown that men, 
who came into the bar-room for an hour, suffered ; a man who 
came fatigued after a day's travel, and ate a single meal on the 
lower floor, nearly died, while ladies who had lived in the 
house all winter wholly escaped. These, however, are but 
seeming " mysteries." It was winter. The miasm was gener- 
ated about the ground-floor of the building, where it was com- 
paratively cold, causing the deadly agency to remain condensed 
and concentrated where it was produced, and by the men 
who spent there most of their time it was breathed. The 
ladies occupied the upper rooms and kept their fires steadily 
burning, which rarefied any miasmatic air that made its way 
from below, and carried it at once to the ceilings of their re- 



212 hall's jouknal of health. 

spective apartements, while the winter air in all its purity 
came directly from without, through window crevices, not only 
diluting the already rarefied miasmatic air, but driving it out 
by a current through the crevices at the tops of the inner doors 
especially. 

Again. The stomach of a hungry man will drink in miasm 
with all the greediness of a famished wild beast, the whole 
blood will be poisoned in an hour, and the drowsiness or stupor 
of death will steal stealthily over the unconscious victim. Within 
a month, we met an intelligent young Eoman patriot, who had 
spent many a day in hunting on the Pontine marshes ; directing 
his attention to the subject, he said, that on some occasions, they 
were forced by laughter and yells, and uproarious songs, and 
pushing and slapping one another, to keep themselves from going 
to sleep ; he said that to sleep was to die, almost as certainly 
as if yielded to among the snows of Mont Blanc or of Green- 
land. On one occasion having had nothing for some hours, to 
stay the stomach, the foundation for a tedious and serious ill- 
ness was laid. One other brief lesson may be learned, one 
which merits annual publication in every paper in the land, 
and which ought to be kept in a gilded frame above the mantle 
of millions of dwellings. 

As moderate coolness brings the miasm to the surface of the 
ground, say within its first five or ten feet, the morning and 
the evening, embracing the hour including sun-down and sun- 
up, in the fall of the year, are the most dangerous periods of 
exposure within the twenty-four hours; and yet the atmosphere 
is so delicious at those times, that to resist being out in it, and 
breathe it, is impossible but to the few. Hence, the remark has 
been made in our hearing in New-Orleans, that whenever the 
evening air seems for a few days to be most delicious, in epidemic 
seasons, it is taken for granted, that an increase of the disease 
will certainly follow. Here, the purer the air, the worse the 
disease! a seeming truth, and a seeming " mystery," but false 
and clear in the light of a sound information. 

If then hunger, or an empty stomach, or, which is the same 
thing, a weak stomach, ravenously drinks in, as it were, the 
deadly poison, and the air is most charged with it at sun-down, 
and sunrise, it clearly follows, that in epidemic times, families 
should gather around a cheerful fire at sunrise and sunset, and 



NIGHT AIR. 213 

should fortify the stomach against the malignant miasm, before 
they go out in the morning, with a good breakfast, and at sun- 
down strengthen it with a cracker and a cup of weak tea 
against the effect of the fatigues of the labors of the day just 
closing. Families who will conduct themselves in accordance 
with the principles laid down, can procure a happy exemption 
from autumnal and epidemic diseases. To do so, however, re- 
quires an amount of intelligence, self-denial, and moral courage 
possessed by the few, but we are not without hope that the 
knowledge of these things will gradually spread among whole 
communities, who acting from conviction and principle as to 
the daily conduct of life, will add a score of years to the aver- 
age age of men. 



NIGHT AIR. 



"Ant extraordinary fallacy is the dread of night air. What 
air can we breathe at night but night air? The choice is between 
pure night air from without, and foul night air from within. 
Most prefer the latter. An unaccountable choice. What will 
they say, if it is proved to be true that fully one half of all 
the disease we suffer from is occasioned by people sleeping with 
their windows shut? An open window most nights in the 
year can never hurt any one. This is not to say that light is 
not necessary for recovery. In great cities, night air is often 
the best and purest air to be had in the twenty -four hours. I 
could better understand shutting the windows in towns, during 
the day, than during the night, for the sake of the sick. The 
absence of smoke, the quiet, all tend to make night the best 
time for airing the patient. One of our highest medical author- 
ities on consumption and climate, has told me that the air in 
London is never so good as after ten o'clock at night. Always 
air your room, then, from the outside air, if possible. Win- 
dows are made to open, doors are made to shut — the truth 
which seems extremely difficult of apprehension. Every room 
must be aired from without — every passage from within." 

Many a man will wake up on the other side of the " Styx" 
and as soon as he rubs his eyes a little, will exclaim, that angel 



214 hall's journal of health. 

of a woman, Florence Nightingale, has killed me. "We protest 
against any body making publications on human health, except 
educated physicians, and we counsel those of our readers who 
wish to be on the safe side, to give a wide berth to all rules 
and regulations and suggestions and dicta about the preserv- 
ation of health and the cure of diseases, unless they bear the 
name of some medical man of eminence, or of some medical 
publication of acknowledged authority. Miss Nightingale is a 
professional nurse, a woman of superior powers of observation, 
comparison and reflection, and has written a most admirable 
book on "Nursing," but not having had a previous education 
in the great general principles of anatomy, physiology and 
hygiene, she has, in the extract which heads this article, left an 
impression on the mind of the general reader, which is at once 
confused, erroneous and of vital importance. There is import- 
ant truth running through the whole of it, but for want of dis- 
crimination and definiteness it may be productive of more in- 
jury than good. We are in the habit of saying to consumptive 
persons, " Any air is better for you, than in-door air ;" but then 
we add the proviso that the hours, including sunrise and sunset, 
should either be spent in the house or should, if they choose to 
go out of doors, find the stomach fortified with breakfast or 
supper, for the reason that in warm weather in all flat, luxuri- 
ant localities a deadly air, called miasm, which is an emanation 
from the decomposition of vegetable matter, where there is 
warmth and moisture, hovers over the surface of the earth, 
within its first ten feet, and if this air is breathed into the lungs, 
especially when the stomach is empty, disease, more or less 
speedy, and more or less intense, will be inevitably excited, 
from a slight intermittent, to continue for days, weeks or months, 
to a malignant, or putrid, or ship fever to cause death in a few 
hours. On the general principle that a heat of eighty degrees 
and upwards, rarefies miasm, and carries it beyond our reach, 
while a temperature under eighty of Fahrenheit, brings it to the 
surface, where it is breathed, and its poison introduced into the 
system, a few practical rules may be deduced, which are of 
almost universal application and are of incalculable importance. 

First. In cold weather, out-door air, day or night, is purer 
than any within doors possibly can be. 

Second. In warm weather, the air including the hour of sun- 



NIGHT AIR. 215 

rise and sunset is pernicious to all, sick or well — especially to 
the young, the old and the feeble. 

Third. In warm weather, especially in the fall of the year, 
when fall sicknesses prevail, persons who sleep on the ground- 
floor should keep all outer doors and windows shut, and inner 
ones open. 

Fourth. In cities as well as in the country, those who sleep 
in the second or upper stories may safely open their windows 
at bed- time, for by that time the miasm has been carried by the 
cold to the surface of the earth ; but summer and winter, the 
doors of upper chambers, opening into the halls should be 
closed, so as to keep out all bad airs from below, whether the 
miasm arising from decaying vegetables, or the malaria, the 
"mal," the "bad" air from kitchens, dining-rooms, cellars and 
the like. 

Upper rooms may be safely aired during any portion of the 
twenty-four hours, and should be aired from without. Lower 
rooms should be aired in the heat of the day, and closed while 
slept in at night, only opening the inner doors. 

The " extraordinary fallacy" is in the fair lady herself, con- 
veyed in the two inquiries at the commencement of the article. 
The air breathed in a lower chamber, with doors and windows 
closed early in the evening, is not the night air, it is the day 
air, only mixed with night air, miasm coming through small 
crevices, and so rapidly rarefied by the greater warmth of the 
room, of some ten degrees perhaps, that it becomes in a measure 
innocuous. The choice is not between pure night air from without, 
and foul night air from within, it is between concentrated cool 
miasm from without, and a warm day air with comparatively 
little miasm from within. It is incomparably better to sleep in 
poor warm indoor air, than in an outdoor air which is saturated 
with miasm. Besides, we have met with a number of persons, 
men and women, who never failed to be injured, to be made 
more or less ill the very next day by sleeping with open win- 
dows winter or summer, however well protected from draughts ; 
so that, however good the general rule, to have a window or 
door open in a chamber for sleeping, persons who find by actual 
observation that it is injurious to them, should not persist in 
righting against the peculiarity of their system, against their 
11 Idiosyncrasy." Upon the whole, we think, that ladies gene- 



216 hall's journal of health. 

rally had better get good husbands, make babies, happify homes, 
and let prosing, poetizing, and lecturing alone, for a woman is 
most of a queen and nearest an angel at the head of a well- 
ordered family of children, servants, husband, and friends. 



LAGER BEER 



That is, " strong" beer is different from other kinds, because 
it remains longer in a state of fermentation, and just like cider, 
the longer it stands, the "harder," the stronger, the more alco- 
holic does it become, the less of it will make a man drunk. 
Many chemical analyses of lager beer demonstrated that it had 
"less nutriment and more alcohol than any beer or ale." It 
has not five per cent of malt, in which lies all the tonic 
and nutrient qualities. Hence, admitting that beer and ale 
give any durable nourishment and strength, more lager must be 
drunk to give a specified amount of tone and vigor, with a great 
deal more alcohol, than of any other malt liquor. Chemists and 
certain accommodating doctors have sworn in open court that 
they believed that a man could not drink lager beer enough to 
make him drunk, and the impression is sought to be made that 
it is milder, less hurtful, and more health-giving than other 
malt drinks, but the truth is, that more alcohol and less nutri- 
ment are obtained from lager than from any other beer; hence 
its habitual use must more certainly impart a taste, a demand, 
an insatiable craving for strong drink ; hence its habitual use is 
a step towards habitual drunkenness. 



CONTENTS OF HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH FOR AUGUST. 

(New-York, $1 a year.) 

Household Slaveries, 193 

Miasm, 204 

Night Air, 213 

Lager Beer, 216 



CONTENTS 



OP 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH, 

From January to June, 1860. 



PAGE. 

Ways to Drunkenness, 1 

Warming Houses, 4 

Fading in the Cars, 8 

Weak Eyes, 10 

Schooling Children, 11 

Too Late, 15 

Living on Excitement, 15 

Hotel Life, 16 

Green People, 18 

New- York Hotels, 19 

Hominy, 20 

Health Tracts, 21 

Health without Medicine, 22 

Sleeplessness, 25 

New-York Husbands, 29 

Reading Aloud, 32 

Its Social Advantages, 33 

Its Physical Benefits, 33 

Skating, 34 

Inconsiderations, 35 

Summer Sours, 36 

Poisonous Bites, 36 

Curing Colds, 37 

Nine Nevers, . . 38 

Causes of Disease, 38 

Burying Alive, 38 

Care of the Eyes, 39 

Travelling Hints, 40 

Music Healthful, 41 

Young Old People, 41 

Dyspepsia and Drunkenness, 42 

Uses of Ice, 43 

Winter Pules, 44 

Physiological Chair, 45 

Consumption Induced, 45 

Spinal Deformities, 45 

Antagonistics cf Consumption, 46 

How to Walk, 46 

Position in Sleep, 47 

A Manly Carriage, 47 

The Loss, 49 

School "Victim, 50 

Unitary Households, 53 

Physiology, 57 

Death-Bed Repentance, . . . ., 59 

Moral Excitement, 61 

Successful Men, 63 

Winter Shoes, 67 

Cure for Corns, 67 



New Shoes made Easy, 67 

Growing Beautiful, 68 

Weak Eyes, 68 

Measles and Consumption, 69 

Sabbath Physiology, 70 

Best Hair- Wash, 71 

Wearing Flannel, 72 

To Consumptives, : . . . . 72 

Three Essentials, 73 

Bread and Milk, 73 

National Dietetics, 76 

Thrift and Health, 79 

Averting Disease, 80 

Crazy People, 83 

Neglecting Colds, 85 

Mistaken Benevolence, 87 

Wise Charities, 88 

Nicholas of Russia, 89 

Worth Remembering, 90 

Care of the Feet, 91 

Regulating the Bowels, 92 

Sour Stomach, 93 

Eating, 94 

Sleeping, 95 

Public Schools, 97 

Cold Water Bathing, 101 

The Olden Time, 104 

Depopulation, . 106 

Poisonous Rooms, 107 

Dying Nations, 108 

Infants and Air, , 108 

Gymnasiums, 109 

Pure Milk, 112 

The Panacea, 113 

Throat and Lungs, 114 

Early Breakfast, 116 

Growing Old Happily 117 

Spring Diseases, 118 

Singular Medicine, 119 

Sleeping in Church, 120 

Balance of Population, 120 

Donation Parties, 121 

Whisky Doctors, 124 

Prostitution of Health, 128 

Clerical Marriages, 129 

What Killed Him, 132 

Physical Training, 134 

Public Schools, 139 

Hammer On, 141 



NOTICES, REVIEWS, ETC. 163 

§)$$& §tmm$, (Sits. 



Blackwood's Magazine, and British Reviews. L. Scott & Co., 54 Gold St., New- 
York, continue to publish the following" leading British Periodicals: 1. London 
Quarterly, Conservative; 2. Edinburgh Review, Whig; 3. North British Review, 
Free Church; 4. Westminster Review, Liberal; 5. Blackwood's Magazine, Tory; 
presenting the three great political parties of Great Britain, Whig, Tory, and 
Radical. But politics form only one feature of their character ; as organs of the 
most profound writers on science, literature, morality, and religion, they stand, as 
they ever have stood, unrivaled in the world of letters, indispensable to the 
scholar and the professional man, while to intelligent readers of every class, they 
furnish a more correct and satisfactory record of the current literature of the 
day, throughout the world, than can be possibly obtained from any other source, 
and at a cost extraordinarily small — of ten dollars a year for the five ; three dollars 
each, singly. Any subscriber sending us a check for ten dollars, payable to the 
order of Leonard Scott & Co., will receive for one year the five publications above 
named, and Hall's Joural of Health from January last. In cities and large towns, 
Blackwood and the Reviews are delivered free of postage ; elsewhere, Blackwood 
is twenty-four cents a year, each Review, fourteen cents. 

The British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review ; or, Quarterly Journal of 
Practical Medicine and Surgery. Republished by S. S. & W. Wood, 389 Broad- 
way, New-York, at $3 a year, in advance ; free of postage, is in its twenty-fifth 
volume, and is now, as it always has been, a standard and sterling medical quar- 
terly, which every educated physician ought to patronize. 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, $3 a year, is a monthly in its sixty- 
second volume ; is edited with industry and ability, and is widely patronized. 

The Christian Review. E. G. Robinson, editor. Published at $3 a year, by 
Sheldon & Co., 115 Nassau street, New- York. Is one of the ablest quarterlies in 
the Protestant Church, and a credit to the Baptist Church, of whose doctrine and 
polity it is the exponent ; its reviews of new publications are always written dis- 
criminately, conscientiously, and after a full examination ; a fine of conduct which, 
as is to be regretted, too many so-called reviews fail to follow, to the deception 
and injury of their patrons. » 

The same enterprising publishers isssue monthly, at $1 a year, the Mother's 
Journal, edited by that excellent woman, Mrs. Caroline 0. Hiscox. We wish it 
could be, as it well deserves, a family visitant to multitudes of homes. 

The Home Monthly. Buffalo, N. Y. ; $1.50 a year, edited by Mrs. Arey and 
Gildersleeve ; has the very suggestive motto: "There is a power behind tbe 
school-room and the church." It is judiciously edited, and its selections are 
always good. 

The Happy Home. Boston, monthly, $2 a year, C. Stone & Co. Is largely 
drawn upon by the press, a substantial evidence of its value. 

The Ladies' Home Magazine. By T. S. Arthur & Co., 323 Walnut street, Phi- 
ladelphia, Pa., $2 a year, with the editorial aid of Yirginia F. Townsend. Will 
profit and instruct and refine and elevate any family which secures it monthly. 

Godey's Lady's Book, $3 a year, Philadelphia. This is The Pictorial Monthly. 
The most elegant in the Union, and distances all competition. Now in its sixtieth 
volume. Its practical value has been increased of late by the contributions of Dr. 
J. S. Wilson, of Georgia, to the Health Department. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] OCTOBER, 1860. [No. 10. 



OUR BOYS. 

What shall we make of them ? What will become of them ? 
These are practical questions, and made every day with serious 
solicitude by intelligent and thoughtful parents. The rich and 
the poor have a like ambition to put their sons in good places ; 
they take more pains to select places which will honor their 
sons, than to make their sons capable of honoring places. The 
inquiry should be not for a place large enough for a son, but 
how to prepare a son to till a place with profit to those who 
may call him to it, and with credit to himself. 

An ancient and honored family-name in this city has been 
ineffaceably tarnished lately, by using family influence to get 
one of its members into a place of very high trust and responsi- 
bility ; an office for which he was so utterly incompetent, that 
its accounts have fallen into inextricable confusion, while he 
himself, charged with a degrading crime, has been led in chains 
to a felon's cell, in a state of bodily health which melts the 
hardest heart with pity, while his venerable mother is made to 
weep tears of blood over the sad misfortunes of the child of her 
heart. 

Inquire then what your child is fit for, rather than what will 
fit him; the Presidency of the Kepublic is fit for him, but he 
may not be fit for it ; it may receive him, but he may not be 
able to fill it with ability and honor. That office is fit for any 
man, the greatest and the best, but your son might not be fit 
for it : to occupy it and fill it, to discharge its duties with 
fidelity. You must seek a place adapted to your son's capa- 
bilities, for you may not adapt his capabilities to a place. Seek 
a place for him which he will honor by elevating it, and making 

>ro. x. — vol. vn. — 1860. 



218 hall's journal of health. 

it the more influential ; but do not seek to put him in a position 
which is to honor him. You are a rich man. It is neither safe 
nor respectable nor wise to bring any youth to manhood with- 
out a calling, without an occupation by which he could main* 
tain himself in case he should lose his fortune. In looking 
around for such a calling, instead of making the inquiry what 
you would like him to become, seek rather to know what occu- 
pation is suited to his capacities — what calling his abilities can 
fill. You might well like him to become an eminent lawyer, 
but has he that plodding and that tenacity of purpose, which 
will enable him to investigate and compare and deduce with 
unerring accuracy for forty years, before he can be fairly able 
to commence practice ? You might like for him to become a 
physician, but has he the self-denial to cut off the flesh from dead 
mens' bones, to live in the charnel-house for long years together ; 
and then have the patience to wait for practice for other long 
years ; and the self-sacrifice to go at every call, of prince or 
pauper, in the midnights of December, or the fierce suns of July, 
in rain or storm or sleet or snow? will he do this until forty 
years of age for a bare subsistence, before he can make patients 
come to him instead of he going to them ? 

Perhaps your heart burns to make him a minister, and in 
rapt imagination peering beyond the shores of time, you see 
him like some tall archangel leading along his vast battalions to 
the great white throne, saying, "Here am I, the instrumentality 
Thou hast made, of bringing these immortals here," and then 
loud peans come from serapic legions in glad reply, " Welcome, 
brother, Home !" No greater glory than this is there in earth 
or heaven for any created intelligence. But for such an office, 
it becomes a man that he have a range of learning beyond that 
of other men; has your son made the acquisition? He must have 
an abiding feeling that he is less than the least of all who love 
the Master, and must have the capacity to become all things to 
all men. Has he these humilities, and these versatilities ? He 
must be silent when he is scorned ; he must not return a stroke, 
nor answer to a taunt ; when curses come he must bless ; when 
sinned against he must forgive ; has he the moral courage to 
meet these debasements, and yet above them all to stand and feel 
that he is second to no living man ; .that he is an ambassador 
from the court of the King of kings ? Has he the breadth of 



MANUAL LABOR SCHOOLS. 219 

intellect to compass all learnings ? the humility of heart to feel 
abidingly before his Maker that he is but a worm, and yet the 
grandeur of soul in the light of the Lamb to feel, "I heir the 
universe by right of birth !" 

Instead then of determining what you would like your son to 
be, seek to ascertain what he is capable of being ; what he is 
certainly competent for. In short, seek not for your child the 
post he can get, but the post he can fill; for it is better to be an 
honor to the hod than a disgrace to the crown — better be an 
accomplished mechanic than a contemptible king ! 



MANUAL LABOR SCHOOLS. 

These were the rage a quarter of a century ago, but one by 
one they gradually died out ; and at this time there is perhaps 
not a single one in existence. It is very certain, however, that 
they may be successfully conducted to the end of placing a 
young man on the stage of life in health of body, thoroughly 
educated, and with a mind independent and self-reliant ; quali- 
ties, by the way, which are inseparable from any high character. 
Mr. Eose, of New- York, lately bequeathed three hundred thou- 
sand dollars for the purchase of a farm on which to place desti- 
tute children, on the condition that an equal amount should be 
contributed by other parties. The Hon. Charles Cook, of 
Havannah, Schuyler Co., New- York, offers this contribution, 
provided the farm is located at that place where there is a 
" People's College" established, to which, by the munificence 
of this last-named gentleman, a farm is already attached, and 
shops are to be erected in which the students can work a few 
hours every day, the profits of their labor being placed to 
their credit. 

The best and truest benevolence is to put a man in the way 
of helping himself; this gives him self-reliance: relieves him of 
the degradation of dependence, and makes him at once feel that 
he is a man — the highest aid and the best guarantee that he will 
act like a man. The very moment a youth becomes the recipi- 
ent of a gratuity, the very first time the fact breaks in upon him 
that he has asked and received from one upon whom he has no 



220 

claims, that lie is a beggar, the 'prestige of manliness is gone, and 
he is ruined for life, as for all great purposes. 

It is earnestly hoped that the "People's College," at 
Havannah, will be a success, and that it will be the honored 
pioneer of a similar establishment in every State in the Confede- 
racy. Some of the principles by which such institutions should 
be conducted, are as follows : They should be arranged so that 
a proficiency in scholarship, agriculture, and the more remuner- 
ative mechanical arts should be attainable, so that any young 
man may secure a collegiate education or become a proficient in 
farming or in some handicraft by which he may sustain himself 
when he goes out into the world to hew his way to fame or for- 
tune. 

A liberal price should be paid for the time spent in work, or 
for the job done. Such a price only as the article would com- 
mand elsewhere. It is a great injury done to the receiver to 
pay him more for a thing than it is worth ; it does an injury to 
society ; there should be a just quid pro quo, no more, no less. 

The morning should be devoted to study, the afternoon to 
labor, the night to sleep, to all that the body will receive. The 
brain will always work best in the morning ; it is then most 
vigorous ; works with greater ease and to better purpose ; then 
bodily labor will be a recreation, a relief, a renovation. If the 
first part of the day is devoted to labor, the mind always will 
take up study with diminished alacrity. 

The work and the study should be performed mainly in the 
same clothing ; changing the garments loses time, and imposes 
a daily liability to taking cold, and endangers the health. 

All should be required to be ready for study at sunrise 
throughout the year ; to take breakfast at seven, dinner at one, 
and to retire uniformly at nine, winter and summer. The 
nights of winter should be devoted to lectures and questionings 
on physiology and hygiene, with other subjects which do not 
involve the special employment of the eyesight by artificial 
light. We have known Southern slaves to purchase themselves 
in a few years, by laboring at odd hours and Saturday after- 
noons, on a piece of land or in some mechanical calling at which 
they were adepts ; and certainly young men could, with the 
work of half of each day in the year, pay all their expenses and 
leave the institution, owing no man any thing, and have several 



SMALL POX. 221 

hundred dollars to start with — money of their own honest earn- 
ings — and be assured that, with such a start in life, the chances 
that such a young man would be heard of, sooner or later, in a 
sense honorable to himself and useful to society, is largely 
greater than if he had been left a fortune. 



SMALL POX. 

From a very wide field of observations diligently made and 
carefully collated, European statisticians have arrived at the fol- 
lowing conclusions : 

Of one hundred persons vaccinated, and who subsequently 
take the small pox, six die ; while of one hundred un vaccinated, 
who take the disease, six times that many die, or thirty-six out 
of every hundred ; in other words, the vaccinated man, if he 
does take the small pox, has six chances of getting well, while 
the unvaccinated has only one. 

Infantile vaccination has of late years become less efficient 
than formerly, not that there is less protecting power in vaccin- 
ation, but because it is done too negligently, or because there 
has been remissness in procuring good vaccine matter from 
healthy sources ; and it may be that the vaccine matter has de- 
teriorated since its introduction by the immortal Jenner, three 
quarters of a century ago ; therefore, one of two courses should 
be followed, either have the child re-vaccinated at the age of 
ten years by a careful physician, who would take the utmost 
pains to obtain good matter, or have a cow innoculated with 
the matter of small pox from a man ; then, that which the cow 
produces will be fresh, pure, and powerful ; this would give a 
new and unadulterated article, sufficient for a whole country for 
half a century to come. 

The Prussian, more than any government in existence, prac- 
tices vaccination, and every soldier is re-vaccinated on entering 
the army, which numbers several scores of thousands, the re- 
sult being, that during 1859, there were only two deaths from 
small pox. Out of one hundred persons vaccinated in infancy, 
seventy "take" when re- vaccinated on entering the Prussian 
army. Varioloid is when small pox is taken after vaccination 



222 hall's jouknal of health. 



NEB VO USNESS, 



It is certainly satisfactory to know that there are persons in 
different parts of the country who have sent for the various 
publications of the Editor, and who make it a work of love to 
their kind to distribute them among their neighbors, and give 
them to strangers, as a means of leading them to health. A 
wealthy Carolina planter, who claims to have "one of the best 
wives in the world," writes : "I loaned ' Consumption' to a 
traveller who was threatened with it; and 'Health and Disease' 
to a minister, and the six bound volumes of the Jouknal of 
Health have gone on errands of doing good." He applied to 
us for medical advice some time ago. Pie was full of the fidgets ; 
was a bundle of nerves, every one of which had some complaint 
to make every now and then ; at another time they would all 
squall out together, then he would literally faint away ; at other 
times he felt an insupportable " goneness" at the stomach, and 
often wished it had " gone," for there was such an incessant 
" gnawing" especially before dinner, that he felt as if he must 
eat something or die. We sent him some medicine and advised 
him to die, or at least to make the experiment to see whether it 
would kill him or not, rather than be such a slave to his " belly." 
At an interval of some months he sends us — not our fee, that 
we always take before we give advice, for then we know that 
we are paid, and work cheerfully and hopefully. "We medicate 
by the month, not by the job, because we want to make our 
patients spry and improve their time, and not hang on our 
hands indefinitely and run up long bills against themselves. 
If they don't begin to get decidedly better within a month, it is 
a " sign" that they would do well to go elsewhere. As we were 
saying, our quondam patient writes that he has not had as good 
health in seven years, and that he attributes it entirely to our 
advice. Some body began to sniff a mice just then ; " entirely 
to your advice !" He took every thing— but our pills. We 
thought of publishing the letter until we came to that part of it 
inquiring, "Will they keep good until next summer?" This 
is "July 30, '60," and the pills were sent last April! If he 
had only left out that part of it, what a good " certificate" we 
would have had ! 



There are, however, several valuable lessons to be drawn by 
our readers from this narration. First : Serious ailments may 
be cured without physic. Second : Yielding to the gnawings 
of the stomach before meal- times is generally a means of fixing 
the dyspepsia. Third : A judicious system of dieting, that is, 
eating plain, nourishing food at regular times and in moderate 
amounts, is sometimes happily efficacious in removing that 
"nervousness," or "nervous irritability," which not only makes 
the life of the dyspeptic or the bilious wretched, but makes the 
members of their families more or less so. The subject certainly 
merits the consideration of nervous persons. 

Nervousness and dyspepsia may be and are generally cured 
without starvation or medicine ; in fact, they are often aggra- 
vated thereby. Dieting, starving, is good in its place, but it 
has been unwisely practiced in many cases, and life has paid the 
forfeit. Exercise suitably conducted is an important means of 
invigoration ; but taken injudiciously, it kills rather than cures. 
But how to order the exercise and how to appoint the food in 
quantity, quality, and frequency, when to give medicine and 
when to withhold it, to the surest benefit and highest safety of 
the suffering, requires the learning, the experience, the observ- 
ation, and the comparison of a lifetime. Yet millions daily 
give and take medical advice from one single experience or 
observation, and multitudes daily die in consequence. 



LIP E'S MAXIMS. 

Near by the little cottage on the banks of the Hudson, 
among the dozen dead from the burning of the " Henry Clay," 
there was one form which attracted attention above all others ; 
it was that of a tall, old man, who had already lived beyond his 
three-score and ten ; there was in his features a dignity in death, 
which showed without information, that he had been a man of 
mark in his day. On opening his pocket-book there was written 
the honored name of 

Stephen Allen, 
and among the papers, there was found a printed scrap, dingy 
and soiled, almost worn out with the frequent foldings and un- 



224 hall's journal of health. 

foldings, showing very clearly that it had been perused often 
and long for counsel and guidance ; its principles and its pre- 
cepts embody the secret of a long life ; of a healthful, useful, and 
honorable old age. We lived near by at the time, and the 
whole scene has left a life-long impression. The paper was en- 
titled : 

THE MAXIMS OF LIFE; 

OK, HOW TO BE HAPPY. 

Keep good company or none. 

Never be idle. 

If your hands can not be usefully employed, attend to the 
cultivation of your mind. 

Live up to your engagements. 

Keep your own secrets, if you have any. 

When you speak to a person, look him in the face. 

Good character is above all things else. 

Your character can not be essentially injured except by your 
own acts. 

If any one speaks evil of you, let your life be such that none 
will believe him. 

Drink no kind of intoxicating liquors. 

Ever live (misfortunes excepted) within your income. 

When you retire to bed, think over what you have been 
doing during the day. 

Make no haste to be rich, if you would prosper. 

Small and steady gains give competency, with tranquillity of 
mind. 

Never play at any game of chance. 

Avoid temptation, through fear you may not withstand it. 

Earn money before you spend it. 

Never run into debt, unless you see a way to get out again. 

Never borrow, if you can possibly avoid it. 

Never speak evil of any one. 

Be just before you are generous. 

Keep yourself innocent, if you would be happy. 

Save when you are young, to spend when you are old. 



SNAPPING UP. 225 



SNAPPING UP. 

Mad-dogs and turtles are not the only snapping animals in 
the world. It is to be feared that most families are afflicted 
with one or more "snappers," who are wont to exercise their 
spitfire propensities especially at the table or around the family 
fireside. Addressing herself to her mother, Mary, with her 
eyes full of twinkle and fun, says : " I took a walk at ten o'clock 
this morning, and — " here John broke in. Now John was just 
at that age when a youth knows every thing under the sun, and 
more too ; he never makes a mistake, is always positive that 
every thing he does, says or thinks, is just exactly so, and could 
not possibly be any other way. " Why, sister ! how could you 
say it was ten o'clock? it was quarter-past ten at least I" One 
sample is enough. Every one of observation can, of his own 
knowledge, multiply cases indefinitely. 

This unseemly habit is sometimes observed in families whose 
position and opportunities of association would lead to the sup- 
position that every thing vulgar and uncourteous would be in- 
stinctively shunned. The person criticised, not having sense 
enough to pass over the boorishness, begins a defense : and be- 
fore one is aware of it, the whole table or circle is silenced, and 
find themselves in the awkward position of listeners to a series 
of angry contradictions about a matter of no possible conse- 
quence to any one of the whole company in one sense, but of 
importance in another, as there is a certain disagreeableness 
about it which all feel more or less. What if a thing happened 
a minute or a month later or sooner ? it is the general statement 
to which attention is directed. Contradictions and criticisms 
and corrections in general company are clownish ; they are clear 
proof that, in almost every case, the person who assumes such 
an ungracious office is a boor of the first water, and is essential- 
ly deficient in that refinement and delicacy, which are insep- 
arable from a cultivated mind and a taste for all that is beauti- 
ful, elegant and refined. A whole evening's enjoyment has 
been frequently marred, and all the company have gone home 
with a kind of blight upon the sensibilities, in consequence of a 
jar caused by the impertinent contradiction or correction of some 
unimportant fact in a narration. And as human health is pro- 



226 hall's journal of health. 

moted by a series of agreeable sensations, whatever interrupts 
that series in a single instance or for a single moment, is a legiti- 
mate object of demolition on the part of a Journal of 
Health. 



WARMING HOUSES. 



In cheerful comfort there is nothing equal to a blazing wood- 
fire, on a commodious hearth. The very thought of it carries 
us backwards to days of unbridled gladness and joyous youth 
and genial sunshine. For purity of atmosphere and consequent 
healthfulness, there can be no superior to the old-fashioned fire- 
place, " and-irons," back-logs and fore-sticks, with the broad bed 
of flaming red coals ! 

Next to the wood fire-place, is the "Low-down grate," of re- 
cent introduction, suitable for burning every kind of fuel ; wood, 
soft coal, anthracite, red ash, bituminous, Liverpool, Cannel, any 
thing. It is in reality a " fire-place ;" the fuel is placed flat on 
the hearth, on a level with the floor, the jambs are broad and 
flaring, there is but little use for a poker or " blower," and hence 
no dust. The ashes fall through a grating into a receptacle 
which may be emptied daily, or are conveyed through an iron 
pipe into a close brick chamber in the cellar, to be removed 
once a year. By this contrivance the feet are easily warmed, 
and are kept so ; there is 4 no danger of the coals falling on the 
floor or carpet, and the fire is made to burn more or less fiercely 
as easily as in an air-tight stove. This is written after a winter's 
trial. At an expense of less than three tons of coal, or two 
hundred and forty bushels, the thermometer on the wall oppo- 
site to the fire-place, in a room two hundred and fifty feet square 
and twelve high, was kept at sixty-five degrees when the mer- 
cury was in the neighborhood of zero without, the heat being 
derived from a broad bed of glowing coals over two feet long. 
These coals being on a level with the floor, keep the feet 
delightfully warm. The air for combustion is obtained from 
the cellar or the street ; hence the atmosphere of the room is 
simply pure air warmed, and has the genial heat of a wood- 
fire ; hence, also, there is none of the feeling of heaviness, 



WARMING HOUSES. 227 

sultriness, and oppression which is instantly experienced on 
entering a furnace or stove-heated apartment. We certainly 
feel that the perfection of house-warming in our country at 
present is to have a low-down grate in each sitting apartment, 
while the extra heat is economized, to be thrown into cham- 
bers, sufficient to take off the chilliness or dampness when 
retiring or rising in the coldest weather. If' families are so 
constituted that there must be additional heat, at least in cases 
of sickness, or company, or extra severe weather, when it may 
be desirable to modify the atmosphere of the halls between the 
temperature of out-doors and that of the sitting-rooms, Bartlett's 
Portable Furnace answers the purpose most admirably, which, 
by being placed in the lower hall, and being so contrived that 
the warm air given out can not come in contact with red-hot 
iron, supplies an atmosphere for breathing which is pure and 
exhilarating. Such was our practice last winter, the fire being 
kindled in the portable furnace in the lower hall only for 
seven days during the whole season, and these were, not at 
times when the weather was the coldest, because then the air 
was purest, driest, and most bracing, but for the days coming 
after the coldest ones, when there was an ugly damp chilliness 
in the air, which, by abstracting the heat rapidly from the 
body, produced a stronger impression of coldness than when 
the weather was twenty degrees colder, but still and dry, for it 
is not in the very coldest weather, when zero is hugged by the 
mercury, that " colds" are so much taken, but when the air is 
raw from being saturated with dampness. It is in thawy 
weather that furnaces should be heated up, if ever. By this 
arrangement there was scarcely a cold in the family, varying 
in age from five to seventy -five, during the whole winter. 

Next to a wood-fire or a low-down grate for coal, preference 
should be given to the method of warming houses by the "Ea- 
diator." This is the latest novelty, and is the best ; its expen- 
siveness in the first construction is perhaps the only drawback 
worth consideration. The fire is built in the cellar, and it is so 
contrived that the heat is given out in any hall or room by 
means of large surfaces, which never can become red-hot nor 
any thing like it, nor, indeed, is it ever necessary, even in the 
very coldest weather. We know at present of no pattern of 
furnaces but may be heated to redness by the negligence of ser 



228 hall's journal of health. 

vants, and which fail to keep a large house comfortably warm 
in very cold weather, even if they are red-hot, and this is the 
fatal objection to furnace heat ; the surface heated is so small, 
that where there is great cold, red heat is a necessity, in order 
to give sufficient warmth; but in case of the "Kadiator," the 
surface is so large, that it gives out an immense amount of heat 
to an apartment when it is itself moderately heated. It costs 
about a thousand dollars to introduce the " Eadiator" into a 
common-sized dwelling, and it must consume an amount of 
coal equal to the common furnace, but it gives a genial and 
pure warmth — no dust, no explosions, no leakages. It may be 
" comfortable" to have a whole house heated ; but in whatever 
way it is done in this country, except in the ways we have 
recommended, it is done to the injury of house, furniture, and 
health of the families exposed to the pernicious influences of 
foul gases, oppressive fumes, and an innutritious atmosphere. 
Incomparably better would it be to use the low-down grate 
altogether, with the portable furnace for the hall, only to be 
fired in cold, damp, raw weather, or when the thermometer is 
about zero for several days together. The several sizes of the 
low-down grate are furnished and slipped into the ordinary fire- 
place at a cost of from thirty to fifty dollars each. 



CHILDREN'S EATING. 



Some parents compel their children to eat against their will, 
as when they come to the breakfast table without an appetite, 
or have lost it in prospect of a visit, or ride, or of going abroad, 
or for the sake of " eating their plates clean," in discourage- 
ment of wasteful habits. Certainly, a child ought to have the 
privilege of a pig, that of eating only when it is hungry. 
Unless we are thirsty, we can not drink the purest spring water 
without a feeling of aversion ; and as for eating when there is 
no appetite, it is revolting ; as any one may prove to himself 
by attempting to take a second meal in twenty minutes after 
having eaten a regular dinner. The complicated machinery of 
man, like that of the steam-engine which is in incessant motion, 



children's eating. 229 

is wearing away every second of his existence. The engine 
wears out eventually, and a new one has to be constructed ; but 
the machinery of the human body was made by an omnipotent 
Architect ; made to last for ages ; made to make its own repairs, 
to supply its ovm wastes, so that while it is wearing itself out, 
it is at the same time regenerating and renewing itself. "When 
the human system is not interfered with, its supply is always 
equal to its waste : regulated by an unerring instinct — that 
instinct is called " appetite" — which is greater or less, accord- 
ing to the previous waste ; that waste is always in proportion 
to the exercise which has been taken, as the wear of any 
machinery is in proportion to its running. Every man knows 
for himself, that if he walks ten miles he becomes hungry ; if 
fifteen, he is more so. But what makes hunger, and what 
regulates it to more or less ? The wastes of the system set in 
motion certain processes by which a fluid is prepared, called 
the gastric juice, and it is so arranged by Divinity, that a cer- 
tain amount of waste occasions a certain amount of gastric juice ; 
their proportion is exact and uniform ; for nature makes no 
mistakes, does nothing in vain ; she makes no more gastric 
juice than will digest food enough to make up for the waste 
and want of the body. The appetite, the hunger is excited by 
the presence of the gastric juice about the stomach ; but if there 
is no gastric juice there can be no hunger, no appetite, and to 
compel a child to swallow food into the stomach when there is 
no gastric juice there to receive it, is an absurdity and a cruelty, 
because, there being no gastric juice there to receive and take 
care of it, it is rejected by vomiting, or remains there for hours 
like a "load," or "weight," or "ball," or "heaviness," or else 
to ferment, causing "oppression," "wind," " acidity," or general 
discomfort, sometimes for half a night ! Similar results take 
place in old and young, when more food has been taken than 
there is gastric juice to manage properly ; hence, the more than 
folly of "forcing" food, of eating to " make it even," or taking 
a single swallow beyond the actual calling of the appetite, 
expressed in the familiar term, " over-eating," of which too 
many are conscious, almost every day of their existence. It 
ought to bring the blush of shame to every cheek, the twinge 
of penitence to every conscience, because it is a violence offered 
to the body, a shock imparted to the system, which never fails 



230 hall's jouknal of health. 

of more or less derangement, and not unfrequently arrests the 
machine^ of life, to run no more forever ! as in an attack of 
cramp -colic, or deadly diarrhea, (cholera,) at midnight, as a 
consequence of a late over-hearty meal, or the still more terrible 
apoplexy, which hurries from life to the judgment without the 
opportunity of a moment's consciousness, or of the final fare- 
well to the loved ones left behind. 



MILK. 

It was a sight which brought with it pleasant memories when 
standing at the Spring Garden entrance of St. James's Park, 
London, within a few rods of the palace of her gracious Ma- 
jesty Victoria the First — long live the same ! — we have contem- 
plated a multitude of nurses with children of every age, size, 
and sex, gathered around a magnificent cow, the cup of each 
child sent up in its turn to catch the luscious fluid as it flowed 
all fresh and sweet and pure and rich from its natural fountain, 
to be transferred in a trice to expectant lips, which would fairly 
smack with delight and in another instant ask for " more ! " 
This is the method which cousin John Bull, sturdy and prac- 
tical as he is, adopts to secure to his little calves the real, 
original, identical juice of the — cow. "We do not by any means 
pretend to emulate him in all things, although in some we do 
excell ; in brag and fight, for example ! But New- Yorkers can 
do better. On a great emergency, warm milk is passable, say 
when }"ou have not had any thing to eat or drink for a week; 
but to have it from a sparkling, clear goblet, creamy, pure, and 
cool as the water which drops from the 

u Moss-covered bucket that hangs in the well," 

is certainly worth going a little out of the way for. Such a 
pleasure we will guarantee any dear lover of milk, who will 
choose to call at 246 Tenth street, a very few doors east of 
Broadway, where it is delivered from real farm-house cows, 
having been drawn a few hours before, and brought in by the 
Erie cars, in double-quick time. We make a proposition to the 



REARING CHILDREN. 231 

sweetest " seventeen" within a hundred miles of Gotham, to get 
np a fairy little office on Broadway, and vend this milk in 
penny glasses for children, and half-dimes for older people. 
What a delicious draught it would be for invalids and feeble 
persons, for children going to or returning from school, and 
how infinitely preferable to soda-water and root-beer, to gin 
sling, brandy toddy, sangaree or lager. Is there no enterprising 
Barnum to work up this suggestion into practical operation, to 
bless all Gothamite juvenility, and give health and nutriment 
and vigor to the sad sons and daughters of sickness and suffer- 
ing ? Why might it not — why should it not succeed ? 



REARING CHILDREN. 

1. Children should not go to school until six years old. 

2. Should not learn at home during that time more than the 
alphabet, religious teachings excepted. 

3. Should be fed with plain substantial food, at regular inter- 
vals of not less than four hours. 

4. Should not be allowed to eat any thing within two hours 
of bed-time. 

5. Should have nothing for supper but a single cup of warm 
drink, such as very weak tea of some kind, or cambric tea or 
warm milk and water, with one slice of cold bread and butter — 
nothing else. 

6. Should sleep in separate beds, on hair-mattresses, without 
caps, feet first well warmed by the fire or rubbed with the hands 
until perfectly dry ; extra covering on the lower limbs, but little 
on the body. 

7. Should be compelled to be out of doors for the greater 
part of daylight, from after breakfast until half an hour before 
sun-down, unless in damp, raw weather, when they should not 
be allowed to go outside the door. 

8. Never limit a healthy child as to sleeping or eating, ex- 
cept at supper ; but compel regularity as to both ; it is of great 
importance. 

9. Never compel a child to sit still, nor interfere with its en- 



232 hall's journal of health, 

joyinent, as long as it is not actually injurious to person or pro- 
perty, or against good morals. 

10. Never threaten a child : it is cruel, unjust and dangerous. 
What you have to do, do it, and be done with it. 

11. Never speak harshly or angrily, but mildly, kindly, and, 
when really needed, firmly — no more. 

12. By all means arrange it so that the last words between 
you and your children at bed-time, especially the younger ones, 
shall be words of unmixed lovingness and affection. 



O V E E-E ATING 



The great President Edwards acknowledged that almost 
every day of his life he had a battle and a defeat ; the determin- 
ation before going to his dinner that he would not eat beyond 
measure, and the confession after, that he had exceeded the 
limits of temperance and moderation. A venerated name, 
Amos Lawrence, was a greater coward, but a wiser man ; for 
the latter years of his life he did not dare to go to the table, 
but had sent to his private room only as much as was proper 
for him. Many a man might add a score of years to his life- 
time by rigidly pursuing such a practice while at home. 

Few persons, perhaps, "over-eat" deliberately; it is generally 
done in haste, in inattention, miscalculation or inadvertence ; 
but the consequences are the same, that is, an unmixed harm 
to the whole organization ; the injury manifests itself in a great 
number of ways, according however to various laws, these 
effects lasting from one to a dozen hours, in every variety of 
intensity, from simple discomfort to actual torture. At first, 
there is general irritability or fretfulness for a short time after 
meals, eventually extending from one meal to another, until 
the whole existence is a growl or a groan, according to the ac- 
tive or passive nature of the culprit victim, who has not only 
blotted out his own life for all humane or noble purposes, but 
casts a blur and a blight over the existence of all those whose 
unhappy lot it has been to be placed under the same roof and 
to be seated at the same table. There are two ways of prevent- 
ing and of curing these deplorable conditions, the manly and the 



APPLES. 238 

mean ; the manly, by going to the table twice a day, and nobly 
curbing the beastly appetite, saying: "I will eat this and so 
much, and no more by a single atom!" The mean or ignoble, 
by having "this and so much, and not an atom more" sent to 
a private table ; the " this and so much," the quality and quan- 
tity, having been determined by the observed instincts and 
needs of the system ; each man being a rule for himself, under 
the guidance of a wise physician, or of an unerring and compe- 
tent judgment of -his own. The failure of the cure of dyspep- 
sia in countless instances has arisen from two causes. First, 
relying too much on medicine. Second, making another the 
rule for himself; when no two persons ever were alike in all 
conditions, therefore the same result could never take place in 
any two cases. In the successful treatment of dyspeptic disease, 
each man must be a rule to himself, adapting every thing to his 
individual needs, tastes, instincts, inclinations, temperament, 
station and habit of life. These suggestions are made to all 
who have force of character ; to such their adoption in appro- 
priate cases would be productive of the most happy results. 



APPLES. 

There is scarcely an article of vegetable food more widely 
useful and more universally loved than the apple. "Why every 
farmer in the nation has not an apple-orchard where the trees 
will grow at all, is one of the mysteries. Let every family lay 
in from two to ten or more barrels, and it will be to them the 
most economical investment in the whole range of culinaries. 
A raw mellow apple is digested in an hour and a half; while 
boiled cabbage requires five hours. The most healthful desert 
which can be placed on the table, is a baked apple. If taken 
freely at breakfast with coarse bread and butter, without meat 
or flesh of any kind, it has an admirable effect on the- general 
system, often removing constipation, correcting acidities, and 
cooling off febrile conditions, more effectually than the most 
approved medicines. If families could be induced to substitute 
the apple, sound, ripe, and luscious, for the pies, cakes, candies, 
and other sweetmeats with which their children are too often 
indiscreetly stuffed, there would be a diminution in the sum 
total of doctors' bills in a single year, sufficient to lay in a stock 
of this delicious fruit for a whole season's use. 



234 hall's journal of health. 



ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. 

This agency for the removal of various ailments is of doubt- 
ful value ; if it had any uniform efficiency, it would long before 
now have become an accredited means for the cure of disease 
among educated physicians ; it has not become so, chiefly be- 
cause of its uncertain and transient effects, the costliness of its 
application, and the need of its prolonged employment. It 
ought to be a sufficient ground for its being regarded with 
disfavor, that it is almost entirely practiced by ignorant 
persons, foreigners, and peripatetics ; that its application has 
been succeeded sometimes by an abatement or removal, more 
or less permanent, of the symptoms, is not disputed, but these 
good results have not followed with sufficient frequency to 
enable unprejudiced and intelligent minds to feel satisfied that 
electro-magnetism was the cause of the cure, while the immense 
multitude of perfect failures, to say nothing of disastrous suc- 
ceedences, have operated to produce the general impression on 
the minds of educated physicians of various "schools," that up 
to this time, electro-magnetism, as applied to the removal of 
disease, is among the quackeries of the age. 



WEARING GARTERS. 

Persons who have nothing but a skinny spindle below the 
knee, can wear their garters any where, but those who have a 
real leg, swelling, full, and firm, should wear the garter below 
the knee, for there it can be kept in position without being so 
tightened as to interfere with the circulation of the blood, upon 
which depends the calfy rotundity which adorns the lower — 
humanity. Several evil results follow a tight-drawn garter 
above the knee. 1. The leg dwindles in proportion as the blood 
is detained from it. 2. Free and graceful locomotion is inter- 
fered with. 3. Yaricose veins form one of the most ugly, un- 
sightly, and intractable of diseases — painful, deforming, and of 
lifetime duration. 



NOTICES, ACCUMULATED ODDS AND ENDS, ETC. 285 



§jtatfe# t ^MMfaUA ®M# mA (Bu&# f tit. 



One of the very best family religious newspapers in the United States, abounding 
in sterling instructive practical matter, is the Presbyterian Expositor of Chicago, 
N. L. Rice, D.D., editor; the "Upper House" must have a hand in it. 

The World, a daily paper in New- York City, larger than either the Herald, 
Tribune, or Times, attained, in less than a month a bona-Jide circulation of over 
thirty thousand copies daily. Its price is one half that of either of the papers 
named, being one cent each, or three dollars a year ; the weekly edition is two 
dollars. It is edited by Spaulding, formerly of the Courier and Enquirer, and 
Cummings, who made the Philadelphia Bulletin what it is. It is conducted on 
Christian principles, being the steady and consistent friend of religion, of the Bible 
and of the Sabbath-day, never admitting any thing into its columns which parents 
may not read to their children, or which a gentleman might not read to a lady. Its 
commercial and telegraphic reports are as extensive as those of any paper in the 
city. It aims to give such items of news as are known to be true ; while its special 
foreign correspondents write from the places designated, and communicate actual 
facts rather than theories and surmises. Multitudes regarded a "religious daily," 
as it was rather tauntingly called, the merest chimera ; but Christian people and 
reflecting business men and sterling citizens have given it a welcome such as no 
other daily paper, the world over, ever had before ; already its editorials are largely 
quoted. It is independent in all things, neutral in nothing ; and conducted thus 
far on the basis of a liberal but decided religious sentiment. We have said thus 
much without having any personal acquaintance with the editors ; because a paper 
with a uniformly healthful tone promotes healthful morals in the families which it 
visits; and good morals are the safeguards against vice, intemperance, disease, 
crime, and premature death. 

One of the penalties of greatness is, that its sentiments are persistently misunder- 
stood or wilfully misrepresented. The editor of the Journal of Health ! ! has the 
reputation of being a very plain-spoken individual, and yet he is represented from 
Dan to Beersheba as being opposed to early rising. Whatever his theories may 
be, his practice is to be ready to read, write, prescribe, or take a fee as soon in the 
morning, winter or summer, as a man can use his eyes conveniently without " specs," 
for he is not old enough to need them yet. The renowned Andrew Jackson Davis, 
editor of the Herald of Progress, says: "Dr. Hall's philosophy of late to bed and 
late to rise, will meet the wishes of the night-loving population of gas-lit cities, and 
of those who indulge in midnight debaucheries, voluptuous indulgencies, late novel- 
reading, and intemperance. But," says the "seer," in the same article, "we do 
enthusiastically urge the practice of early to bed and early to rise, with a substantial 
meal to start upon the duties of the day, as the most rational and harmonizing life 
for intelligent human beings to live." It would have been almost impossible for 
him to have expressed our own views more precisely, unless our identical words 
had been employed, (see page 116, Vol. 1, 1860 :) " Breakfast should be eaten in the 
morning before leaving the house for exercise or labor. 1 ' That seems pretty plain ! 



236 hall's journal of health. 

Again, in our article on sleeping, (see Health Tract, No. 25 :) " Go to bed at a regular 
early hour, not later than ten, and get up as soon as you wake of yourself in the 
morning." Now, if any body can frame a plainer or more explicit expression of 
sentiment about early rising, we will give such a person credit for being a good old 
Anglo-Saxon scholar. Now, friend Davis, we are going to give you a dig under the 
fifth rib, and you won't forget it even beyond the boundary-line of the grave. Do 
you write as carelessly about the Bible and the received Christian sentiment of the 
age as you have done of us and our Journal ? Have you formed your religious 
opinions on such a loose reading of the Scriptures as of our article ? The character, 
the quality of a man's mind " runs" the same, on whatever subject it expends itself, 
and it is essentially the same in all the phases of life. The Journal was plain ; you 
read it, or you did not read it ; then represented it as advocating precisely what it 
did not advocate, and belabored the Editor accordingly. You read the Bible, or you 
did not read it, and then, in your issue of July 14, you commend a book, and offer it 
for sale as suitable "for the thousands who have been misled by mistaken believers 
in Bible infallibility." Perhaps the same looseness of investigation has led you to 
make a standing butt of the clergy as a class, using towards them epithets of the 
most degrading character, and then turn round and expend all your sympathies in 
behalf of the New-Jersey wife-murderer, who poisoned his victim while caressing 
her on his knee. The same kind of an examination of the proprieties of things 
leads you, in an article on Sunday Morality, July 14, to quote commendingly the 
sentiments of a Sunday paper, which denies the right of any government to make 
the Sabbath different from any other day as regards restrictions from labor or 
enjoyment. If you strive to destroy the Bible, which advocates every where purity 
and justice ; if you strive to destroy the character of the clergy, who, as a class, 
are the most learned, the most blameless, and the most useful men in the world, 
and plead for the life of the deliberate murderer of his own young, confiding wife ; 
if you strive to secure for the ignorant, the idle, the degraded, and the drunken 
such an observance of the Sabbath-day as may suit them, contrary as it is to the 
law of the land, while it interferes with the enjoyment of that peace and quiet which 
[s preferred by the educated, the refined, the industrious, and the temperate, it may 
reasonably be supposed that you have arrived at these ends by looking at the Bible, 
at the clergy, at the justness of the laws of the land, and the Sabbath-day, as you did 
at our article on Early Rising, without any careful examination, and an utter reck- 
lessness of the results of making untruthful statements. These remarks are pertinent 
to this publication ; for in proportion as communities disregard Bible teachings, and 
desecrate the Sabbath-day, in the same ratio do they become degraded, vicious, 
beastly, running into all kinds of animal indulgences, until the body becomes 
literally rotten in its rioting, perishing before its prime, leaving its generations 
withered and diseased at the root and blasted in the bud. That you may re-read 
the Bible, and give it the candid examination of an ingenuous, unprejudiced, and 
philosophical mind, is our earnest desire. 

One of the leading publishing houses of this city, the Mason Brothers, Nos. 5 and 
1 Mercer street, have issued the " Avoidable Causes of Disease," by John Ellis, 
M.D., 400 pp. 12mo. It is highly commended by the editors of several religious 
newspapers. We are persuaded that they never could have read the book, any 
more than the excellent publishers ; or any more than we could have read one of 
the advertisements in the September Journal of Health, which contains the biggest 
lie ever put in print. The advertiser declares that his " dietetic saleratus is as 
harmless to the stomach as flour itself." Now, we will be charitable all round, and 



etc. 237 

suppose that the advertiser employed some body of more impudence than wisdom 
to write his advertisements, as Brandreth and the celebrated Medicated Inhalation 
man used to do. Dr. Ellis teaches that costive persons generally live to grow old. 
He quotes freely from the publications of Fowler & Wells, and uses Catherine 
Beecher and Horace Greeley with liberal scissors. In a preface of seventeen pages, 
he often speaks of our " Heavenly Father," of " love to man," " Christian," " Divine 
command," etc., concluding the volume by suggesting that church-members had a 
great deal better give their money to the " heathen at home" than to those ten 
thousand miles away. Such a novel idea! So generous to dictate how people 
should spend their own money! Such admirable taste, so democratic, to advise 
the religious and the rich that they had better help the poor around them more, 
and dress less expensively, live in plainer houses, and worship in plainer churches. 
All this, and a good deal more of the same sort, in a book purporting to treat of 
the " avoidable causes of disease !" It really seems to us that it is becoming more 
and more impossible to take up a book or a newspaper or go to a lecture without 
being nauseated or outraged, according to the taste of the hearer, with insufferably 
stale nonsense in ridicule of the rich and the religious. What are we coming to ? 

Laws of Life. — Sometimes assertions are made, and earnestly believed, too, by 
those who make them, which are so supremely absurd that one feels as if it would 
oe an utterly hopeless task to correct the error, among which are as follows : A 
Hydropathist Editor says, in a published lecture, that eating the meat of animals 
fatted for the market is a deadly poison. Then, again, that vaccination occasions 
a terrible loss of life; and that Dr. Jenner's name will yet "be mentioned with 
cursing and bitterness ;" because vaccination has introduced the seeds of scrofula 
very generally ; but that it is more easily done by eating the meat of fatted animals. 
The time when Jenner is to be "cursed," is when it will be discovered that vacci- 
nation causes scrofula ; but inasmuch as the same thing is done by eating the meat 
of fatted animals, it will be difficult, between the two causes of scrofula, to decide 
which is which. We advise the editor not to wait, else he may have a chance of 
getting as gray as a thousand-year-old rat before he can safely "curse Jenner" or 
roast beef: 

What is the reason that the cold-water people are so full of cursing and bitter- 
ness? See how another Water-Cure journal ventilates itself. In the August 
Journal of Health we advised the free use of the tomato as a health-promoting 
article of diet, premising that it had medicinal effects, by reason of the seed acting 
as the seeds of grapes, white mustard, and figs are generally supposed to do by 
educated physicians the world over, that is, by keeping the bowels free, as multitudes 
have found to be the case. But our theory of the " quo modo" of their action is 
abhorrent to the mind of the Editor of the New-York Water- Cure Monthly, and 
he forthwith plunges at us with the savageness of a meat-axe, and talks about 
"pulverized granite, pounded glass, epsom salts, tin filings, cayenne pepper, nettle- 
stings, thorns, thistles, etc.," being as good as tomatoes for the purpose and manner 
advocated by us. And, as proof, he asks a question, and makes a statement. The 
question is : " Why can not the flippant editor see deep enough into physiology to 
understand" better? The statement is, that he has not used any of the above 
articles in fifteen years, and is in good health. We verily thought that cold water 
had a clarifying effect, but we presume that it does not extend to the brain. 

What is the reason that "isms" go in droves? There seems to be a kind of 
brotherhood among the whole of them. There is one element which seems to be a 



238 hall's journal of health. 

connecting link between them all, which makes them conglomerate ; perhaps it is 
Spaulding's glue ! No, it is not that. We must search lower down than the hoof 
of a beast to get the fundamental principles of affinity between Water-Curers, 
Phrenologists, Free-Lovers, and Harmonialists. Just see how an admirer of Seer 
Davis meets the apparently harmless suggestion of ours, that it is rather better for 
persons to eat their breakfast before they go out to work or exercise. The man does 
it bravely, too ; he is not afraid or ashamed of his birth-place or his name : " Horace 
Steele, Painesville, Ohio, July, 1860." " It is deplorable that any man who claims 
to publish a Journal of Health should sink himself so low as to become a panderer 
to vice, by prescribing the means by which its practice may be continued. You 
gave Dr. Hall a severe rebuke, but not any more so than he deserves." Then the 
Seer Davis comments: "We sincerely thank our elder Brother Horace, in behalf 
of the cause of human redemption from disease, for his straight-out and truthful 
testimony in favor of early rising." What is the connection between our advice, 
that a man should eat his breakfast before he went to work, and "pandering to 
vice," must be left to some highly imaginative individual, some man whose appro- 
priate phrenological bump is a mile high, or whose "frankness" is a mile deep. 
The " seer," however, goes on to say, that he, too, had advised that something 
should be eaten before going out of mornings, at least an "orange," something to 
stay the stomach; but he says he only .meant that it was necessary for the "poor 
Irish," "widow women with large families," "poor seamstresses," and the "debili- 
tated." Why, Andrew ! how came you to make such a fool of yourself? You are 
as great on "Harmonies" as the man on "Fits," and have almost as much of the 
milk of human kindness in you as the Water-Cure people. But we excuse you in 
part; these things were written in the dog-days, and that divinity was in the 
ascendant; hence the snapping and the snarling. "Just so." 

Let us make a clean sweep of the rubbish while we are at it. In the same "dog- 
days," the United States Journal, in reference to our recommendation that 
Denies and fruits, ripe, fresh, and perfect, should be freely used in summer, as being 
at once nutritious, agreeable, and healthful ; and in the same direction that the 
acidity of butter-milk, clabber, and the like, led some communities to use them 
largely, tilts at us in manner, form, and words, to wit: "It is really surprising how 
attractive learned nonsense is to a great many people." Then the editor blazes 
away at the Tribune for copying it, concluding thus: "A bundle of greater 
absurdities we have seldom seen put together. If Dr. Hall can eat butter-milk, 
suet, alum, acid, gooseberries, currants, and vinegar, congratulate him on having 
a strong stomach ! but don't undertake to follow his example." 

We invite the reader to put two things together. In that same paper there is a 
leading editorial, and a very long advertisement. The leader talks about Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, and the advertisement speaks of a medicine, which has wonderful 
properties in imparting strength to the debilitated, and health to aU who need it. 
This same mixture is in quart-bottles that don't hold a quart, at two dollars each; 
to be taken in doses which will make a bottle last a week ; but if that is not enough, 
take a whole bottle. The medicine is essentially iron-rust and molasses ; iron is 
cheap, and so is molasses. Let us see. 

There is a spoonful of iron-rust in a bottle, costing a quarter of a mill, the 
bottle six cents, and the molasses twelve cents a gallon, (New-Orleans,) or three 
more cents for the short quart, total nine cents and one third of a mill. The former 
publishers of Uncle Tom's Cabin having failed to place themselves on the " re- 
tired" list by publishing fiction, have changed the phase of their tactics, and hope 



NOTICES, ACCUMULATED ODDS AND ENDS, ETC. 239 

to replenish an exhausted treasury, by dealing in the more substantial articles of 
iron and molasses; and as one kind of " progress" is uniformly downwards, we may 
find the same enterprising gentlemen, in due time, u fetching up" in another harbor, 
loading ebony "for a market." Now as the water-cure people and patent medicine 
dealers make common warfare against the Journal of Health whose fundamental 
principle is never to advise a dose of medicine, and whose object is to teach 
people how to lire healthily by the wise employment of food and exercise, it might 
seem to some a legitimate inference, that the motives of these parties were quite as 
pure as those of Alexander the coppersmith ; and that they are in trepidation, that if 
the principles of the Journal prevail, there will be no body to sell their medicines 
to, no body to be sloshed with cold water, and they will have to go to plowing, 
which wholesome occupation they have sufficient capacity for, and which they ought 
not to have ever left ; a mistake, as unfortunate for themselves as for society. Now 
Andrew! be "harmonial," and ye watery spirits who preside at Dansville and 
Laight street, keep as cool as the divinity you worship, write us a laughing reply, and 
thus get rid of your" black bile ;" it is almost as certain as a good dose of calomel, 
to rid you of anger, wrath, malice, and all uncharitableness, and you will sleep better 
for a month afterwards. Wonder if the cold-water people ever do laugh ? One would 
not think so from their writings. By the general tenor of their monthlies, we are 
inclined to conclude that their sole articles of food are " barks" and snapping-turtles, 
with alum-water and persimmon-cider as beverages ; they are so puckered up, so con- 
stringed are they, that the mollifying juices of human kindness seem never, by any 
chance, to exude from their rhinoscerostic hides or hearts. 

Miasm. — Of all our exchanges, as far as yet observed, only one has shown a 
proper appreciation of the value of our article in the September number. 

The editor of the Congregational Journal at Concord, New-Hampshire, says : 
" The first two articles are among the best that ever appeared in the Journal of 
Health. That on Miasm is worth twice the subscription-price." We ourselves 
add that the article deserves to be framed in every household ; its principles are 
of vital importance, literally, to every man who wishes to rent or buy or build in 
any part of the globe. These principles are as eternal as the laws of matter ; they 
can never change, and our highest health and safety depend on our wisely adapt- 
ing ourselves to them. 

Through every change and crisis and revolution in the civil, political, and finan : 
cial world he is safe who abhors debt. 

The Anaesthetic Inhaler, invented by H. G-. Luther, Dentist, 42 Great Jones 
street, New-York, heavily plated with silver, price five dollars, is pronounced by 
Drs. Carnochan, Francis, and Mott, to be superior to any thing of the kind yet de- 
vised in France, England, or America. 

Photographic Album, by Messrs. Anderson & Archer, 22 and 24 Franklin 
street, New- York, makes one of the most beautiful and interesting centre-table or- 
naments ; it is arranged to receive the photographs of kindred and friends, to be 
looked at by turning over a leaf, instead of the cumbersome opening of cases. The 
leaves are so attached to the back with strong linen, that apparently they would 
not be displaced, and could not be torn out, in the ordinary handling of a century. 
In these days of interchanging photographs, this is one of " hits" of the times ; 
there ought to be one on every drawing-room table. 



240 

Studying out op School-hours. — The wise- and thoughtful care of human 
health and happiness and life has led our excellent Superintendent of the Public 
Schools of the city, to recommend to the Board of Education the abolition ot 
study out of school-hours absolutely in the primary departments, and to curtail 
them largely as to the more advanced scholars. It is earnestly hoped that the 
Board will follow the humane example set in other cities. To be kept at study 
from nine in the morning until three in the afternoon, thus involving an absence 
from home of seven hours every day, six of which are employed in severe mental 
application, with a few minutes' intermission now and then, is nothing short of a 
barbarity worthy of the ignorance of the middle ages, of the days of Salem witch- 
ery and ordeal of fire and water ; but when in addition to this, lessons are given 
to be learned at home, which require the less bright scholars to rob themselves ot 
necessary sleep in order to be able to learn them properly, and to which they are 
stimulated by goadings more imperative than the lash, is an enormity which is 
inexcusable and inhuman. We hope that the Press of this city, following the 
example of The World, will urge this reform with pertinacity and power. 

How to get Good Coal for the coming Winter. — Buy it now from dealers 
who ask the highest price, and save it by throwing your furnaces into the river, and 
use the Low-Do wn Grate in your parlors and sitting-rooms, and thus have some 
kind of cheerfulness about your homes. In addition, use the Ash-Sifter sold at 63 
East-Sixteenth street, by William E. Jones, Esq. ; it is undoubtedly the best ever 
yet invented. Price, four dollars. 

Sight-Seeing. — One of the most interesting and pleasurable sights in New- 
York, is the Aquaria at Barnum's Museum. We took some ladies there the other 
day from Philadelphia. One of them exclaimed : "I could remain here a week." 
To see how fish deport themselves at the bottom of the ocean, is well worth a visit 
to the Museum, were there not a thousand other objects of interest there, and all 
for twentytfive cents. The Museum has never presented so many attractive fea- 
tures as since Mr. Barnum's reinstatement. 

Odd Numbers of Hall's Journal op Health sent to the address of Dr. W. W. 
Hall, New-York, post-paid, one cent each, will be received in payment from sub- 
scribers, at six cents each, for any of the Editor's publications, or for new sub- 
scriptions to the Journal or the Fireside Monthly, if sent during October of the 
present year. 

Music. — One thing at a time, and that well, is the admirable motto at the Nor- 
mal Academy of Music at Salem, Ct., which has been founded by the enterprise 
and energy of the Hon. Oramel Whittlesey. Music only is taught there, vocal and 
instrumental ; and, while on so charming a subject, we may appropriately add a 
paragraph from the Fireside Monthly for September, on the subject of Music for 
our Daughters : " Southerners who are now flocking to our city, will find it to 
their interest to call at Worcester's spacious Piano Establishment, on Fourteenth 
street, corner of Third Avenue, one of the very oldest Houses in New- York. In 
all the financial crises of the country, it has never known a ' suspension,' or a 
' removal ' ; thus indicating a thrift, which is only known to men who always make 
the best instruments, and thus secure the steady patronage of wealthy families, 
which, from its extent, enables the proprietor to sell a better Piano at a lower price 
than can elsewhere be had, being more especially adapted to withstand the effects 
of a warm and moist climate." 



NOTICES, ACCUMULATED ODDS AND ENDS, ETC. 

To Parents living in the vicinity of 339 Fourth Avenue, Twenty-fifth street, 
we heartily commend Mrs. M'Millan, as a teacher of children ; her terms are from 
five to ten dollars a quarter. Her excellent husband lost his health while a foreign 
missionary, and she now seeks to provide for her interesting family by teaching 
school. We join in the commendation of Mrs. Erastus Brooks and other ladies, 
the wives of some of our first citizens, as to Mrs. M.'s ability and fidelity. 

An enthusiastic Virginian thus piles up the praises with accumulative power 
of the article in the September Journal on " ' Household Slaveries,' every word of 
which should be written in letters of gold on the four walls of every room in every 
man's house in the world, and read daily." 

Mrs. Steel's Preparatory School for Boys and Girls at 10 Irving Place, is 
worthy of neighborhood patronage, supported as it is by such prominent ladies as 
Mrs. Dr. Doremus, Clark, Bishop, Ward, Schott, and Clapp, all living in and around 
Grammercy Park, Union Square, and Irving Place, called the Regal Region of 
New-York. 

.Liquid Glue. — The French make it thus : In a wide-mouthed bottle dissolve 
eight ounces of best glue in a half-pint of water, by setting it in a vessel of water 
and heating it until dissolved. Then add slowly, constant!} 7 stirring, two and a half 
ounces of strong aquafortis, (nitric acid.) Keep it well-corked, and it will be ready 
for use. This is the " Celebrated Prepared Glue," of which we hear so much. 

The Fireside Monthly. — The character of its articles may be known from the 
headings of the first six numbers ; see one of the advertising pages. It aims to ex- 
clude fiction, trash, and prosy treatises. No article is ever admitted adverse to 
the Bible, to Religion, or the Sabbath-day : it will abound in short practical pieces, 
written by persons of acknowledged ability, such as may be read with profit at any 
time, in any place, and to any company. Some of the sweetest pieces of poetry in 
the English language, will be found in the September number. The June number 
contains thirty-six one-page Health Tracts on a great variety of subjects, succinct and 
practical, a vade mecum of Hygiene, which every man and woman, boy and girl, 
worker and idler, rich and poor in the land ought to read ; sent post-paid by the 
Editor for fifteen cents. It is one dollar and a half a year ; afforded to subscribers 
to Hall's Journal of Health for two dollars a year for both monthlies. Back- 
numbers of both can be furnished to any desired extent. 

Harness a horse if you want him to leave a burning building quickly. 

The British and Foreign Medical Chirurgical Review, republished by the Messrs. 
Woods, 389 Broadway, at three dollars a year is enriched by several original commu- 
nications on insanity, chorea, ethnology, etc., with a handsome notice of the work 
of our countryman, Austin Flint, M.D., with a great variety of miscellaneous medical 
matter. The American Phrenological Journal for August is of unusual inter- 
est ; it contains a handsome portrait of Townsend Harris, Esq., our able and efficient 
and honored Minister to Japan, and several pages of an admirable lecture on Phy- 
sical Culture, by Henry Ward Beecher. The W ater-Cure Journal for August, 308 
Broadway, 10 cents, has a valuable article on the Feet and Hands, their pains and 
penalties, by Dr. Trail, in reference to corns, bunions, callosities, etc. It is inex- 
plicable to us how the American Agriculturist can give for one dollar a year 
thirty quarto pages monthly, so much valuable, practical and varied reading 
matter, a healthful moral tone always pervading its clean white pages. No fanner's 
house would fail to be benefited by such a publication. Our old acquaintance, The 



hall's journal of health. 

Country Gentleman, of Albany, issued weekly, is still the favorite of thousands of 
thrifty husbandmen ; two dollars a year, vol. 16. The Methodist, two dollars a 
year, 1 Beekman street, New- York, we commend heartily to every conservative 
member of the Methodist Church. With John A. Gray as Printer, Lemuel Bangs 
Publisher, and Drs. Crook and McClintock Editors, it could not but merit the high 
praise of the New-York Observer : "Beautiful in its dress, rich, varied and attract- 
ive in its contents, giving fine promise of vigorous life, and great usefulness. 
Conservative, wholesome, alive, and earnest, edited with taste, tact, and ability, it 
must make its mark on the Church, and we hope it will become a power in the 
world." 

SPECIAL NOTICE. — All subscriptions to Hall's Journal of Health begin with 
the January number of each year, for convenience of binding and index. Those 
who wish to subscribe now, can send one dollar for 1861, vol. 8, and at the rate 
of eight cents for each number up to December next inclusive, in postage-stamps. 

OLD NUMBERS : six cents each, in any of our publications, will be allowed for 
any of the old numbers of Hall's Journal of Health sent post-paid by mail, (one 
cent each,) or by private hand to " Dr. W. W. Hall, New-York," any time during 
the month of October, 1860. The six vols, of Hall's Journal of Health, bound 
two vols, in one, with a copper-plate engraving of the editor's portrait in 1847, and 
the three vols, of Bronchitis, Consumption, and Health and Disease, bound 
uniformly in morocco in the best style, are sold at 42 Irving Place only ; price, 
Twelve Dollars. The Presbyterian Historical Almanac for 1861, by Joseph M. 
Wilson, Philadelphia, will soon be ready, and ought by all means to be supplied to 
every clergyman of the denomination who belongs to the Old School Presbyerian 
Church. Price, One Dollar. Stereotyped. 

Journal of Human Science, vol. 1, No. 1, Cincinnati, 0., 32 pp. 8vo. 
two dollars a year, edited by Wm. Byrd Powell, M.D., a medical scholar and 
writer of ability. This number contains a large amount of Very curious and in- 
structive information on the subject of the Temperaments, which is handled in a 
masterly manner. 



»«♦»« « 



CONTENTS OF HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH FOR OCTOBER. 

(New-York, $1 a year.) 

Our Boys, 217 

Manual Labor Schools, 219 

Small Pox, 221 

Nervousness, 222 

Life's Maxims, 223 

" Snapping Up," 225 

Warming Houses, = 226 

Children's Eating, 228 

Milk, 230 

Rearing Children, 231 

Over-Eating, , 232 

Apples, 233 

Electro-Magnetism, 234 

Wearing Garters, etc., etc., 234 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever bsgets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] NOVEMBER, 1860. [No. 11. 



PERIODICAL LITERATURE. 

A man died last year, who, in all the relations of life, pos- 
sessed as faultless a character, perhaps, as any one in his day and 
generation. He was a gentleman — a Christian gentleman; a 
man of great learning, of greater piety, of the most unaffected 
humility, and, above all, he was a minister of the Gospel, whose 
wide experience and power of observation, made him acquainted 
with the dangers and the needs of the times, to an extent beyond 
that of other men. With such capabilities, and from such a 
stand-point, the Eev. Dr. James W. Alexander said in our hear- 
ing, but a short time before his death, in reference to "The 
Daily Journal Poison" : 

"A little mineral admixture in their dailv bread, a little 
morbific quality in their daily milk, would be justly dreaded as 
tending to wear away the health ; yet the daily journal enters 
your doors, distilling by little and little, false, latitudinarian, and 
radical opinions. No marvel if you find your old age sur- 
rounded by sons who haye made shipwreck of the faith. It is 
impossible to watch too affectionately the literature which comes 
into the hands of the young. If you desire them to be guarded 
and manly Christians, their pabulum must be truth. It is as 
certain of the mind as of the body, that whatever is taken into 
it should tend directly to its growth and strength ; all that is 
otherwise, is noxious. Nutrition, moreover, is a gradual pro- 
cess, the result of repeated acts. If, then, the mind and charac- 
ter are to make progress, and acquire firmness, there must be 
not slight and occasional, but regular and extensive study of 
Grod's revealed will. Thus, by promoting knowledge of truth, 
and discouraging familiarity with falsehood, we may, under 

NO. XI. — VOL. VII. — 1860. 



242 hall's jouenal of health. 

Grod's blessing, do much to protect ourselves against abounding 
infidelity." 

This is a " sensation" age. The u Press" has long ago be- 
come sensational, and the Pulpit is in danger of the infection. 
The daily journal, the weekly newspaper, the monthly maga- 
zine, and the quarterly reviews, in their strife for compelling 
attention, put all inventive genius to the rack, and but too 
often set at defiance justice, decency, and truth. The virus has 
entered the ought-to-be sacred precincts of the Sunday-school, 
of which the Religious Intelligencer remarks : 

" There is nothing connected with the Church, in the present 
day, that requires more watching than those institutions which 
furnish the Sunday reading of our youth. The time was when 
the books of these libraries were selected from the religious 
classics of England and America. They were the approved 
vehicles of religious truth. Now, however, in the desire to 
supply the demand of teachers and scholars for variety, a large 
class of works has been introduced into many schools, that, to 
say the least, are not calculated to lead to serious thought. In- 
deed, we have heard- of churches where the new novels form a 
regular supply to the library. Although matters are not quite 
so bad as that in general, yet the tendency of our Sunday-school 
libraries is more to gratify the taste of the readers, than to 
strengthen or instruct their religious faculties. Unless a stop is 
put to this evil, it must eventually undermine the foundations of 
truth and righteousness in the community." 

The New- York Examiner says of " Sensation Peeachees :'' 

"There are in all our large cities a crowd of thoughtless, 
sensation-loving gossips, who, with mouths agape, will run 
after any thing or any body that promises to gratify their 
depraved tastes, and as the demand for an article usually 
induces, before long, a supply, it is natural enough that there 
should be men who will desecrate the pulpit, and degrade it to 
the low level of a harlequin's stage. 

" "We do not know that there is a larger proportion of this 
class of mountebanks in the five hundred pulpits, more or less, 
of New- York and its suburbs, than among the same number of 
pulpits elsewhere ; but we do know that there are more of them 
than there should be. The congregations which employ such 
men are partly to blame for their development." 



PERIODICAL LITERATURE. 243 

The New- York "World" declares that: " Man has been 
variously denned by philosophers as a cooking animal, a bor- 
rowing and lending animal, and a lying animal ; differing in the 
opinion of the philosophers who have thns distinguished him 
from the rest of the animated world, chiefly in the respect of 
aiding the digestion of his food by means of fire, of negotiating 
loans, and of mendacity. The ripening civilization of these 
later days permits us to add variously to these definitions. 
With the process of the sun, and the scarcely less illuminating 
processes of Messrs. Hoe & Co., man has become emphatically 
a reading animal. • 

"The truth is, he reads a monstrous deal of trash and twad- 
dle. Nine tenths of the merely literary emanations of the 
periodical press come appropriately under this designation. 
Stories of life, such as has never been lived upon our planet, de- 
lineations of manners, which are the manners neither of gods 
nor men, nor of the "third estate;" salient sketches, treading 
close upon the verge of downright immortality ; fetid exhuma- 
tions of the subterranean stratum of life, exposed to the light 
like the sores of the leper ; coarseness, ribaldry, profanity, all, 
however, wearing the thinnest possible cloak of decency, and 
assuming to convey a moral inculcation while eating at the root 
of morality like a worm, compose an appalling proportion of 
the aggregate reading of the day. The denunciation is sweep- 
ing, but one less comprehensive would be inadequate. 

"The French revolution and the brief but lurid reign of 
terror which ensued, revealed the existence in Paris of a hide- 
ous nether stratum of life of which king, courtier, priest, physi- 
cian, artisan even, had never dreamed. From the Faubourg 
St. Antoine, its loathsome tributaries, subsidiaries, and succur- 
sals, from every reeking lane and alley of that Mecca of civili- 
zation, opulence, and profligacy, poured forth upon the Boule- 
vards and the Ely see herds of wild-eyed men with tangled hair 
like the furies, unwashed, sans cubtte, merciless, ravenous, 
bloody, and drunk. They swarmed about the palaces; they 
invaded the churches ; they raved through the wards of hospi- 
tals ; they leered and grimaced at the portals of nunneries. 
When the deluge of blood subsided, and order came again, 
men looked at each other and grew pale. They were walking 



244 HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

upon a crust beneath which surged and heaved this hitherto un- 
suspected wave of fire. 

"Society and literature, no less than geology, have their 
nether, intermediate, and upper strata, each in some degree 
unconscious of the other, as were the Parisians, of the burrow- 
ing herds of satyrs which that social upheaval unearthed. We 
have here, for example, a literature devoted to a strenuous ad- 
vocacy of Sabbath-breaking; a literature of infidelity, a litera- 
ture of crime. The thieves' lexicon is among the works with 
which American bibliography has recently been enriched. In 
addition to these, there is a huge aggregation of print which it 
is difficult to classify, but the effect of which is to enervate the 
immature mind, to inculcate false ideas of life, and to render 
distasteful to the young the homely and useful pursuits which 
alone, in most cases, lead to happiness and honor. What 
youth of average gifts is content to follow the plow, or wield 
the scythe, or swing the hammer, after the useful and humble 
manner of his fathers, when he is instructed by the experience 
of that dashing hero of the piratical tale, that the path of glory 
and gold is through the demesnes of adventure ; that the coast 
of Madagascar, and the deck of a long, low, clipper-built 
schooner, rakish as to masts, and with unheard-of qualities 
as to speed, are the fields for him instead of the hill-side or the 
forge ! Who, among the rustic maidens singing at the spinning- 
wheel, or among the milk-pans and other implements incident 
to butter, is unaffected by the perusal of the history of that 
rural damsel who, eloping from such common-place occupations, 
became a countess, and achieved lap-dogs and diamonds, and 
carriages and adoration! Many and many of those leprous 
specters who flit along the ghastly lamp-light of Broadway, 
bedizened, painted, and how often hungry, despairing, sick, 
drunk, and dying, can, if memory and mind remain, trace 
to the perusal of this species of literature something of the 
influence which directed their footsteps down the dark road, at 
the end of which glooms the hospital, and happily a grave 
without a name. The good and solvent citizen, who daily reads 
his mild, unexceptionable newspaper ; the lettered amateur who, 
in the snuggest of studies, over the most fragrant of all the va- 
rieties of Souchong, beside the most cheerful of sea-coal fires, 
luxuriously cuts the leaves of his favorite quarterly, do not per- 



PERIODICAL LITERATURE. 245 

haps dream that the same press which conveys to them its peri- 
odical missives of instruction and recreation, conveys to multi- 
tudes that intellectual drivel which enfeebles the mind as nar- 
cotics and stimulants do the body. It is true none the less, and 
that portion of the press which labors, in the interest of morality 
and religion, is recreant to its duty if it ignores it, or fails in its 
censure and condemnation. 

" Unhappily, this vicious literature is an evil almost without 
remedy. Whatever the public taste demands will be supplied. 
Literary censorship has of course never taken root in this coun- 
try, if we except its temporary grapple upon the stony soil of 
early puritanism, and there is, consequently, no relief except in 
the moral and religious sense of the community. Something 
may be done by the schools in fostering a taste for the better 
sort of light literature, something by the heads of families in 
rigorously excluding from the household publications bearing a 
shadow of taint, much by the pulpit, and much by the press. 
But we shall not see the end of this pernicious influence until a 
higher degree of education and culture takes the place of that 
flippant superficiality which has given us, as a people, the name 
of knowing less of any thing, and more of many things, than 
any race in the world. 

" Benjamin Franklin tells us, in one of his letters, that when 
he was a boy, a little book fell into his hands, entitled, Essays to 
do Good, by Cotton Mather. 

"It was tattered and torn, and several leaves were missing. 
' But the remainder,' he says, ' gave me such a turn of thinking 
as to have an influence on my conduct through life ; for I have 
always set a greater value on the character of a doer of good 
than any other kind of reputation ; and if I have been a useful 
citizen, the public owes all the advantages of it to the little 
book.' Jeremy Bentham mentions that the current of his 
thoughts and studies was directed for life by a single phrase that 
caught his eye at the end of a pamphlet : J The greatest good of 
the greatest number.' There are single sentences in the New 
Testament that have awakened to spiritual life hundreds of mil- 
lions of dormant souls. In things of less moment, reading has 
wondrous power. Greorge Law, a boy on his father's farm, met 
an old unknown book, which told the story of a farmer's son 
who went away to seek his fortune, and came home, after many 



246 hall's jouknal of health. 

years' absence, a rich man. From that moment George became 
uneasy, left home, lived oyer again the life he had read of, re- 
turned a millionaire, and paid all his father's debts. Eobinson 
Crusoe has sent to sea more sailors than the press-gang. The 
story about little George Washington telling the truth about the 
hatchet and the plum-tree, has made many a truth-teller. We 
owe all the Waverley novels to Scott's early reading of the old 
traditions and legends ; and the whole body of pastoral fiction 
came from Addison's sketches of Sir Eobert de Coverley in the 
Spectator. But illustrations are numberless. Tremble, ye who 
write, and ye who publish writing. A pamphlet has precipitated 
a revolution. A paragraph quenches or kindles the celestial 
spark in a human soul — in myriads of souls." 

Let parents also tremble in view of the responsibility which 
rests upon them, not only in preventing their children from im- 
proper reading, but also in providing them w ith what will attract 
by its beauty, instruct by its truth, and compel conviction by its 
point and power ; or which, by its admirable simplicity, and the 
sweetness of its sentiments, shall mold the character for high 
usefulness in life, and the society of the blessed beyond the 
grave. 

As a pioneer in this kind of reading for families', the Jouk- 
nal of Health claims the support of the reflecting and the 
good. Let such deliberately read every article in any of the 
numbers, and then ask the following question: Is there a 
monthly publication in the world so free of fiction, so full of 
truth, so varied in its subjects, and so perfectly free from every 
thing calculated to offend the religious sentiment of any man 
who makes the Bible his rule of faith and practice, while, at the 
same time, it is not, technically, a religious periodical ? Then 
comes the practical inquiry : Do I know of any safer publication, 
one which contains so much that is good in an equal space and 
at so small a cost ? If not, why not order it for your child on 
the instant? A great name once said: "Tell me who are a 
man's associates, and I will tell you what kind of a man he is." 
Not less true is it that the character of a man is molded by his 
reading, and if that is truthful and pure, and of a high moral 
tone, there comes of it pure men and women, healthful in body, 
the mind cultivated, and the character spotless. 



HOUSEHOLDS CONTRASTED. 247 

HOUSEHOLDS CONTRASTED. 

A gorged anaconda is the mildest animal in nature. You 
may kick him until you are tired, and he won't take the trouble 
to raise his head or give a hiss. We have remembrances as 
fresh as of yesterday, of going out to the pig-pen of a frosty 
fall morning, and witnessing the changing mood of the occu- 
pants while waiting for the men to throw in the corn. How they 
would squeal, and grunt, and bite, and snap at each other ! 
these modes of expression becoming "excelsior" in geometrical 
progression with each passing minute of delay. With the first 
mouthful, u order reigns in Warsaw." A few minutes later, a 
wag of delight takes hold of the tail, and at the u closing stretch," 
pig spoons to pig, and side by side they while their time away 
in delicious, dozy grunts. Pigs and people are not far apart. 
There are men, and — shall we say it ? — women, too, who, be- 
fore they get their breakfast in the morning, are as ferocious as 
she-tigers. They have brutalized themselves by late dinners, 
or over-hearty suppers the preceding evening, or they have sat 
up until midnight, or later, in doing what they considered indis- 
pensable — working, it may be in actual weariness and suffering, 
with the effect, that when the morning comes, they are not 
rested, not refreshed, and, as a consequence, the nervous system 
is deranged ; and if they are up soon enough for family wor- 
ship, they come into the room where glad children and servants 
(for both children and servants being healthy, are light-hearted 
in the mornings) are all in waiting, with a tremendous scowl on 
the countenance, or a sheepish, slovenly indifference, according 
to the temperament of the human animal. But not the honey 
droppings of the "Word;" not the glad songs of praise from 
other lips ; or thanks for the nightly deliverances or the morn- 
ing mercies, the bright sunshine, the dancing fire on the hearth, 
while the frost is at the window ; not the consideration that 
every child is the picture of health, and a well-spread board, 
white and clean and smoking and abundant, is ready, without 
even the trouble of ordering ; not all these considerations are 
sufficient to mellow down that ugly nature, but it drawls along 
to the table to whine and complain and growl and fret. If a 
child happens to laugh outright in its gladness, there is an 



248 hall's journal of health. 

instantaneous snap at it, if, indeed, hV is not driven from the 
table, or slapped over with the hand. If the toast is not browned 
to a turn, or the steak is the tiniest bit over or under-done, the 
cook is raved at with the savageness of a polar bear. If the 
table-maid happens in her haste to trip a toe or let fall a roll, 
noise enough is made about it to fill a barn ; and if a child over- 
turns a cup, a hyena comes up in the "dissolving view." 

Eeader ! what think you ? does this picture of a daily reality 
in more households than a dozen, suit you in whole, or even 
small part ? Be counseled in time, that one of two results will 
fall to your lot : if, in humility and repentance towards God and 
man, you do not promptly seek a remedy against so low a 
crime, you will either die prematurely, or end your days in an 
asylum, if not in a worse place still. If you begin a day in so 
ungodly a manner, it is a " bad beginning" for you ; the whole 
of that day will be a cloud ; the night will set in with humiliat- 
ing or fierce remorses, and it will be a day lost — lost forever. 
If it were only lost to you, it is of comparatively small moment, 
except to yourself. But that is not all. You clouded over a 
sunshine which God had sent to gladden the members of your 
family. You robbed them of God's good gift, there will be 
blasting in the repetition, blasting to the body, and curses to the 
soul, ending never ! " That's true, Doctor ; every word of it 
is as true as gospel, what you say about parents being pleasant 
in families. I've seen it in more cases than one or two." So 
said neighbor P., who lives a block or two away, in Seventeenth 
street. He ran on so glibly in this style, ever so long, and we 
couldn't stop him ; so we let him run ! What a grand good 
plan it is, in another direction, to stop a verbosity, as Eev. Dr. 
Cox would say, just to say nothing at all. Why, the longest 
tongue in nature will stop short in "two forty," if you only 
don't say a single thing. It's because we have tried it that we 
recommend it so confidently ; and if you have any sly malice 
to gratify, you can indulge it so effectually and in so quiet a 
way, too ! The more you don't say any thing, the longer will 
the remorse of meanness burn with unquenching fierceness 
afterwards. But to friend P.'s speech. "You know, Doctor, 
I have one of the finest wives in the world, so I am not per- 
sonal. c Mrs. P. ! ' said two dear young girls, ' if mother 
would only be as lively and kind-tempered as you are ! You 



COLD PHILOSOPHY. 249 

seem to be always cheerful, and iri. such good spirits! but 
mother is always cross.' " On inquiry, we learned that a mer- 
chant of great wealth had died before his time in Brooklyn, 
and left his widow with three children. Her temper was per- 
fectly devilish. It shortened his days. While in the hot pursuit 
of business, his mind was diverted ; but when his fortune was 
made, and he had leisure to be at home, and to enjoy his child- 
ren, the curse of a shrew came upon him, and he had not the 
courage or the moral power to apply a remedy. The result 
was, that in this case, the young son left the house — had 
not slept in it for three years. He found greater pleasure in 
running after the "machine," and slept in the engine-house. 
The presumption of charity is, that the woman was deranged. 

But a merited tribute to our neighbor. He has reared a fam- 
ily of sons and daughters in New- York City. Model children 
are they all. The sons are handsome, manly, and of moral cha- 
racter without the film of a blot. The .daughters, single and 
married, are affectionate as children, and notable in the relations 
of wife and mother. The father and mother have grown old 
in lovingness within and charity without. The frequent re- 
unions of parents and children and grandchildren, are tableaux 
of earthly delight ; and with peace and plenty, and blessed unity 
combined, they bid fair to end their days in gladness and sun- 
shine, and all largely owing to a cheerful conduct in the house- 
hold ; showing, by the way, that a family of children can grow 
up in a city, healthy in body, blameless in morals, and un- 
challenged in business integrity, by making home attractive. 



COLD PHILOSOPHY. 

Whex Patrick was asked what he would take to climb a 
steeple one frosty morning, " I'll take a cold, yer honor, be 
sure," was the ready reply. Sandy, standing hard-by, said he 
would "take a dollar." It may be practically useful to know 
how a cold acts on the system. Colds always come from out- 
side agencies. In health, from two to six pounds of waste 
and impure matter, in the shape of fluid and gas, is passed from 
the interior body towards the surface ; the skin is perforated 
by millions of little holes, through which this waste is poured 



250 

outside the body ; a good deal of it dries and forms into flakes. 
In health, these holes or " pores " are open, known by a 
" soft feel" of the skin ; they are kept open by warmth, but 
close instantly on the application of cold ; if the closure has 
been sudden, decided, or general, a feeling is caused, familiarly 
known as a " chill;" these waste and impure fluids, not being 
able to have an exit through their natural channels, retreat and 
seek a place of escape elsewhere ; if they find it instantly, as 
in an attack of loose bowels, the shock to the system is ex- 
pended in that direction, and the cold is cut short off ; the 
same if the person is seized with an attack of vomiting, or of 
violent bleeding at the nose, or an excessive watering at the 
nose, or of an accidental wound causing the loss of a large 
quantity of blood. It is as if the natural vent of a steam- 
engine were closed while in operation : if an equal u vent" is 
made in another direction, all is well ; and the vent must be 
had, or an explosion is inevitable. But before this vent is 
made, in case of a cold having been taken, and the arrested 
outgoing fluids not having as yet found egress, there is that 
much more of actual matter in the system than it is accustomed 
to, making us feel " stuffed up," " full," " oppressed." Most ex- 
pressive and literally true are these phrases, and until a vent is 
made, the fuller and fuller does the body become. We express 
ourselves as feeling " bad all over," and no wonder, for every 
blood-vessel in the body is not only fuller than it ought to be, 
but it is filled with a fluid made up of the pure blood, mixed 
with all the impurities which would otherwise have been thrown 
out of the system as effete matter ; and the blood of the whole 
body being impure, imperfect, feeling, taste, appetite, every 
bodily sense is deranged, the mind participates in the general 
disorder, and petulance *and ill-nature pervade the whole de- 
portment, and what the sufferer feels, others see, that he is " as 
cross as a bear." 

If, however, within a few hours after a felt chill, or after a 
cold has been taken, and before the current has become in a 
measure fixed in its unnatural direction inwards, the " pores" 
of the skin are reopened, that current is turned back and harm 
is avoided ; hence the efficacy of what is called the " old 
woman's remedy," " a good sweat," produced by putting the 
patient to bed, " tucking in" the bed-clothes, and pouring down 



COLD PHILOSOPHY. 251 

a gallon, more or less, of hot "catnip-tea," or any other hot 
drink. We have pleasant memories of the good taste of a 
"stew," a mixture of Bourbon whisky, hot water, sugar, a 
little butter, and hot spices. Oh ! how good it was ! It's a 
medicine we always take with pleasure, but we don't advise 
others to do so — it's dangerous, very ! its ultimate effects have 
been the death of many a noble-hearted fellow. 

But if all the discomfort of a cold is caused by an unusual 
amount of matter being shut up in the system, is it not the 
most consummate folly to eat an atom of any thing, or drink 
a drop of water, to increase the "fullness" of the body ? "We 
should instead, the very moment a chill has been experienced, 
or that we in any other way become sensible of the fact that 
we have taken cold, set about doing two things : first, get up 
a feeling of warmth in the body, even if it requires a room to 
be heated to two hundred degrees of Fahrenheit, and keep it at 
that point until perspiration has been induced, and continued 
for some hours ; in addition, do Jiot eat an atom of food, at 
least until next day, or Until you are conscious that the cold 
has been broken ; and then, for a few days, live exclusively on 
soups, crust of cold bread, hot teas, and fruits. 

Let it be kept in remembrance that every mouthful of food, 
even of the mildest, a man swallows from the instant the cold 
has been taken, only makes a proportional amount of phlegm 
to be coughed up. "Feed a cold and starve a fever," is a tre- 
mendous lie. Starve them to death, as we-would a garrison, 
by cutting off supplies, and the fortress will be yielded within 
thirty-six hours, if the process be begun within twelve hours 
after the cold has been taken. If a chill has been experienced, 
begin on the instant to stop supplies, and then to cause an arti- 
ficial drain, by the means already named for inducing free per- 
spiration ; in this manner, the very worst colds will be arrested, 
will be 'cut short off in four cases out of five. Unfortunately, 
the first effect of a cold is to increase the appetite, the indul- 
gence of which protracts the cold to days and weeks, with this 
result, that after the first two or three days, food becomes an 
aversion, and there is no appetite for weeks together sometimes ; 
better, then, starve willingly for a day or two than be unable to 
eat any thing for a fortnight, to say nothing of the troublesome 
coughing and other discomforts during the whole of that time. 



252 hall's journal of health. 

CHECKING PERSPIRATION. 

A Boston" merchant, in "lending a hand" on board of one 
of his ships on a windy day, found himself at the end of an 
hour and a half pretty well exhausted and perspiring freely. 
He sat down to rest. The cool wind from the sea was de- 
lightful, and engaging in conversation, time passed faster than 
he was aware of. In attempting to rise, he found he was unable 
to do so without assistance. He was taken home and put to 
bed, where he remained two years ; and for a long time after- 
wards, could only hobble about with the aid of a crutch. Less 
exposures than this have, in constitutions not so vigorous, 
resulted in inflammation of the lungs, "pneumonia," ending in 
death in less than a week, or causing tedious rheumatisms, to 
be a source of torture for a lifetime. Multitudes of lives 
would be saved every year, and an incalculable amount of hu- 
man suffering would be prevented, if parents would begin to 
explain to their children at the age of three or four years, the 
danger which attends cooling off too quickly after exercise, and 
the importance of not standing still after exercise, or work, or 
play, or of remaining exposed to a wind, or of sitting at open 
window or door, or of pulling off any garment, even the hat 
or bonnet, while in a heat. It should be remembered by all, that 
a cold never comes without a cause, and that in four times out 
of five, it is the result of leaving off exercise too suddenly or 
of remaining still in the wind, or in a cooler atmosphere than 
that in which the exercise has been taken. 

The colder the weather the more need is there, in coming 
into the house, to keep on all the clothing, except India-rubber 
or damp shoes, for several minutes afterwards. Yery few rooms 
are heated higher than sixty -five degrees when the thermometer 
is within twenty degrees of zero, while the temperature of the 
body is always at ninety-eight, in health ; so that if a man 
comes into a room which is thirty degrees colder than his body, 
he will rapidly cool off, too much so often, even if the external 
clothing is not removed. 

It is not necessary that the perspiration be visible ; any exercise 
which excites the circulation beyond what is natural, causes a 
proportional increase of perspiration, the sudden checking of 
which induces dangerous diseases and certain death every day. 



FHYSICAL CULTUKE. 253 



PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

To the Editor of the "World: 

Hall's Journal of Health for May has an article on 
gymnasiums, closing with the following summary : 

" To sedentary persons, violent, sudden, and fitful exercise is 
always injurious, and such are gymnastic performances. 

"The exercise of the student should be regular, gentle, de- 
liberate, always stopping short of felt fatigue. 

" One hour's joyous walk with a cheerful friend, in street, or 
field, or woodland, will never fail to do a greater and more un- 
mixed good, than double the time in the most scientifically 
conducted gymnasium in the world. 

"There are individual cases where the gymnasium is of the 
most undeniable benefit, but the masses would be the better for 
having nothing to do with them. 

"A million times better recipe than the gymnasium for 
sedentary persons is : 

"Eat moderately and regularly of plain, nourishing food, well 
prepared. Spend two or three hours every day in the open 
air, regardless of all weathers, in moderate untiring activities." 

Elsewhere the Journal of Health teaches that " to derive 
the highest benefit from exercise as a means of health, it should 
be in the open air, moderate, continuous, and having an object 
in view, beside that of the mere exercise itself, which shall be 
agreeable, interesting, and encouragingly remunerative in a 
pecuniary point of view. 

" That, if gymnasiums are founded, they should always be 
under the immediate direction, control and supervision of those 
who are thoroughly versed in anatomy and physiology, not 
merely theoretically but practically." 

These positions will scarcely be dissented from by educated 
physicians, or by any person who has that kind of common- 
sense which is derived from extended practical observation. 
Your correspondents, in their strictures on the sentiments of the 
Journal of Health, deal somewhat in epithets ; that is their 
taste ; it would have answered a better purpose to have employed 
the same space in explaining how and why muscular exercise is 
beneficial. The thoughtful reader would then have been able 



254 hall's journal of health. 

to form a more correct opinion as to the philosophy and the 
value of physical culture than from any thing the Editor has yet 
seen in the newspapers on that subject. 

Among the anatomical and physiological facts, received the 
world over, hence requiring no proof here, are the following : 

" No two important organs of the body can be called into 
energetic action at the same time without injury to both, because 
one organ in high functional action attracts the nervous and 
sanguineous fluids from the other organs of the system, and any 
attempt to change the direction of the current suddenly, is 
always injurious. Hence the ill results to man and beast of 
active exercise or working, immediately before or after a meal. 
For the same reason, violent exercise immediately before or 
after severe study, or after long rest, is always, and under all 
circumstances, pernicious to the organ of the brain and to the 
muscular organs. 

"Nourishment, repair, growth, strength, all are derived from 
the blood. If the flow of blood is cut off from any part of the 
body, that part begins to die on the instant. A steady natural 
flow of pure' blood to a part keeps it in a living, healthful con- 
dition. If the flow is increased, but still steady, there is a pro- 
portional increase in the vigor of that part. If the supply of 
blood is very rapid, the ultimate globules or cells are deposited 
more rapidly than steady nature can receive them, and they are 
lost or broken, and are passed out of the system as waste, repre- 
sented in the destruction of glassware in a burning building, 
when there are more persons to hand it out than there are to 
receive it. 

"Every one knows that exercise of the body increases the 
circulation of the blood. The violent exercise in gymnasiums, 
as almost, if not universally conducted hitherto, produces a 
violent flow of blood, of nutrient particles to the various 
muscles which are brought into most active exercise, and being 
carried thither faster than they can be taken up, unmixed harm 
is the result. Life-long disablements and even deaths have 
resulted from gymnastic performances and other violent exer- 
cises ; as of the little girl, not long ago reported, who died in 
consequence of her ambition to skip a rope a certain number of 
times without stopping ; of race-horses dying on the track ; and 
minor forms of injuries, down to the feeling of soreness of the 



PHYSICAL CULTUEE. 255 

whole body the day after some unusual exercise ; and with 
which almost every one is familiar. 

t: Thus it is that the sudden, violent, fitful, exhaustive exer- 
cises of ordinary gymnasiums are unwise, hurtful, dangerous. 
To derive from muscular exertion a high degree of health and 
manly vigor, it should be moderate, continuous, regular, in the 
open air, and furthermore, should be pleasantly remunerative 
beyond the mere benefits of the exercise itself. None of these 
conditions are fulfilled in gymnasiums as generally conducted 
hitherto. Physical culture is not objected to, but the manner 
of it. To exercise wisely, the student and all sedentary persons 
should begin in moderation, to be gradually increased in its 
intensity, and as gradually diminished, and in all. cases should 
be left off before any feeling of very great fatigue is experienced, 
most especial care being taken to cool off very slowly indeed. 

" The impression is sought to be made in the World, that 
clergymen, for want of physical culture, are particularly dis- 
tinguishable by their unhealthful appearance. But it is an un- 
deniable fact that clergymen, as a class, live longer in this 
country than mechanics or common laborers. Of 120 clergy- 
men who died in the United States in 1855, two thirds had 
their ages recorded ; of these, one half had passed seventy years. 

" Of 2500 Presbyterian clergymen who were living in 1858, 
31 died within the year following, making their [ death rate ' 
twelve and a half, or one-sixth lower than the most favored 
people known on earth as to health. So that if it be assumed 
as a fact that clergymen take less muscular exercise than 
others, the whole argument of your correspondent, in connec- 
tion with the two items above, is a perfect non sequitur. The 
Journal of Health does 'look well after the sanitary in- 
terests of the clergy;' it was for their benefit and that of theo- 
logical students that it was originated, not as a means of ' con- 
ciliating them,' but of enabling them to perform more work 
and for a longer time, because the ' harvest is great, and the 
laborers are few.' They ought to be taken care of; and it is 
a sufficient reason for that care, that they are men of high 
acquirements and culture ; are the leaders and the workers also, 
in the most efficient enterprises for the elevation of the human 
family, and yet as a class, do not receive an annual average 
compensation for their services, equal to that of a New- York 
butcher or drayman." 



256 hall's journal of health. 



THE AIM OP LIFE. 



The chief ambition of most young men of intelligence and 
energy, on entering the great field of the world, is to accumu- 
late money enough to enable them to retire from business, and 
pass the latter years of life in quiet comfort. On a minute in- 
quiry as to the meaning they attach to that expression, it will 
be found that it is to have a plenty of every thing, except that 
of having a plenty to do of what is necessary to be done. 
They want to be placed in a position which will allow them to 
do something, any thing, or nothing, according to the inclina- 
tion of the moment. This is an aim at once narrow-minded, 
selfish, and dangerous ; dangerous to soul, body, and estate ; 
dangerous alike to social position, and to moral character. 
That very activity, energy, and enterprise which enables a man 
to " retire on a fortune" at fifty, and be compelled to do com- 
paratively nothing, will as certainly make a wreck of mind and 
body, as that the fleetest locomotive in the world will be shiv- 
ered to atoms if it is instantaneously arrested in its progress. 
But there is this difference between man and machinery : the 
magnificent engine may be gradually brought to a perfect stand- 
still, and can be put in motion again to accomplish other labors 
new and grand ; not so with the machinery of the mind ; in its 
" connections" with a material body it has acquired a " momen- 
tum" in half a century's progress, a habit of action, which can 
not be arrested, can not be brought to a dead stand, to a posi- 
tion of having nothing to do, and doing nothing, without the 
wreck of mind or ruin of body, if indeed not both. 

The only way in which a man can " retire on a fortune" with 
safety, with comfort, with happiness and honor, is to lay his 
plans so that his time shall be fully and compulsorily occupied 
in advancing the well-being of others, in every way compatible 
with the safety of his own fortune and health. It may be in- 
structive to know the way to death which many successful busi- 
ness men travel, the steps taken as seen by an observant phy- 
sician, the little things which lead to grand results, the total 
subversion of the aims and labors of a lifetime. A man re- 
tired on a fortune has nothing to do after he has built his house, 
laid out his grounds, and arranged his affairs perfectly to his 



THE AIM OF LIFE. 257 

"own notion," according to Ms own "ideas of comfort." The 
mind can no more be arrested in its activities, than can a star 
in space. He gets tired of sitting about ; gets tired of read- 
ing ; gets tired of riding around his "place;" gets tired of 
visits and visitors ; then the greatest pleasure, the one which 
can be looked forward to several times every day, is that of 
eating ; it in time becomes, to a certain extent, the only plea- 
sure ; it is indulged in ; after a while, the surplus not being 
worked off, the appetite either fails, or discomfort attends its 
indulgence, and there being nothing to do but for the mind to 
dwell on these discomforts, they become exaggerated, and nine 
times out of ten a sip of brandy is resorted to ; nine times out 
of ten it alleviates, and having an alleviant so easily accessible, it 
is not at all wonderful that it should be frequently resorted to, 
so frequently indeed that before the man is aware of it, or even 
his watchful wife, he is a regular drinker, is " uncomfortable" 
without it ; the appetite for it grows apace ; he is a confirmed 
and hopeless drunkard, and " death and hell" his end. That 
now excellent paper, the Philadelphia Inquirer, narrates the fol- 
lowing, and can give the names of the parties : 

About five years ago an enterprising firm was engaged in a 
lucrative business on Water street. Its integrity in business 
was beyond suspicion or cavil. The promptness with which its 
obligations were met, was the subject of general encomium, and 
its paper had, in every case, the value of bank-notes or of 
specie. The firm was composed of two members, both of them 
wealthy. With time their riches grew apace, and with cash 
their kindness and integrity increased. The senior partner re- 
sided in a magnificent west-end mansion, surrounded by all the 
luxuries which money could command and taste could ask. 
The junior partner lived with his family in a rural district 
upon a small farm. He passed the business hours in his es- 
tablishment upon Water street, and in the cool of the evening 
rested in his cottage. His children grew up healthy and con- 
tented, and all the fireside virtues gamboled about his feet. 

In the lapse of time the firm dissolved. Its purposes had 
been subserved in the success of its speculations, and the pre- 
servation of its integrity, and each partner retired to his home 
to enjoy the profits of his labor. The west-end millionaire has 
forfeited the respect and friendship of his ancient partner. We 



258 

passed him last evening in a state of bloated intoxication, filthy 
with, exposure and absolute want. The men with whom he 
once associated would blush to-day to recognize him. His for- 
tune has been squandered in continued excesses, his family is 
scattered and penniless, and the sole aim of his degraded ambi- 
tion is to find the wherewithal to purchase drink. The junior 
partner has not changed in circumstances. The home ties have 
proved stronger with him than the attractions of vice, and he 
still lives to demonstrate the advantage of retired virtue and 
contented competence. 

Instead, then, of aiming to pass the latter part of life in dan- 
gerous, inglorious ease, let the ambition be to spend it in active 
benevolences, happifying alike the heart of both giver and re- 
ceiver, thus leaving a name behind, not written in the sands of 
selfish indulgence, but engraven in imperishable characters on 
the grateful memories of man, and in the " Book of Life." 



HEALTH OP STUDENTS. 

Amherst College, through the agency of gentlemen who 
have been admirers and readers of the Journal of Health 
for some years, has established a Professorship of " Hygiene and 
Physical Education," and have appointed to the chair, Dr. John 
W. Hooker, the worthy son of Worthington Hooker, M.D., of 
New-Haven. Prof. Hooker brings to his aid the learning and 
the skill acquired from the enjoyment of the highest advan- 
tages in Europe and America for perfecting his medical studies 
and researches ; hence we may confidently look for success in 
this first official and practical endeavor to make the health 
of students a matter of systematic attention, an indispensable 
branch of study in a collegiate course, and as necessary to a 
diploma as a proficiency in the languages or mathematics. It is 
now thirty-two years since, in a series of letters, we urged 
the establishment of a similar chair in a flourishing college, but 
" the time was not yet." One of the first objects in commenc- 
ing the publication of this Journal was to place the knowledge 
of the means of preserving the health within easy reach of 
all students, especially of theological students, as will be seen 



HEAETY SUPPERS. 259 

by reading the prospectus in the first number. If therefore 
any reader has a son ready for college, send him at once 
to Amherst College, in the Old Bay State, if, while you have 
an ambition that your child shall become a scholar, you have 
the wisdom and the hiimanity to arrange that he shall graduate 
in robust health and live a life of enjoyment and usefulness 
instead of passing his weary years in tantalizing inefficiency 
and wretched invalidism. 



HEARTY SUPPERS. 



Ik this exaggerating age, we think we can safely say, that 
scarcely a day passes in which we do not receive, personally or 
by letter, some manifestation of felt indebtedness to the whole- 
some influence of this Journal ; and if the question is asked, 
In what direction? it is most frequently answered, "In reference 
to the benefits derived from abstinence, in whole or in part, 
from eating any thing later than a mid-day dinner." It was 
with a feeling of painful disappointment, with perhaps some 
vexation, that we recently read of the death of a brother editor, 
whose excellent monthly seldom failed of some extract from, or 
kindly notice of, this Journal. He died in the very prime of 
life — not thirty-one — in the midst of usefulness, and in the 
enjoyment of usual good health, until within twenty-four hours 
of his decease. He was an able preacher, and a fine beUes-lettre 
scholar. He was on a journey, on the Master's business, and 
died from home. He had made up the copy for his September 
issue. Two of the articles were from our August Number ; 
one a plea for women, the other for children. So many good 
people loved him and looked up to him ! In less than three lines 
the whole story is told. " He traveled all day, ate in the 
evening a hearty supper, waked up in the morning with a head- 
ache, became unconscious, and died at -Q.VQ o'clock in the after- 
noon, of apoplectic disease !" 

Eating heartily in an exhausted, or even in a greatly debili- 
tated bodily condition, is dangerous at any hour. Many a man 
has fallen apoplectic, at the close of a hearty dinner ; but the 
danger is greatly increased by going to bed soon after ; for the 



260 hall's jouknal of health. 

weight of the meal, a pound or two, rests steadily on the great 
veins of the body, arrests the flow of the blood, as a continuous 
pressure of the foot on a hose-pipe will more or less completely 
stop the flow of water along it. This arrestment causes a dam- 
ming up of blood in the vessels of the brain, which at length 
can not longer bear the distension, and burst, causing effusion 
there, which is instant, sometimes, and certain death always. 
There is scarcely a reader, of middle life, who has not more 
than once been nearer death than he imagined, from this very 
cause. A man feels in his sleep as if some terrible calamity was 
impending, some horrible beast is after him, or some fearful 
flood is about to overwhelm him ; but, spite of every effort, he 
can not remove himself sufficiently fast ; the enemy behind is 
increasing upon him ; and at length, in an agony of sweat, he 
is able by a desperate effort, to set the stream of life in motion 
by uttering some sound, fearful to be heard, or only saves him- 
self from falling into some fathomless abyss, by a convulsive 
and desperate effort. In cases where there is no power to cry 
out, or no effort can be made, the person is overtaken, or falls, 
and dies ! Eating a hearty meal at the close of the day, is like 
giving a laboring man a full day's work to do, just as night sets 
in, although he has been toiling all day. The whole body is 
fatigued when night comes, the stomach takes its due share 
and to eat heartily at supper, and then go to bed, is giving all 
the other portions and functions of the body repose, while the 
stomach has thrown upon it five hours more of additional labor, 
after having already worked four or five hours to dispose of 
breakfast, and a still longer time for dinner. This ten or twelve 
hours of almost incessant labor has nearly exhausted its power ; 
it can not promptly digest another full meal, but labors at it for 
long hours together, like an exhausted galley-slave at a newly- 
imposed task. The result is, that by the unnatural length of 
time in which the food is kept in the stomach, and the imperfect 
manner in which the exhausted organ manages it, it becomes 
more or less acid ; this generates wind ; this distends the sto- 
mach ; this presses itself up against the more yielding lungs 
confining them to a largely diminished space; hence every 
breath taken is insufficient for the wants of the system, the blood 
becomes foul, black, and thick, refuses to flow, and the man 
dies, or in delirium or fright, leaps from a window or commits 



CAUSE OF CONSUMPTION. 261 

suicide, as did Hugh. Miller, and multitudes of others, as to 
whom the coroner's jury has returned the non-committal ver- 
dict, "Died from causes unknown," if not more impiously stat- 
ing, " Died by the visitation of God." 

Let any reader who follows an inactive life for the most part, 
try the experiment for a week, of eating absolutely nothing 
after a two o'clock dinner, and see if a sounder sleep and a more 
vigorous appetite for breakfast and a hearty dinner, are not the 
pleasurable results, to say nothing of the happy deliverance from 
that disagreeable fullness, weight, oppression, or acidity, which 
attends over-eating. The greater renovation and vivacity which 
a long, delicious, and connected sleep imparts, both to mind and 
body, will of themselves more than compensate for the certainly 
short and rather dubious pleasure, of eating a supper with no 
special relish. 



CAUSE OF CONSUMPTION. 

Not by bad colds, nor hereditary predisposition, nor drinking 
liquor, nor tight lacing — for men do not lace, and yet as many 
of them die of consumption as women ; few habitual drink- 
ers die of that disease ; and as for hereditary taint and bad 
colds, millions of the latter have gotten well of themselves, 
while the naturally feeble are compelled to an habitual careful- 
ness of themselves, which gives them,* in multitudes of cases, 
an immunity against all disease, except that of old age. 

The very essence of consumption is a decline in flesh. Flesh 
is made of the food we eat ; if that food does not give flesh, 
does not sustain the proper proportion of it, we begin to fade, 
and fail, and consume away. 

But as there is not one in a hundred thousand who has not a 
plenty of food, and yet one out of every nine in the Union dies 
of consumption every year, the cause of that malady is not a 
want of food, although it is a want of flesh ; and yet only food 
can give flesh. It must then be from the fact, that although we 
have a plenty of food, that food does not give the amount of 
flesh and strength which it ought to. The process by which 
food gives flesh is a double one — digestion and assimilation ; in 



262 hall's journal of health. 

other words, it is the taking of the nourishment from the food, 
and distributing it to the body at various points. 

The human body is much like a clock with its many wheels ; 
if one goes slow the others go slow, and bad time is the result ; 
if one little wheel of the body (one organ or one gland) works 
imperfectly or slowly, all the others are influenced thereby, and 
lag also. But what is the wheel which oftenest gets out of gear ? 
It is the liver. What infallible telegraphic signal is always 
made when the liver is out of order ? It is constipation of the 
bowels. In a natural healthful state of the human body, the 
bowels act at least once a day ; less than that is a certain indi- 
cation that the liver is halting in its pace, and if the admonition 
is allowed to remain long unheeded, disease is as inevitable as 
the falling of a stone when cast from the hand. The moment 
constipation commences, that moment the blood begins to be- 
come impure and poor ; loses its life and heat, and the body 
chills; "the least thing in the world " causes a chill to run 
along the back, or gives a cold outright ; and a cold being so 
easily contracted, before one is cured another comes on, and that 
cold is continued, and this is the synonym of consumption ! 
This article might therefore be closed with the important prac- 
tical inference, that by avoiding or correcting constipation, very 
many of those diseases might be avoided or cured, which 
arise from impure blood. But another step may be taken with 
great advantage. "What makes the liver grow slow in its ac- 
tion ? what makes it torpid or work weakly ? 

For the same reason that an over- worked horse, or servant, 
or man, becomes slower and slower in every motion. 

The liver has a certain amount of bile to manufacture every 
day ; this bile is made out of the blood ; if that blood be of a 
good quality every day, the work is regularly performed and 
well done, for the space of an hundred years ! Any mechanic 
knows that it is a comparatively easy matter to make a good 
job out of good materials ; but to turn out a good day's work 
from bad materials is a most tiresome, wearing, wasting thing. 
The blood becomes of a bad material within six hours after a 
man eats too much ; if that excess is committed three times a 
day, this bad blood becomes a permanent supply in time ; the 
liver for a while does its duty ; longer, according to the greater 
vigor of the constitution ; but sooner or later it lags ; it is 



CAUSE OF CONSUMPTION". 263 

worked to death. In the mean while, constipation becomes a 
habit, and the work of death is done. But this curious fact is 
not unfrequent : when consumption is fastened on the lungs by 
continued colds, all the disease of the body is in a measure at- 
tracted there, the liver resumes its apparent healthy function, 
and the bowels remain daily acting, until death. 

Over-eating, then, three times a day, may be considered as a 
primary, a radical cause of the great majority of consumptive 
diseases, and each reader is advised to take the matter in hand 
as to himself, by 

1. Eating moderately every day. 

2. By securing a daily action of the bowels. 

But if he is so much of a baby — has so little self-denial and 
manly moral courage, that he " can't help eating too much/ 11 then 
an antagonizer of hearty eating is presented. "Work steadily in 
the open air every day, from sunrise until sunset, with dry feet 
and dry clothing, singing or whistling all the time. 

As proof that a free open air exposure is a preventive of 
consumption, it seems to be conceded that fewer persons die in 
the South of that disease than in the North, among an equal 
population ; the mildness of the weather, and the leisure habits 
of the people, invite and allow an out-door life during all the 
hours of daylight. One person out of every five dies of con- 
sumption in New-England ; one in thirty-six in Georgia. We 
have our Abolition friends tremendously on the hip here ! 
Southerners don't die of consumption a quarter as fast as the 
Yankees, bedause they have negroes to do their work, while 
they can ride around and enjoy the fresh air ; while Southern 
negroes seldom die of consumption at all, because they have to 
work so hard that the impurities of the blood are carried off by 
the " sweat of the brow," so as to give the liver leisure to do its 
easy work well, making the bowels act usually twice a day 
when they work the hardest ; at least, this was our observation 
on the plantation on which we lived when we "fleshed our 
maiden lance." 



264 hall's jouknal of health. 



00fc QfitUtt. 



Public School Singing-Book, by Prof. John Bower, teacher of music in the 
Public Schools of Philadelphia, is another step towards making us a musical people. 
Music and song purify the heart and the blood also ; their culture never fail to ele- 
vate, under propitious influences. 

Eeason and the Bible. By Miles P. Squier, D.D., Prof, of Intellectual and 
Moral Philosophy, Beloit College, Wisconsin. Scribner, Publisher, 124 Grand 
street, New-York, is founded in the thought that "Reason leads to Faith." 340 pp. 
12mo, large type, $1. The reading of this book will sweetly confirm the humble 
believer, will establish the wavering, and we trust, will convince many a "philoso- 
phical " doubter that there is no firmer "foundation" than that laid in the Rock 
of Calvary. To every doubting, halting man or woman, we heartily say, get it and 
read it. 

The Attorney. Irving. Dewitt, Publisher, is one of the most intensely inter- 
esting narrations we ever found in the pages of the Knickerbocker, where it first 
appeared. The scenes are laid in New-York City. The book is worth a million of 
the trashy, flash productions of the times, and we trust the enterprising publisher 
will find his reward in thus wisely drawing from the stronger and purer fountains 
of the past. 

Harry Harson, by the same author, and published by the same house, will, we 
think, be inevitably read by every man who has turned the all-absorbing pages of 
The Attorney. 

The Movement Cure. — The most sensible " movement" that has come to our 
knowledge for a long time. Dr. Taylor has written an interesting and useful book, 
and extends the application of the views of Dr. Halsey, his predecessor. As we 
are anxious to benefit our readers whenever it is in our power, we will condense it 
for those who may not be inclined to pay a dollar for so sensible a book. Our 
understanding of it is this : If you want to get well, go to work. 

Beriah Green's Sermons and Discourses, with Brief Biographical Hints, 12mo, 
556 pp. S. W. Green, 18 Jacob street, New- York, Publisher. With a life-like 
engraving. The Rev. Beriah Green is one of the men of our time ; earnest, practi- 
cal, and persistent, he has, with the advantage of a clear head, a strong mind, and 
a good heart, done more for true progress than many who have made more noise 
and gained more of the world's applause. 

Daughters. — Our Kentucky readers — and we have a good many — are notified 
that the Oxford Female College, an hour's ride by rail from Cincinnati, 0., under 
the presidency of the Rev. Mr. Morris, is in most successful operation. President 
Morris is himself a Kentuckian in the highest and widest sense ; frank, courteous, 
and hospitable. He possesses one of the finest minds in the West. High culture 
is united with untiring and indomitable energy. To be under his roof, and under 
the influences of his lovely and accomplished wife, is a privilege which is to be 
enjoyed by few, and parents who must send their daughters from home to be 
educated, will act wisely by securing it at once. 

All our publications may be had of Mr. Mowry, at the Post-Office entrance, 
Philadelphia, and also of John McFarlan, 33 South Sixth street, in same city. 

Please read the leader of the present number, on Periodical Literature ; mean- 
while we claim for the Journal of Health, that it is one of the very few Monthlies, 
not professedly religious, which has never sought to make capital for itself by 
ridiculing religion, its ministers or its friends, but has always and decidedly, advo- 
cated the Christianity of the Bible, and in these regards merits the patronage it 
receives. We ask an equally wide one for our other monthly, The Fireside. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. VII.] DECEMBER, 1860. [No. 12. 



BABIES. 

Some Rev. Benedictine is ventilating himself through the 
papers, on the subject of " Baby Talk." He mounts on stilts 
forty feet high, and then lowers himself by using such strong 
words as "detestable," "unjust," "ridiculous," "distorted,'' 
"mangled," "burlesque," "barbarized," etc. Now, who but a 
crusty old "bach" could look at a sweet little child, and then 
go off into such a diarrhea of sweeping adjectives, not one of 
which can be thought of without feelings akin to those associ 
ated with a mouthful of vinegar. He thinks a great wrong is 
done a little prattler by teaching it to say "Horsey" and 
"Mudder." And to call a dog "bow-wow," is awful! He is 
only mad because he couldn't raise a baby himself, and wants to 
put a " spider in the dumpling " of those who have a house full 
of the dear, delightful responsibilities. Only hear the man : 
" This seems ridiculous, but that is not all, it is unjust to teach 
pronunciations which he must unlearn, as laboriously as they 
were learned. You thus double the task. The folly and injus. 
tice are the same, when you, teach a little child to speak a dis- 
torted, mangled, burlesque language, of which, when older, it 
becomes ashamed. I object to this clipped and barbarous Eng- 
lish, because it involves a waste of time, and brain power, and 
patience." Surely this man is snuffing the wind. He must 
have been in a highly imaginative mood when he wrote those 
lines, or the east wind was blowing, or he had a lit of dyspepsia. 
Perhaps he had just received a " mitten." At all events, his 
mental vision was considerably obfuscated or preternaturally 
brightened, since 

NO. XII. — VOL. VII. — 1860. 



266 



" Optics sharp, it needs, I ween ! 
To see what is not to be seen." 



"We indite this article for the special benefit of Babydom for 
now and all time, and desire to crush the error in the bud ; and 
these are the reasons : 

It will not be denied that the most natural language in the 
world, and the most easily learned, is that whose words express 
the most characteristic quality of the thing named. The rum- 
bling of the thunder, the hissing of a snake, the barking of a 
dog in the bow-wow, are associated in name and nature. It 
must be manyfold easier for a child to connect bow-wow with 
a dog, after the first heard bark, than with the word ' ' dog." It 
can see the connection in the former case, and the memory is 
aided by the association ; in fact, it requires but an instinctive 
effort of the memory ; while to connect " dog," with the noise 
it makes, requires an abstract effort of the memory, which 
is burdensome, and in mature life we all avoid it when we can, 
by thinking of a familiar thing, with a view to its connection 
with something less familiar, which is desired to be remembered. 

The same may be said as to the word mother. It is much 
easier for the lisping child to say "mudder," for it has not 
acquired that facility of tongue and lip movement which is 
necessary to a distinct pronunciation of the dear name. In 
fact, it is simply an impossibility for a child just learning to 
talk, to say "mother." A child must toddle before walking; 
it must also toddle before talking ; and it requires no more effort 
to talk better, than to walk better; both abilities come to them 
so gradually and so naturally, as the muscles of the parts 
become more flexible and under control, that in neither case is 
there a consciousness of effort. A man must learn the pronun- 
ciation of a language foreign to his own, whether living or dead, 
by degrees ; and to require a faultless pronunciation from the 
first, is an unnecessary infliction — it can not be done. The ear 
must gradually learn the niceities of pronunciation by frequent 
hearing, and the lips and tongue must be adjusted accordingly. 

Again, all languages have forms of expression which signify 
endearment or intensification. In the English it seems to be a 
kind of a rhyme, such as Horsey-porsy, Piggy-wiggy, Georgy- 
porgy, Lijah-py gy* Besides, a close observer may see that it is 



HAPPY MARRIAGES. 267 

easier to pronounce a word ending with y, than one which has 
none ; just as it is easier to stop by degrees, than short off. It 
is easier to say Horsey, than a clear short "Horse." 

The fact is, a man can't talk dictionary himself, without pil- 
ing up the dignity ; and why should a parent care a fig about 
dignity, when he is melting away under the softening influences 
of childhood's sunshine? It's only " stuck-up " people who are 
everlastingly retreating on their own proprieties. It requires a 
Pitt to play marbles with his boy ; a Napoleon to be on all- 
fours, with his child astride of his back, to be swept off on the 
floor by the biped horse running under the tables. They are 
wise who can be children twice ; who can bend at pleasure 
from age to infancy. There is no incompatibility between firm- 
ness and love ; between stately dignity and an affectionate heart. 
A parent's presence should carry with it the gladdening sun- 
shine, and not the chilling iceberg. So, dear reader, if you are 
so happy as to have children, do not mar it when you are with 
them, by mounting stilts or talking dictionary ; throw off your 
corsets, make yourself "one of them," and be assured, you 
and they will be the happier thereby ; the Rev. J. T. Benedict 
D.D., to the contrary notwithstanding. 



HAPPY MARRIAGES. 

All sorts of " old saws" are grunted out as to love and mar- 
riage, and how to be happy in domestic life ; but very few enter 
that beatific state, whose first steps were taken in deliberate 
calculation; still, it would be far better for all concerned, if 
these first steps had been preceded by a wise deliberation and 
foresight. In almost all cases, the first "bias" is determined 
by some physical quality, the face, the foot, the ankle ; the 
twinkle of the eye, the dimple of a cheek, the lisp of the tongue, 
the port of the head; the length, the richness, the color of a 
curl, or the general carriage or contour of the body. Mental 
and high moral qualities command respect; and as to that 
middle ground between respect and love, that is, admiration, it 
is excited by the qualities of the heart, such as frankness, no- 



268 

bility of nature, and implicit trustfulness. But for the kindling 
up of real, old-fashioned, flaming, world-defying, heart-break- 
ing love, the physical properties, in too many cases, have the 
initiating and predominant agency. 

Ill-assorted marriages are in a great number of instances the 
result of parental remissness, in not beginning early enough to 
instill into the mind of the child such an aversion to certain 
traits of character, and such a high estimate of certain moral 
qualities, as a true wisdom would dictate in the premises. 

It certainly is not an impossible thing to impress the youthful 
mind with an unconquerable repugnance against a character 
the most striking trait of which is a contemptible trickery, an 
abhorrent profanity, a little-souled meanness, or a degrading 
animalism. Just as well may the young heart be fortified 
against loving the miser, the spenthrift and the gamester — 
against those whose prominent exhibitions demonstrate an iras- 
cibility, an all-absorbing selfishness or stony-heartlessness ; or 
a contempt of honest labor, of religion, or of pecuniary obliga- 
tion. While our children may be early taught an aversion to 
such traits of character, their admiration may be cultivated for 
all that is manly and honorable and self-sacrificing ; for all that 
is true and pure and generous; for all who are industrious, 
diligent, and economical. 

It is unwise to hope for domestic happiness in the possession 
of a single favorable trait of character ; it is better to look for a 
combination, and they are to be most congratulated who can 
discern and woo and win the possessor of the largest number ot 
good points. First of all, the man whom you love, the woman 
whom you adore, should possess a high sense of right and 
wrong ; next, bodily health ; and, thirdly, moral bravery, a 
courage to be industrious, economical and self-denying. With 
these three traits, principle, health, and a soul that can do and 
dare all that one ought to, domestic felicity will abide. None 
ought to marry who can not command the means of enabling 
them to live in comfort according to their station in life, without 
grinding economies. 

It is useless to talk about love in a cottage. The little rascal 
always runs away when there is no bread and butter on the 



PHYSIOLOGICAL FARMING. 269 

table. There is more love in a fujl flour-barrel than in all the 
roses and posies and woodbines that ever grew. 

ISTo mechanic should marry until he is master of his trade ; 
nor a professional man, until his income is adequate to the 
style of life which he determines upon ; nor the merchant, 
until his clear annual gains are equal to his domestic expendi- 
tures, unless indeed there are, in either case, independent and 
unconditional sources of income. 

- No man ought to marry who has to work like a horse from 
morning until night to supply family necessaries, whether it be 
by brain or body ; for if the body is thus made a drudge of, it 
perpetuates impaired power to the race ; while if the brain is 
overwrought, its effects will be seen in children of feeble in- 
tellect, if indeed they be not demented. To calculate, therefore, 
on a reasonable share of domestic enjoyment, the parties most 
interested should aim to find in each other as great an amount 
as may be of high moral principle, of bodily health, and either 
the actual possession of a suitable maintenance, or an individual 
ability to secure it without peradventure. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL PAEMING. 

Michael Sulliyant owns, and has paid for, one hundred 
thousand acres of land, near Homer, Illinois. He keeps a large 
amount of money always on hand, to pay his workmen at the 
end of every week. They take their breakfast at half-past five 
o'clock every morning, and ride to the place of work. They 
dine at noon, their dinners being carried to them. They quit 
work at sundown, and ride home. In this short narration, 
there is a knowledge of physiology, of body and of mind, which 
is highly creditable to the Napoleon of farmers. To show tlie 
wisdom of the whole arrangement, would require a commentary 
of many pages. To remark in brief, profitably : 

The land having been paid for, saves an immense amount of 
up-hill, hard, dragging work. To have to pay out any consid- 
erable part of farm earnings for eating interest, even at six per 
cent, and every once in a while, an installment of the purchase- 
money, instead of being able to expend these in substantial im- 



270 hall's journal of health. 

provements, in the purchase of fertilizers and labor-saving ma- 
chines, such as McCormick's reaper, the grain-sower and the 
steam plow, make the cultivation of the soil, in innumerable 
cases, a literal galley- life. By this same course, many an hon- 
est, industrious, and ambitious farmer has worked himself to 
death, before he lived out half his days. 

To "farm" pleasantly and successfully, not only must the 
land be paid for, but a liberal amount of money should be on 
hand to meet emergencies, and pay the laborers always, prompt- 
ly, in full, at the hour, and to the last cent, in money. Such a 
course will always secure the best hands, and at the lowest 
prices ; and more, it keeps the men ; thus avoiding unprofitable 
and troublesome changes; and if unavoidable circumstances 
compel them to leave, they leave with a kindly feeling, and will 
not fail to recommend others to fill their places ; hence, such a 
farmer is every where spoken well of, at all times has his pick 
and choice of hands, and more, he will get more work out of his 
men ; for knowing that their pay is always in full, and at the 
hour, they have the strongest stimulus to make an effort to re- 
tain their places, and to do their work well ; and by doing it 
cheerfully, they perform more work in a given time. 

They take their breakfast early in the morning before they 
go to their work, thus preventing the inevitable exhaustion 
which results from working several hours on an empty stomach ; 
and besides, largely contributing to the prevention of fever and 
ague, by fortifying the stomach against the morning miasma, 
which always abounds in flat and fertile countries, causing innu- 
merable cases of chills, fever, diarrheas and dysenteries. 

Another little item merits attention. The workmen are not 
allowed to waste their early strength by walking a mile or more 
to their places of labor ; means are provided for riding there, so 
as to enable them to commence the day's work with the full 
stock of strength secured by the rest of the night. This same 
husbanding of the energies against useless waste is looked to in 
having their dinners carried to the workmen ; and then, when 
quite enough wearied by the legitimate labors of the day, they 
ride home so as to prevent that exhaustion, that over-fatigue, 
which a walk of a mile or two or three, would otherwise occa- 
sion, and which would have to be subtracted from the strength 



COLD-WATER BATHING. 271 

of the next day. For let all remember, that the overwork of 
to-day is but a draft on to-morrow, which " must be paid," in- 
fallibly, and to the utmost farthing. 

It is pitiful to think of unrequited toil; of unavailing 
labor ; of squandered strength ; of wasting, wearing care, and of 
the unsuccessful lives, which every year witnesses, by the unwis- 
dom of men in owning more land than they have paid for, or 
can thoroughly and easily cultivate. 

In any given case, a man who has paid for his ten-acre farm, 
and always has money enough on hand, without owing a dollar, 
to pay his workmen, and to take advantage of passing circum- 
stances, will live longer, more happily, more usefully and suc- 
cessfully, than his neighbor, who works harder by many -fold, in 
cultivating ten times the amount of land, yet unpaid for, who is 
always "behind hand" with his laborers, and pressed for 
money. 



COLD-WATER BATHING. 



A professional gentleman of high character and great 
usefulness, writes: "My own experience is somewhat different 
from your advice on the subject of bathing. I have always 
found a warm bath debilitating, a cold one invigorating. When 
the thermometer was below zero, and sleeping in a room with- 
out fire, I have often, on rising, broken the ice in a vessel of 
water, and sponged myself all over before dressing, and I 
thought with decided benefit ; and now, at sixty years of age, 
a cold shower-bath seems to inspire me with new life. You 
will think, perhaps, that I have very healthy lungs, and an 
extra supply of animal heat ; on the contrary, I was given up 
in early life to die of consumption. I have been obliged to be 
very regular in my habits, and very careful of exposure. Some 
years ago, one of the most skillful practitioners in the city gave 
it as his opinion that a portion of one lung was entirely gone." 
On page 103 of the May Journal a per contra case is given, of 
a cold-water bather who has since died. Single cases should 
not form rules. We advised bathing once a week in warm 



272 

water, with soap and brush, as needful in summer-time for 
personal cleanliness ; in winter, not so ^often. If such a bath 
" debilitates," it is most likely owing to its being too long con- 
tinued. The whole operation might be performed in less than 
five minutes, and if ended with an instantaneous shower of cold 
water, such a bath could scarcely fail to invigorate. We do not 
advise a warm bath oftener than once a week. But we must 
consult nature and facts. Each man should bathe in a manner 
which, from observation and personal experiment, does him 
most good. In matters of health and disease, each must be his 
own rule. Immense mischief is daily done by ignoring this 
principle, which is at once the dictate of a sound philosophy 
and of common-sense. 

Let not the reader run away with the impression that cold- 
water bathing cured this case of consumption, and that by its 
invigorating effects he is enabled to live in good health ; for 
this restoration from an admitted consumptive condition, was 
owing to the fact that the course of the malady was changed, 
and its nature modified by an asthmatic turn of the disease, as 
for " twenty years and more, I was greatly afflicted with asthma." 
It is a settled fact in medicine, one of frequent record and of 
constant occurrence, that a consumptive who becomes an asth- 
matic, will with great certainty get well of his consumption, 
asthma being essentially and under all circumstances antago- 
nistic of consumption. In consumption, a man can not get in 
enough air ; in asthma, he can not get it out. In asthma, the 
lungs are too full of air; in consumption, not full enough. Be- 
ing so fall, distended by the confined air, that distension after a 
while becomes permanent, the asthma declines, leaving the 
lungs with a larger capability of receiving air than is natural ; 
hence, although the lungs may have partly decayed away, those 
which remain, having greater capabilities, a man may have good 
health, who had actually lost a part of his lungs by consump- 
tion. It is precisely on these principles that we have treated 
consumptive cases, and with occasional success, for nearly 
twenty years ; not generally succeeding, in consequence of the 
want of the moral courage of persistence on the part of the 
patient. 



RESULT OF A KIND ACTION. 273 



KESULT OF A KIND ACTION. 

In September, eighteen hundred and five, a poor young me- 
chanic, just arrived from England, was wandering about New- 
York in deep dejection ; he was without money, without friends, 
and without work ; and fa.r from his native home, he knew not 
which way to turn, but passing along Nassau street, an open 
door encouraged him to enter. The proprietor was a very little 
man indeed, perhaps five feet high, but he had a pleasant coun- 
tenance and a large heart ; for upon being asked by the homeless 
and penniless stranger if he could direct him to some respect- 
able person who cotrid board him until he could find employ- 
ment, and thus obtain the means of payment, the storekeeper, 
pleased with the expression and demeanor of the eighteen-year- 
old boy, had it in his heart to offer him the desired favor him- 
self; but he had a wife, whom he knew to be a woman of rare 
worth, for she was prudent, self-denying, and humane. He 
might have known what would be her answer, for he had only 
to make the proposition in a way to indicate his own views, and 
it would have met with, an instantaneous and cheerful acqui- 
escence, unless from some almost insuperable reason. The 
young stranger was admitted into the family. But the yellow 
fever was raging in the city. In less than a week the poor lad 
was stricken with it, and — recovered ! although he was at 
the point of death for several days. During his illness, he was 
cared for by his kind host and hostess, with an assiduity and 
watchfulness which only they know who act from sterling prin- 
ciple and a high humanity. Just a quarter of a century later, 
this same man was applied to by Major Noah, of pleasant me- 
mories, who was then surveyor of the port of New- York, to put 
together a machine in the Custom-House, and take models of 
its various parts. This was done, and the mechanic conceived 
the idea of constructing a similar article, which should excel 
any thing of the kind for efficiency in the Old World or the 
New, and he succeeded. He died in eighteen hundred and 
thirty-three. His son succeeded him in business, and inheriting 
the inventive genius of his father, combined with rare business 
tact and indomitable energy, he has added improvement to im- 



274 hall's journal of health. 

provement, until lie has made the whole civilized world his 
debtor. There is not one of all its millions of families which 
does not every day derive great benefit therefrom. It carries 
light to every household ; hour by hour is lifting the degraded 
and the fallen, and is aiding in the revolutionizing of all nations 
which exist by oppression, wrong-doing, and injustice. But 
that machine, what is it ? Fifty years ago one might have been 
purchased entire for a hundred or two dollars ; a common dry- 
goods box might have easily contained all its parts ; but now, 
in its perfected state, it occupies a space of fifteen feet high and 
forty feet long ; it is made of fourteen thousand seven hundred 
and thirty parts, weighs fifty thousand pounds, and costs thirty 
thousand dollars. One of its belongings, not named above, is 
thirty thousand and sixty-three yards of tape. The penniless 
English lad was Eobert Hoe. The Good Samaritans of Fulton 
street were Grant Thorburn and his wife, the latter ,an angel 
now ; the former "still living " in an honored old age, by seven 
years over four score. The machine is Hoe's ten-cylinder 
printing-press, as now in operation in the office of the New- 
York World, and the largest ever made. 

The first and only newspaper of our childhood was printed 
on a press which, with the aid of three men, turned out forty 
or fifty impressions in an hour. When on the twenty-ninth 
day of November, eighteen hundred and fourteen, the London 
Times announced that it was printed by a machine which made 
eleven hundred impressions in an hour, the whole city was as- 
tonished, and the pressmen themselves looked on in mute won- 
der and admiration ; but to-day, through the agencies of Eobert 
Hoe, the English lad of eighteen hundred and five, of the kindly 
Grant Thorburn and his wife, and Richard M. Hoe of New- 
York, there are made at the office of the World, in Printing- 
House Square, twenty -five thousand impressions in sixty 
minutes. Who can disclaim indebtedness to these four names ? 
The merchant who sips his coffee at breakfast, and reads the 
latest news up to two or three o'clock in the morning, perhaps 
forgets to whom he is indebted for that pleasure ; and so with 
the day -laborer, who finds time to glean from his paper, at a 
cost of one cent, what is going on throughout the habitable globe 
ere he sallies forth to his daily toil. Rich, and poor, learned 



A BOOK NOT FOK SALE. 275 

and unlearned, all should remember with respect and gratitude 
the heads and the hearts to which every day makes them re- 
newed debtors, to wit, to Kobert Hoe and his son Kichard M., 
to Grant Thorburn and his noble wife. 

Keader, remember that kind acts pay ; the influence of each 
for good drifts over the sea of time, and will drift till time shall 
be no more. Gro forthwith, then, " while the day lasts," and 
perform as many as you can. 



A BOOK NOT FOR SALE. 

We have just published a new book, of 300 pages, twelvemo, 
entitled, Sleep. The preface reads thus : 

"It is the end and aim of this book to show that as a means 
of high health, pure blood and a strong mind to old and young, 
sick or well, each one should have a single bed, in a large, clean, 
light room, so as to pass all the hours of sleep in a pure fresh 
air, and that those who fail in this, will in the end fail in health 
and strength of limb and brain, and will die while yet their 
days are not all told." 

The first chapter is on " Sleeping with the Old," and begins 
as follows : 

"On a beautiful September morning, in the year eighteen 
hundred and fifty-nine, a note was found on the author's table, 
in a handwriting which was immediately recognized as that of 
a wife and mother of high culture, in behalf of a young sister, 
whom she had hoped would have grown up as healthful, as 
beautiful, and as accomplished as herself ; but the lovely blos- 
som seemed to be fading in its unfolding, and the communica- 
tion was a history of the case intended to give the physician an 
idea of its nature and its needs." 

Next follows one of the sweetest descriptions of a human 
cherub and its fading, failing, falling into the cold, dark grave 
so soon ! The idea of the book is that, as we spend a clean 
third of our existence in our chambers, it is absolutely essential 
to sound health and vigor of constitution, that a pure air be 
breathed all that time. The sources of impurity are enume- 
rated. The effects of breathing these impurities are described 
in all degrees, from the slow poisoning of months and weary 



276 

years, without the victims being conscious of the fact or the 
cause, to the instantaneous death. The methods of preventing 
these impurities are clearly described, with the great wrong 
done to ourselves, and the inhumanity to our children, by their 
neglect. It is argued that the young should not sleep with the 
old, the well with the sick, the strong with the feeble, as per- 
nicious results follow to one party, without any possible good 
to the other. Ill effects follow from children sleeping with 
one another, bad habits are formed, with the horrible results of 
their indulgence ; the impositions practiced on the suffering by 
unprincipled individuals and societies with benevolent names ; 
the only safe and efficient hygienical means are pointed out, 
and which should be under parental application, the interven- 
tion of third parties being unnecessary. In describing the 
manner in which chambers may be supplied with a pure air, 
the subject of building, warming, and ventilating houses is dis- 
cussed, and the latest plans described. Striking authenticated 
facts are presented, which show how bodily emanations speedily 
corrupt the air of a whole room, and how they may destroy 
fifty or a hundred lives in a few hours. The remedy proposed 
is large rooms and separate beds for all. The book contains 
information which ought to be possessed by every family, by 
every parent who has a child yet to reach twenty-one years of 
age, and by every human being who sleeps within any four 
walls. Supposing that about a third of our subscribers might 
want such a book, we have printed an edition of that propor- 
tion ; it will be furnished in the order of application ; the dilatory 
will have to go without one. As a means of making a small 
edition save us from actual loss, the following offer is made to 
those who desire to possess it. Three dollars will pay for the 
book and two subscriptions to the Journal of Health for one 
year; or for the book and the Journal of Health with the Fire- 
side Monthly for one year, the latter being separately $1.50 a 
year. The object of this offer is to induce our subscribers to 
add to our subscription-list, by using their influence in inducing 
some friend to take our Monthly ; and for the time and trouble 
expended in using such influence, they will be paid by getting 
a book which, singly, money will not at present buy. Any 
one sending three subscriptions to the Journal of Health, or 
two to the Fireside, will be entitled to the book for their trou- 
ble. 



PEINTERS' DISEASES. 277 



PRINTERS' DISEASES. 

Many printers are in the habit of holding types between 
their teeth. When the types are damp, and especially when 
they are new, a substance is upon their surface which, when 
applied to the lips, causes troublesome fissures, which some- 
times end in incurable cancers, which eat life away by piece- 
meals in the slow process of weary months. 

This same substance sometimes finds its way to the inner side 
of the lips by means of the tongue and the saliva, causing 
troublesome tumors, which inflame, ulcerate, and rapidly as- 
sume the form of torturing cancer. The only remedy is pre- 
vention, by keeping the type out of the mouth. The most com- 
mon of all diseases among printers are those of the air-passages, 
of which bronchitis is the most frequent. Next to that, inflam- 
mation of the lungs and consumption, in consequence of the 
bent position of their bodies, which prevents full, deep breathing, 
when the lungs from inaction become debilitated, and unable to 
resist impressions from cold, to which printers are so liable, 
in consequence of their rooms being kept very warm, and theii 
inattention to proper rules when they leave them. Being so 
much in the composing-room they become forgetful of the cold 
without, and at the close of the day, in that tired, weary con- 
dition that follows a ten hours' labor, they come out on the 
street, stand around the office-doors talking with one another 
and looking around, and before they are aware of it, they are 
often chilled through, and thus, through mere inattention, the 
foundation is laid for the fatal ailments enumerated. Nearly 
one fourth of printers die of consumptive forms of disease. 
Hernia is common, especially among pressmen. Dimness of 
sight, short-sightedness and weakness of eyes, are very common, 
in consequence of the constant strain on that organ, and its ex- 
posure to artificial light. Fissures and hard lumps often form 
on the forefinger and thumb of the right hand from handling 
damp type. But the great disease which sweeps so many of 
them into a premature grave is consumption, but which would 
not occur with a tithe of the frequency if the following few pre- 
cautions were habitually taken : 



278 hall's journal of health. 

First, regularity in eating and in bodily habits. Second, put 
on all the extra clothing before going into the street, avoid 
stopping an instant, but move on at a brisk pace with the mouth 
closed, so that instead of a dash of cold air going in upon the 
lungs at each breath to chill them, it may be first warmed, 
by being compelled to pass around through the nostrils. 



INFANTS BATING AND SLEEPING. 

In" our new book on Sleep, as to the importance of sleep- 
ing soundly and in a pure atmosphere, the following sugges- 
tions are for the abatement of the nuisance of crying and 
colicky babies, for how can a poor fellow, who has been work- 
ing hard all day in brain or body, get any kind of rest, repose, 
and recuperation, when there is a little responsibility a yawp- 
ing and a squirming around, as if a young boa-constrictor were 
experimenting on every bone of its body ! "We would just 
like to know hov^ it is possible to get even a scintillation of a 
doze, under the very afflicting and inflicting circumstances of 
the case. JSTow for the remedy, at least in part. 

An infant should not be allowed to sleep for several hours 
previous to its bed-time, which should be about one hour after 
Run-down, when it should be fed and put to sleep. When the 
mother retires, it should be fed again ; then if the crib be on 
the same level with the bed, and close to it with the side let 
down, the mother can place the child in it without straining 
herself. At the end of several hours, hunger will wake it up, 
when it can be nursed, replaced in its crib and sleep soundly 
until the morning, if it has not been allowed to sleep too long 
or too late in the afternoon, and thus afford the wearied mother 
a delicious night's rest, to arise in the morning with a reno- 
vated system, refreshed, thankful, and hopeful, and ready to 
enter on the duties of the day with a light and cheerful heart. 
On the other hand, in consequence of bad management and a 
want of system as to the times of eating and sleeping for the 
nursling, and by keeping it in the same bed with her, it be- 
comes restless, it wakes up a dozen times perhaps in a night, 
and each time, by some noise or motion rouses the mother, 



EATING AND SLEEPING. 279 

with the result of depriving her of that rest and repose which 
she so much requires, and the morning finds the body still 
weary, the mind discouraged and depressed, totally unfitted 
for the proper discharge of household duties, as is too plainly 
indicated by the expression of listlessness and sadness which 
pervades the features. Indeed, a mother can better afford to 
eat too little than to sleep too little, but by arranging to have 
the regularities named carried out for several nights in succes- 
sion, there will be a happy change in all respects. When a 
child is six months old, it can safely fast five or six hours if 
asleep, and, as before, if fed a little before sun down, it should 
be put to bed a little later, and not be allowed to take any 
thing more until the mother retires for the night, which may 
be about ten o'clock, and if nursed then, it need not be repeated 
until the morning, thus allowing the mother to have her "first" 
sleep uninterrupted, a consummation so earnestly desired by 
many an overtaxed wife, but which she is unable to arrange 
for want of a little thought, firmness and management. The 
reader is earnestly requested to make particular note of it, that 
the seeds of a lifetime suffering, if not an early death, are sown 
in the constitutions of children by their own mothers during 
the nursing period. Millions of children die before they are 
two years old, by a wrong system of feeding, originating in the 
ignorance of the parents. The instinct and the highest pleasure 
of the new-born child is to eat, it is the balm for all its cries, it 
hushes every complaint. The young mother soon finds this 
out, and putting it to the breast is the panacea for infant fretful- 
ness. But it soon happens that the stomach is overtaxed. A 
second feeding occurs before the first has been disposed of; the 
stomach is thus kept working all the time, and soon has not 
the strength to work any longer, and the food being unacted 
upon, begins to ferment, turns sour, generates wind, and this is 
the " colic" of infancy. Colic gives pain, pain excites crying, 
to quiet which, food is given, or " soothing" syrups are admin- 
istered, with the inevitable result, in all cases, of exaggerating 
the trouble sooner or later ; and in countless instances, there is 
a speedy and entire breaking down of the system, and death 
ends the outrage, as to the child, but in the mean while, by rea- 
son of the child's sufferings, many a night has been passed in 
sleepnessness by both parents. 



280 hall's journal of health. 

/ 

END OF HABITUAL DRINKERS. 

Dr. Hall's new book on Sleep states, in connection 
with the uneasy slumbers attendant on late dinners and hearty 
suppers, and the plea of "assisting digestion" with wine, 
brandies, or other beverages, that : 

" No case is remembered, in the practice of a quarter of a 
century, where malt liquors, wines, brandies, or any alcoholic 
drinks whatever, have ever had a permanent good effect in im- 
proving the digestion. Apparent advantages sometimes result, 
but they are transient or deceptive. If there is no appetite, it 
is because nature has provided no gastric juice ; and that is the 
product of nature, not of alcohol. If there is appetite, but no 
digestive power, liquor no more supplies that power than would 
the lash give strength to an exhausted donkey. If torture does 
arouse the sinking beast, it is only that it shall fall a little later 
into a still greater exhaustion from which there is no recovery ; 
so with the use of liquor and tobacco as whetters of the appe- 
tite, when, at length, the desire for the accustomed stimulus 
ceases, and the man " sickens;" there is no longer a relish for 
the dram and the chew, and life fades apace, either in a stupor 
from which there is no awaking, or by wasting and uncontrolla- 
ble diarrhea. 



BOUND VOLUMES. 

The Journal of Health for eighteen hundred and sixty, is 
already bound uniformly with the previous volumes, with a 
copious index and title-page. We will exchange it at our 
office for the loose numbers, and twenty-five cents in addition 
to pay for the binding. Missing numbers will be supplied at 
eight cents each. 

The old numbers of the Journal, previous to eighteen hun- 
dred and sixty, will be received at our office until February 
next, at five cents each, for new subscriptions on any of our 
publications. We can print them for two cents each, but the 
offer is made to encourage our subscribers to have the Journal 
of Health in the more substantial form of a bound volume, 
for the character of the articles is such, that they will be almost 
if not quite, as practical and useful in nineteen hundred as they 
are now. 



RESTLESS WANDERERS. 

We are moved to pity many times in meeting with a class of 
men who are seeking for, they know not what. They see ev-il in 
the world and sorrow ; they see oppression and degradation, and 
while observing them, feel the more, in that they have experiences 
in the same directions ; tearful, bitter, almost heart-breaking exper- 
iences, it may be, and in blindness and powerlessness they are grop- 
ing about wearily and painfully for a remedy. 

In all these, not a single man or woman is found who does not 
begin by attacking the present system of received religion. Most 
of them persuade themselves that they believe the Bible, and readily 
refer to it as confirmatory of their peculiar systems, but in every 
case, they will only consent that the holy book shall be interpreted 
according to some preconceived views of their own. They are 
quite willing to make the Bible their arbiter, the tribunal of last 
resort, but then they insist that they must have the interpretation 
of its meaning. Yet with all this, they are dissatisfied and unhappy ; 
there is a feeling of unrest which is devouring them, and they will 
talk ad infinitum to everybody, inferring from admissions of the 
occasional good sentiments which they avow, a more or less im- 
plied assent to their whole system, and drawing some comfort 
therefrom, they arrive at the conclusion that the whole world is 
rapidly falling into their views ; and soon fanaticism assumes its 
sway, to hurry them to still greater extremes, until they are dashed 
on the rocks of suicide, of lunacy, or of perdition. 

All these people look sad ; they are extremely excitable ; they fire 
up on the instant ; and in all, we never fail to see a degree of bitter- 
ness towards opponents, and especially is a bitterness exhibited to- 
wards ministers, and churches, and communities, in proportion as 
these appear thriving, prosperous, and happy. Kor is this all ; the 
rich are their universal anvil ; on it they pound most mercilessly. 
With them, the selfishness of the rich is an exhaustless theme ; or, 
if they ever come to a conclusion, it is this, that if these same rich 
people would commit the distribution of their property to them, the 
miilenium would come in a very few clays ; and while handling the 
money which they never had the capacity to earn or keep, they 
would be the happiest people on the face of the earth, and would 
thence assume that everybody else was prosperous and happy too ; 
just as a short time before, they had concluded that everybody was 
poor, and wretched, and miserable, because they were so themselves. 



282 hall's jouenal of health 

We earnestly counsel any chance reader of this article who has 
no heart-warming and cheerful religious faith of his own, to disabuse 
himself of the notion that the whole world is going wrong, by sim- 
ply taking a general, generous, and liberal view of any evangelical 
denomination of Christians, and note for himself, in conversation 
with any considerable number of them, if there is not a most im- 
plicit faith in the great general doctrines of religion, of repentance, 
faith, and a new life ; of the forgiveness of sins, of spiritual holifica- 
cation, of a Saviour born, and of final restoration to the bosom of 
the great Father of us all. They feel no more doubt of these things, 
than they do of the shining of the sun oh a cloudless day ; and more, 
they are humble in that belief as to themselves, and merciful and 
loving and forbearing as to others who are out of their faith, in 
that they spend their time and their money cheerfully, gladly, if by 
any means they can bring others to the knowledge of the great 
salvation ; and withal, they are happy in their faith, happy in their 
hope, happy in their labors, and happy in their liberalities. Rest- 
less wanderers ! if you will not believe this, " come and see." 



PIANO FORTES. 



There is a time-honored and mammoth building cornering on 
Fourteenth street and Third avenue, which has met the familiar gaze 
of such of our citizens as have been accustomed to pass that way, 
for perhaps a greater part of the present half century. This build- 
ing stretching its immense length along two streets, is devoted exclu- 
sively to the manufacture of the Worcester Piano, which has a name 
for durability of structure and sweetness of tone which ought, if it has 
not, to have made the fortune of any man of moderate ambitions. 
But it is not as easy now as formerly, to make a fortune by strictly 
honest dealing ; if done at all, it is only until a man has become 
decrepid and gray, and almost ready to take his departure on the 
ret urnless journey; one of the reasons of this is found in an article 
in the July number, headed " unskilled labor." 

Another, at least temporary drawback, as to a speedy fortune by 
strict business integrity, is the want of means on the part of the 
many, to secure the best materials for their particular handicrafts. 
Sometimes on account of a want of foresight or thrift, or a still 
more unpardonable want of knowledge, materials are needed for 
the construction of a superior article, which no money can purchase, 
and time only can procure the needed supply. 



PIANO FOKTES. 283 

Too many of our mechanical men live from hand to mouth, and 
the material purchased yesterday, must be used to-day ; in proof, 
look at any floor in any brown stone or marbled front, in the whole 
city of New York, constructed within the last five years, and it will 
be scarcely possible to find a well-fitting door, an easy moving 
drawer or window sash, while the joints in the floors will measure 
from a quarter to half an inch or more. This is so undeniable, that 
builders find it the shortest cut to say, that it is owing to furnace 
heat ; and yet, Forty-two Irving Place, which has a furnace only for 
appearances, can show floors on either story half an inch apart at 
the ends of the boards, and at the sides in proportion. 

When, however, there is a business integrity, and abundant 
means to employ the best materials in fabrics of any description, 
two results always show themselves, a good name and an ultimate 
prosperity ; hence the reputation and success of the establishment in 
question, whose instruments stand the test of all weathers, from 
Canada to Cuba, and from the borders of the Atlantic to the shores 
of the Pacific Sea. 

To make this practically useful to all young mechanics, the secret 
ehould be communicated, and it consists in three things : 

1. A faithful apprenticeship to a good master. 

2. A timely supply of the very best materials ; 

3. Making them up without haste, and with the utmost careful- 
ness. 

In the case above, the wood of important parts is obtained years 
beforehand; it undergoes a most minute examination as to its 
soundness, passing through a long seasoning, according to the vary- 
ing thickness and hardness of the particular wood, and if at the end 
of this tedious process, the material remains sound and hard, with- 
out a blemish, it is used, and not otherwise. It is thus by making 
each particular instrument as if for his own personal use, almost 
living in the same building with the workmen, passing through 
every room at any hour of the day, making the employes feel as 
if they were watched every moment ; it is by these means, we re- 
peat, that the Piano Fortes of this house have acquired a reputation 
at home and abroad, which requires an almost daily shipment to 
other countries as well as to the various parts of our own. 

To every young mechanic we therefore say, the path of a certain 
and honorable success for you is, 

1. Be thorough masters of your calling; and, 

2. Give honest material and honest work to every article which 
leaves your establishment. 



284 

THE YOUNG AND POOB. 

To be young is glorious ; to be poor and young, with a will 
to excel, is one of the greatest blessings which can befall a 
youth, as it is a certain curse, and a deep one, to be young and 
rich, and have no ambition bat to lounge about, with the only 
aim of whiling away the time until the death of parents puts 
them in possession of inherited treasures. There are three 
books which merit a place in every public library, and which 
would be of inestimable value to any family of children, and to 
any youth who has the courage and energy to achieve a name 
or a position : Smiles 1 Self-Help, 75 cents ; Life of George Ste- 
phenson, $1 ; Brief Biographies, $1.25. They show, by sim- 
ple facts, in plain and vigorous language, what a multitude 
of men were as boys, poor, without influence, and in cases 
not a few, without friends who had the ability to give them the 
slightest aid. Let every parent who is anxious that his child 
should live to purpose, and who would place before him the 
high stimulus of honorable example to that same end, give that 
child these three books, opportunely published, in inviting 
style, by the Messrs. Ticknor & Fields. They can be had at 
any first-class book-store. 



MATCHES. 

The fumes arising from Lucifer matches, says Dr. Hall's new 
book on Sleep and the ventilation of chambers, are so destruc- 
tive to the girls employed in the factories, that some of the 
European governments have taken measures to suppress them. 
Horrible ulcers form in the flesh, and fasten on the jaw-bone, 
eating it away by slow degrees. A single box of common 
matches will scent a room for several days ; and children have 
been poisoned by eating them, as they have a sweetish taste. 
It is, therefore, a matter of public gratulation that a patent has 
been obtained for making strela matches — a Eussian term for 
"lightning." They are without sulphur and without smell; are 
beautifully varnished, and are warranted to stand both damp 
and hot climates. A box of sulphur-matches contains eighty, 
and retails at one cent ; a box of strela matches contains one 
hundred and fifty, at two cents. By the ten-gross case, they 
are wholesaled at one dollar and sixty cents per gross of one 
hundred and forty-four boxes. They light instantly and easily. 






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